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Global Warming

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About 30% of incoming solar radiation is reflected back into space by clouds and particles. 47% is absorbed to warm the atmosphere, ... in earth's atmosphere ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Global Warming


1
Global Warming
  • Applied Chemistry
  • Global Warming Video Clip

2
Global Warming
  • Global warming is the increase in the temperature
    of the Earth due to the increase in greenhouse
    gases.

3
Solar radiation is radiation from the sun.
  • About 30 of incoming solar radiation is
    reflected back into space by clouds and
    particles.
  • 47 is absorbed to warm the atmosphere, oceans,
    and land.
  • 23 powers the hydrologic cycle or water cycle.

4
Greenhouse Gases
  • The hydrologic cycle is the continuous cycling of
    water into and out of the atmosphere by
    evaporation and condensation.

5
Greenhouse Gases
  • Earths warmed surface reradiates the absorbed
    radiation at lower energies as infrared
    radiation.
  • Some molecules in the atmosphere absorb this
    lower energy.
  • This traps and returns the radiation to the
    atmosphere.
  • This is known as the greenhouse effect.
  • These atmospheric molecules, or gases, are known
    as greenhouse gases.

6
  1. Solar radiation
  2. planets atmosphere contains greenhouse gases
  3. Solar radiation passes through the gases
  4. Solar radiation warms the surface of the earth
    and heat rises from the surface.
  5. Some heat is able to pass throughout the gases.
  6. Some heat cannot pass through, adding to the
    overall temperature.

7
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8
Greenhouse Gases
  • Greenhouse gases trap heat from the Sun on the
    Earths surface causing the temperature of the
    earth to rise.
  • The most abundant greenhouse gas is water which
    is mostly naturally occurring.
  • Other greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide,
    methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons
    (CFCs and HFCs).

9
Greenhouse Gases
  • Most greenhouse gases occur naturally.
  • The increase in the amount of greenhouse gases is
    due to human activity.
  • Anthropogenic means man-made.

10
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11
U.S. Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas Emissions by
Gas 2006
(Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide Equivalent)
http//www.eia.doe.gov/bookshelf/brochures/greenho
use/Chapter1.htm
12
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) - colorless, odorless
nonflammable gas
  • The most prominent greenhouse gas in earth's
    atmosphere
  • Results from the combustion of petroleum, coal,
    and natural gas
  • Deforestation is logging for lumber, pulpwood,
    and fuel wood. 

http//www.umich.edu/gs265/society/greenhouse.htm
13
Methane - colorless, odorless, flammable gas
  • Methane comes from landfills, coal mines, oil,
    natural gas, and agriculture
  • It represents 9 of total emissions.
  • It is formed when plants decay and where there is
    very little air.  It is often called swamp gas
    because it is abundant around water and swamps. 
  • Bacteria that breakdown organic matter in
    wetlands and bacteria that are in the gut of
    animals (cows, sheep, goats, buffalo, termites,
    camels) produce methane naturally. 
  • It stays in the atmosphere for only 10 years, but
    traps 20 times more heat than carbon dioxide.

Since 1750, methane has doubled, and could double
again by 2050. 
In one day, a cow can emit ½ pound of methane
into the air. 
14
Nitrous oxide (N2O) colorless gas, sweet odor
  • Nitrous oxide is emitted through the use of
    nitrogen fertilizers, from burning fossil fuels,
    disposing of human and animal waste in sewage
    treatment plants, automobile exhaust
  • 5 of total emissions
  • Anesthetic - deadens pain
  • aka laughing gas
  • Nitrous oxide released today will still be
    trapped in the atmosphere 100 years from now.

Nitrous oxide gas has risen by more than 15
since 1750.  
15
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and Hydrofluorocarbons
(HFCs) - nonreactive, nonflammable gases and
volatile liquids.
  • CFCs are used in aerosol cans, refrigerators, and
    air conditioners. 
  • In 1978 CFCs were banned in the US. In 1987,
    over 180 countries signed the Montreal Protocol
    to ban CFCs
  • The substitute for CFCs are hydrofluorocarbons
    (HFCs).
  • HFCs do not harm or breakdown the ozone molecule,
    but they do trap heat in the atmosphere, making
    it a greenhouse gas, aiding in global warming. 
  • The way to reduce emissions of this gas is to be
    sure that in both devices the coolant is recycled
    and all leaks are properly fixed .  Before
    throwing the appliances away, be sure to recover
    the coolant in each.

http//www.nocfcs.org/
16
Greenhouse Gases
  • Earths average surface temperature is 15C
    (59F) due, in part, to the presence of water and
    carbon dioxide.
  • Without these gases, Earths surface temperature
    would be -18C (0F).

17
Causes for increased gas levelsDeforestation
  • Tree use carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to
    make food.
  • Trees are being cut down for development and
    other uses.
  • Because less carbon dioxide is removed, the
    amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
    increases.

18
Plant a Tree!!!
  • One tree can absorb as much carbon dioxide in a
    year as a car produces driving 26,000 miles.
  • A single tree produces approximately 600 pounds
    of O2 a year. That means two mature trees can
    supply enough O2 annually for a family of 4

19
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20
Causes for increased gas levelsBurning Fossil
Fuels
  • Fossil fuels include coal, natural gas, and
    petroleum, also known as crude oil.
  • Fossil fuels originate from plants and animals.
  • Pressure, heat and microbes convert once living
    matter into fossil fuels over millions of years.
  • Fossil Fuels contain carbon.
  • When burned, they produce water and carbon
    dioxide, two greenhouse gases.

21
Affects of Global Warming on the Environment
  • Increase temperature of the Earth.
  • Increase melting of the ice caps, which results
    in a higher sea level.
  • Coastal areas will be affected by higher sea
    levels.
  • Changes to climate patterns on Earth.
  • Climate change Precipitation patterns, storm
    severity, and sea level

22
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23
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24
Affects of Global Warming on the Environment
  • Salinity of the ocean is disturbed.
  • Salinity is the concentration of dissolved salts.
  • A change in salinity creates problems for marine
    life.

25
Ways to Combat Global Warming
  • Find alternative energy sources, green sources.
  • Green energy sources do not contribute to the
    production of greenhouse gases.
  • Green energy sources include solar energy, wind
    energy, hydroelectric energy, and nuclear energy.

26
Ways to Combat Global Warming
  • Recycle paper, plastics, and aluminum products.
  • Conserve energy.
  • Video Kill A Watt http//home.howstuffworks.com/
    question151.htm

27
The Renaissance of Nuclear Power
  • Oil is used to produce fuels and as a starting
    material for the production of medicines, carpet,
    clothing, plastics, and artificial limbs.
  • Currently, about 50 of total energy needs in the
    US are met by burning oil.
  • Burning oil increases the level of greenhouse
    gases.

28
The Renaissance of Nuclear Power
  • There is an increase in the demand for oil
    worldwide.
  • Costs for oil are increasing.
  • Oil is a nonrenewable resource.
  • There is an increased demand for energy today and
    for the foreseeable future.

29
What Is Renewable Energy?
  • Renewable energy sources can be replenished in a
    short period of time. The five renewable sources
    used most often are
  • Biomass including wood and wood waste,
    municipal solid waste, landfill gas, and biogas,
    ethanol, and biodiesel
  • Water (hydropower)
  • Geothermal
  • Wind
  • Solar

30
The Clean Truth About Nuclear
Nuclear 0
Natural Gas 150
Coal 271
Oil 222
  • Greenhouse Gas Emissions
  • A 1,000 MW plant emits this many metric tons of
    CO2 every hour based on its fuel

31
The Renaissance of Nuclear Power
  • Nuclear power plants do not contribute to the
    production of greenhouse gases.
  • Nuclear power plant safety has been improved
    since the accidents at 3-Mile Island and
    Chernobyl.
  • More energy is generated by a nuclear power plant
    than that by a coal-fired plant based on per gram
    of fuel used.

32
Sustainable Development
  • Sustainable Development is the development that
    meets the needs of the present without
    compromising the ability of future generations to
    meet their own needs.

33
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34
Sustainable Energy involves
  • Development of new technologies
  • Energy efficiency
  • Conservation
  • Expanded use of nuclear energy.
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