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World History Chapter 1 Section 1

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Title: World History Chapter 1 Section 1


1
World History Chapter 1Section 1
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  • Five thousand years ago writing changed the world
  • How?
  • Prehistory time before writing
  • How do we know about this time?
  • Historians scholars who study and write about
    the historical past
  • What do they use to figure out what happened?

4
  • Artifacts objects made by humans in the past
    ex. Clothes, coins, art, tombstoneswritten
    evidence
  • Is what is written always reliable?
  • What if it is written by someone who was there? A
    witness to the occurrence?
  • What bias might a person have?
  • What is bias?
  • Historians attempt to explain the past clearly
    and unbiased

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  • Anthropology the study of the origins and
    development of people and society
  • Focus on how humans acquired physical traits over
    time like what?
  • Focus on the culture of a society / people
  • Culture way of life of a society
  • -their beliefs, values and practices
  • -handed down from one generation to the next.
    -How?
  • -what are some of our / your cultural
    aspects?

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  • Archaeology subfield of anthropology
  • Study of past people and culture through the
    remains they left behindto figure out how they
    lived. Like what?
  • Tools, weapons, writings
  • Are they wrong? why or why not? New evidence?
  • Change?
  • How do they know how old artifacts are?

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  • Relative Dating similar items are grouped
    together and put in order according to their
    style
  • Lower levels to higher levels
  • Higher newer
  • Lower older
  • When the age of some items are known, items
    around them can be approximately dated

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  • Absolute Dating determine the age of an
    artifact due to actual physical deterioration
  • Bones lose chemicals at a certain rate test
    them
  • Wood grains can tell how old a piece of wood is
  • Carbon 14 decay in biological matter
  • This way we can tell if items that are found next
    to each other are the same age or not

11
  • Technique procedure or skill
  • What is needed to find artifacts or
    archaeological dig sites
  • 1800s early 1900s guessing game!
  • Now we use technology to help find spots to dig
    digitally map out areas, enter data and let the
    computer decide the best spot to dig
  • Also, communication with other professionals to
    help determine the age of rocks Geologist.
    Plant and animal identification Zoologists and
    Botanists

12
  • Pre-1950, we did not know much about
    prehistorywhich is what?
  • Mary and Louis Leakey Anthropologists 1930s
    Worked in East Africa Canyon in Tanzania
    called Olduvai Gorge
  • Explored layers of sediment in canyon dating back
    to 1.7 -2.1 million years ago prehistory?
  • Found ancient tools made of stone sign of
    technology

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  • Technology skills and tools people use to meet
    their basic needs and wants
  • Prehistoric tech vs. current tech.
  • As the Leakeys explored the newer layers they
    found advanced technologysmooth and polished
    tools
  • 1959 found skull of early hominid
  • Hominid group that includes humans and close
    relatives but must meet this requirement
  • must walk upright on two feet
  • humans are the only hominids alive today
  • Legends of other Hominids?

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  • Donald Johanson Anthropologist 1974
  • Found pieces of single hominid 3 million yrs.
  • how do you think this was dated? Relative or
    absolute?
  • Named the partial skeleton Lucy. Why?
  • Australopithecus earliest group of hominids
  • Lucy was one of these
  • Lived in Africa around 7 million yrs. ago

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  • Homo Habilis 2 million yrs. Ago
  • Handy Man first hominids to make tools
  • Cutting, scraping, chopping, sawing
  • How did they make these tools?
  • Have discovered tools about 2.6 million years
    old. Who made them?
  • Homo Erectus 2 million years, fully upright
  • Upright Man larger brains and bones smaller
    teeth than Homo Habilis
  • First to use fire and hand axe
  • Found in Asia and Europe first to migrate out
    of Africa
  • Disappeared 250,000 100,000 years ago

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  • Homo Sapiens modern humans
  • Two theories theories
  • 1) developed in Africa and then dispersed from
    there
  • 2) Homo Erectus evolved into homo sapiens at
    about the same time around the world
  • multi-regional hypothesis Modern humans bred
    with archaic humans and overtook them

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  • Two Groups of Homo Sapiens
  • Neanderthals and Modern Humans
  • Lived mostly in Europe and Asia
  • Spread all over the rest of the world
  • Around 50,000 60,000 years ago Neanderthals
    died out
  • Why?
  • Who was left?

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Row 1 Pliopithecus, Pronconsul, Dryopithecus,
Oreopithecus, Ramapithecus Row 2
Australopithecus, Paranthropus, Advanced
Australopithecus, Homo Erectus, Early Homo
Sapiens, Solo Man, Rhodesian Man Row 3
Neanderthal Man, Cro-Magnon Man, Modern Man
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Foundations of Civilizations Section 1
  • Color Transparency 2 Locations of Hominid Finds
    in Africa

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  •  

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  • Who?Otzi the Iceman was 5'5" tall, weighing in
    at 84 pounds. He was aged 46 years at the time of
    his death and hailed from the Copper Age, in
    Neolithic times.  He spent his childhood in an
    Italian village called Velturno, to the north of
    Bolzano.  Otzi enjoyed long walks through the
    hilly terrain of Italy, suggesting that he was
    perhaps a mountain shepherd, since his level of
    mobility is not common to most copper Age
    Europeans.  He had approximatley 57 tattoos of
    simple dots and lines.

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Otzi the Alpine Iceman
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  • Why?So, why was the discovery of Otzi the Iceman
    so monumental?  It was because his corpse gave
    scientists and archeologists an unrivaled view
    into the lives of humans during the Copper Age,
    which had previously been, for the most part, a
    mystery. Understanding the Copper Age is
    important because it was a time when advanced
    metal working, like smelting, first emerged. Otzi
    was also a pop culture phenomenon.  There has
    been countless books written about him and he
    even stars in a play.

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