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Warm- Up: Find the 6 differences between the two pictures.

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Title: Slide 1 Author: Tracy Trimpe Last modified by: stephanien.harpenau Created Date: 8/1/2006 5:04:17 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Warm- Up: Find the 6 differences between the two pictures.


1
Warm- Up Find the 6 differences between the two
pictures.
Source http//www.slylockfox.com/arcade/6diff/ind
ex.html
2
The answers are
Source http//www.slylockfox.com/arcade/6diff/ind
ex.html
3
Objective
  • SWBAT describe proper techniques for packaging
    common types of physical evidence.

4
Agenda
  1. Physical Evidence
  2. The Murder Scene
  3. JonBenet Ramsey Documentary
  4. Exit Slip

5
SEARCH METHODS
  • Line or strip methodbest in large, outdoor
    scenes
  • Grid methodbasically a double-line search
    effective, but time-consuming
  • Zone methodmost effective in houses or
    buildings teams are assigned small zones for
    searching
  • Spiral methodmay move inward or outward best
    used where there are no physical barriers

6
Types of Evidence
  • Two general types
  • Testimoniala statement made under oath
  • Direct evidence or Prima Facie evidence
  • Physicalany object or material that is relevant
    in a crime
  • Indirect evidence
  • Examples hair, fiber, fingerprints, documents,
    blood, soil, drugs, tool marks, impressions,
    glass.

7
Value of Physical Evidence
  • Generally more reliable than testimonial
  • Can prove that a crime has been committed
  • Can corroborate or refute testimony
  • Can link a suspect with a victim or with a crime
    scene
  • Can establish the identity of persons associated
    with a crime
  • Can allow reconstruction of events of a crime

8
Reconstruction
  • Physical Evidence is used to answer questions
    about
  • what took place
  • how the victim was killed
  • number of people involved
  • sequence of events
  • A forensic scientist will compare the questioned
    or unknown sample with a sample of known origin.

9
Types of Physical Evidence
  • Transient Evidencetemporary easily changed or
    lost usually observed by the first officer at
    the scene
  • Pattern Evidenceproduced by direct contact
    between a person and an object or between two
    objects
  • Conditional Evidenceproduced by a specific event
    or action important in crime scene
    reconstruction and in determining the set of
    circumstances or sequence within a particular
    event
  • Transfer Evidenceproduced by contact between
    person(s) or object(s), or between person(s) and
    person(s)
  • Associative Evidenceitems that may associate a
    victim or suspect with a scene or each other ie,
    personal belongings
  • Lee and Labriola in Famous Cases, 2001

10
Examples of Transient Evidence
  • Odorputrefaction, perfume, gasoline, urine,
    burning, explosives, cigarette or cigar smoke
  • Temperaturesurroundings, car hood, coffee, water
    in a bathtub, cadaver
  • Imprints and indentationsfootprints, teeth marks
    in perishable foods, tire marks on certain
    surfaces
  • Markings

11
Examples of Pattern Evidence
  • Pattern Evidencemost are in the form of
    imprints, indentations, striations, markings,
    fractures or deposits.
  • Clothing or article distribution
  • Gun powder residue
  • Material damage
  • Body position
  • Tool marks
  • Modus operandi
  • Blood spatter
  • Glass fracture
  • Fire burn pattern
  • Furniture position
  • Projectile trajectory
  • Tire marks or skid marks

12
Examples of Conditional Evidence
  • Lightheadlight, lighting conditions
  • Smokecolor, direction of travel, density, odor
  • Firecolor and direction of the flames, speed of
    spread, temperature and condition of fire
  • Locationof injuries or wounds, of bloodstains,
    of the victims vehicle, of weapons or cartridge
    cases, of broken glass
  • Vehiclesdoors locked or unlocked, windows opened
    or closed, radio off or on (station), odometer
    mileage
  • Bodyposition, types of wounds rigor, livor and
    algor mortis
  • Scenecondition of furniture, doors and windows,
    any disturbance or signs of a struggle

13
Classification of Evidence by Nature
  • Biologicalblood, semen, saliva, sweat, tears,
    hair, bone, tissues, urine, feces, animal
    material, insects, bacterial, fungal, botanical
  • Chemicalfibers, glass, soil, gunpowder, metal,
    mineral, narcotics, drugs, paper, ink, cosmetics,
    paint, plastic, lubricants, fertilizer
  • Physicalfingerprints, footprints, shoe prints,
    handwriting, firearms, tire marks, tool marks,
    typewriting
  • Miscellaneouslaundry marks, voice analysis,
    polygraph, photography, stress evaluation,
    psycholinguistic analysis, vehicle identification

14
Evidence Characteristics
  • Classcommon to a group of objects or persons
  • Individualcan be identified with a particular
    person or a single source

Blood DNA Typing
Fingerprints
15
Class vs Individual Evidence
Which examples do you think could be individual
evidence?
16
COLLECTING AND PACKAGING EVIDENCE
  • One individual should be designated as the
    evidence collector to ensure that the evidence is
    collected, packaged, marked, sealed, and
    preserved in a consistent manner
  • Each item must be placed in a separate container,
    sealed, and labeled
  • Most fragile is collected and packaged first
  • Different types of evidence require specific or
    special collection and packaging techniques
  • The body is the property of the coroner or
    medical examiner. The collection of evidence on
    the body is done by that department

17
PACKAGING
  • Most items should be packaged in a primary
    container and then placed inside a secondary one.
    These are then placed inside other containers
    such as paper bags, plastic bags, canisters,
    packets and envelopes depending on the type and
    size of the evidence.

18
CHAIN OF CUSTODY
  • There must be a written record of all people who
    have had possession of an item of evidence.
  • The evidence container must be marked for
    identification
  • The collectors initials should be placed on the
    seal
  • If evidence is turned over to another person, the
    transfer must be recorded.

19
THE MEDICAL EXAMINER AND THE CORONER
  • A medical examiner is a medical doctor, usually a
    pathologist and is appointed by the governing
    body of the area. There are 400 forensic
    pathologists throughout the U.S.
  • A coroner is an elected official who usually has
    no special medical training. In four states, the
    coroner is a medical doctor.

20
MEDICAL EXAMINERS RESPONSIBILITIES
  • Identify the deceased
  • Establish the time and date of death
  • Determine a medical cause of deaththe injury or
    disease that resulted in the person dying
  • Determine the mechanism of deaththe
    physiological reason that the person died
  • Classify the manner of death
  • Natural
  • Accidental
  • Suicide
  • Homicide
  • Undetermined
  • Notify the next of kin

21
PEOPLE IN THE NEWS
  • Dr. Michael M. Baden is a renowned pathologist
    and was the Chief Medical Examiner in NY City and
    for Suffolk County.
  • Dr. Baden was on the panel that investigated the
    assassinations of president John F. Kennedy and
    Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. He has been involved
    as an expert in forensic pathology in many cases
    of international interest including
  • The remains of Tsar Nicholas of Russia and his
    family
  • The Claus Von Bulow murder trial
  • Expert witness for the defense in the O.J.
    Simpson trial
  • Re-autopsy of Medgar Evers, Civil Rights leader
  • Re-examination of the Lindberg Kidnapping and
    murder
  • Autopsies of the victims of TWA Flight 800
  • Dr. Baden is the host of HBOs Autopsy series and
    is featured on many of the crime talk shows.

22
JonBenet Ramsey Documentary
  • 8. What did the autopsy reveal?
  • 9. What was the largest problem with the
    investigation?
  • 10. What were some problems with the
    investigation in the spring of 1997?
  • 11. What clue did DNA testing give investigators?
  • 12. Who did the handwriting analyst think the
    ransom note was written by?
  • 13. Why were the Ramseys never called to testify
    in front of the grand jury?

23
JonBenet Ramsey Documentary
  • 14. What did the grand jury decide on October
    1999?
  • 15. What was DA Keenans theory that was released
    in 2003?
  • 16. Why was Carr arrested and why was the case
    dropped?
  • 17. In 2008 what did the DNA reveal?

24
Homework
  • Chapter 1 Review Questions, 1 29 Chapter 2
    Review Questions, 1 26 due Thursday
  • Units 1 2 Exam on Thursday!

25
Exit Slip September 2, 2014
  • 1. Get out a mobile device or use one of the
    computers and go to m.socrative.com. You can also
    use one of the iPads that has the Socrative app.
  • 2. When prompted, enter 417101 for the room
    number.
  • QUESTION Why should all items of evidence be
    placed in different containers?
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