Nineteenth Century Public School Developments of Athleticism - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Nineteenth Century Public School Developments of Athleticism PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6fe748-MjcwO



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Nineteenth Century Public School Developments of Athleticism

Description:

History of PE (Sport and Society) Nineteenth Century Public School Developments of Athleticism – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:49
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 22
Provided by: STT61
Learn more at: http://sectioneuro.e-monsite.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Nineteenth Century Public School Developments of Athleticism


1
History of PE (Sport and Society)
  • Nineteenth Century Public School Developments of
    Athleticism

2
Learning Objectives
  • Identify the characteristics of public schools.
  • Explain the significance of these characteristics
    with relation to games and sports.
  • Understand the three stages of development
  • Identify and explain the significance of Thomas
    Arnold and other liberal headmasters.
  • Explain how and why sports and games evolved
    during the three stages.
  • Analyse Technical developments, social
    relationships and character building values
    evident in Tom Browns Schooldays.

3
  • Early nineteenth-century English public schools
    were characterised by a number of features.
  • They were
  • Exclusive, Elitist, Fee Paying institutions for
    the gentry.
  • The fees helped to pay for the development of
    facilities such as gymnasia and swimming baths.
  • Public schools were in rural locations and most
    students boarded. A lot of time was therefore
    available, which needed to be occupied in a
    positive, purposeful manner often by playing
    games.

4
  • Public schools were single sex and education took
    place in an atmosphere of strict discipline. The
    schools were spartan and flogging occurred
    frequently. Harsh treatment and basic living
    conditions helped to prepare the boys for adult
    life.
  • Public schools were divided internally into
    houses which became the hub of games. These games
    reflected the home lives of the boys who went
    there.
  • The riotous games and activities that were
    popular at these schools at the beginning of the
    19th Century were very different from those
    played a century or so later.

5
  • Many sports and games were brought in from home
    and adapted to suit the facilities the school had
    to offer, such as long corridors, quadrangles,
    courtyards or open grassy areas.

6
Expanding
Controlled by trustees
Non-Local
Boys
Key Characteristics of nineteenth century public
schools
Endowed
Fee Paying
Boarding
Spartan/ flogging
Gentry
Key Point These characteristics were common to
public schools in the first part of the 19th
century before the Arnoldian reforms and the
Clarendon Commission Report.
7
Characteristics of 19th Century Public Schools
  • B BOYS
  • G GENTRY
  • B BOARDING
  • F FEE PAYING
  • E EXPANDING
  • N NON-LOCAL
  • C CONTROLLED BY TRUSTEES
  • E ENDOWED
  • S SPARTAN

8
Stage One 1790 1828 Bullying Brutality
Technical and Social Developments
  • Two extremes evident in society
  • High Culture of Regency period fashion AND low
    culture of brutal blood sports.
  • All recreational activities were organised by the
    boys
  • Masters ruled with a rod in the classroom but had
    no interest in games.
  • Increasing upper class boys enrolling bringing
    with them various forms
  • of games which were moulded, as in a MELTING
    POT.
  • Imposed discipline by masters and resentful
    hooligan behaviour was the
  • norm during this period. The era was one of
    Institutionalised Popular
  • Recreation

9
Stage One Summary
  • Bullying and brutality (Flashman)
  • A reflection of society
  • Institutionalised popular recreation,
  • Activities arranged for and by the boys,
  • Ranged from the childlike to the barbaric,
  • No master involvement outside classroom,
  • Simple, naturally occurring facilities used.
  • (see picture)

The game of 'fives', rather like a primitive
form of squash.
10
Stage Two 1828 1842 Dr Thomas Arnold Social
Control
  • Time of change.
  • Dr Thomas Arnold and other liberal headmasters
    wanted to reform public schools.
  • Wanted to produce Christian Gentlemen and to
    preach good moral behaviour.
  • Muscular Christianity The combination of
    godliness and manliness The belief in having a
    strong and fit body to match a robust and healthy
    soul.

11
Dr Thomas Arnold
  • Influential reforms.
  • Arnold used games as a way of establishing social
    control.
  • More trusting relationship with the sixth form
    raising their powers of discipline.
  • Masters took on roles as mentors and guide rather
    than judge and executioner.
  • Games kept the boys out of trouble in the day and
    sent them to bed exhausted.

12
Stage Two Summary
  • Time of reform and social change
  • Initiated by Dr Thomas Arnold and other liberal
    headmasters
  • A reflection of societal change
  • The growth of the house system
  • Regular play on an inter house basis
  • Technical developments (increased organisation,
    structure, regularity of play)

13
Stage Three 1842-1912 Athleticism The Cult
  • Athleticism Combination of moral integrity and
    physical effort OR playing hard but with
    sportsmanship.
  • Symbols of athleticism in the that late 19th
    century English public schools included
  • 'mellowed buildings' that were more aesthetically
    welcoming than previous 'harsh' school buildings,
  • Magnificent fields to play games on,
  • The wearing of caps,
  • The awarding of colours to worthy recipients,
  • Rules were readily adhered to, with fair play
    and sportsmanship of key importance in developing
    'rounded' gentlemen.
  • Links to Muscular Christianity were developed -
    Win gracefully or lose with honour and bravery.

14
Team games in public schools
Teamwork/loyalty to a team
Teamwork/loyalty to a team
Organisational experience through committees
Organisational experience through committees
Captains in sport then captain in industry
Captains in sport then captain in industry
Roles of team games in preparing public
schoolboys for leadership
Roles of team games in preparing public
schoolboys for leadership
Roles of team games in preparing public
schoolboys for leadership
Roles of team games in preparing public
schoolboys for leadership
Making decisions
Making decisions
Testing/developing courage/bravery
Testing/developing courage/bravery
Testing/developing temperament
Testing/developing temperament
Leading by example
Leading by example
Team sports in particular were believed to
reflect athleticism, since they required
participants to show a range of physical
qualities, such as endeavour (playing hard),
effort and striving to do one's best, as part of
a collective effort.
15
The Clarendon Commission
  • Clarendon Report (1864) Taking effect.
  • The big nine public schools were investigated
    by the Earl of Clarendon and his team of
    commissioners in 1864, appointed by Queen
    Victoria to examine all aspects of public school
    life.
  • (OFSTED of the 1800s!!)
  • The big nine were originally set up for the
    children of the upper classes. Many have now been
    established for a long time. As a result of the
    commission, they are known as the Clarendon
    Schools.
  • Clarendon included in his report criticisms of
    many aspects of public school life and gave
    advice on how to improve the schools.
  • Sport became a key reforming influence in public
    schools such as Rugby and Eton.

16
Winchester (1382)
Charterhouse (1611)
Eton (1440)
Harrow (1571)
Foundation dates of the Clarendon Schools
St Pauls (1509)
Rugby (1567)
Shrewsbury (1552)
Merchant Taylors (1561)
Westminster (1560)
Key point games and sports provided a medium for
social control and replaced the imposed
discipline by masters and rebellious/hooligan
behaviour by boys during the early stages of
public school development.
17
A
ll-round, mind and body
T
emperament
Athleticism combined physical endeavour with
moral integrity
H
ealth
L
eadership
E
ndeavour
T
eamwork
In the space of 60 years what had once been an
embarrassment to headmasters became their pride
GAMES ATHLETIC PURSUITS!
I
ntegrity
C
ohesion/competition
I
nstrument of education
S
portsmanship
M
uscular christianity
18
Stage One vs Stage Three
  • Discuss the differences between the two eras
  • highlighting key differences?

Stage One Stage Three
Institutionalised popular recreation Athleticism reached cult proportions
No master involvement Increased master involvement
Riotous behaviour Christian gentlemen
Organised by and for the boys. Structured inter house/inter school competitions.
Bullying and brutality Moral integrity and sportsmanship
19
Athleticism in girls public and private schools
  • Elite girls schools and ladies academies were
    developed in the late eighteenth century and
  • by the mid C19th, there was an emergence of
    girls public schools (eg. Roedean in Sussex)
  • However, while athleticism was reaching cult
    proportions in boys public
  • schools there was a delay in such a development
    of sporting opportunities for upper and
  • middle class girls. A number of reasons account
    for this
  • Medical Reasons, which were linked to myths
    prevalent at the time about harm
  • exercise could do to girls.
  • Tradition saw girls as inferior, and
    participation in sport was frowned upon.
  • The education of girls was viewed as a threat to
    the behavioural norms of society.
  • There were not enough prominent female heads to
    provide leadership and
  • encouragement.
  • Girls were perceived as being physically
    inferior, so concerns were raised that they
  • would not be able to cope with the demands of
    strenuous physical activity.

20
Girls/women traditionally viewed as subservient
Participation seen as medically harmful to women
and girls
Delay of athleticism in girls public schools
Sports were viewed as unfeminine by society
Lack of female heads who encouraged athleticism
Key point There are a variety of reasons for the
delay in introducing athleticism in girls public
schools, linked mainly to the traditions and
stereotypes of the time.
21
(No Transcript)
About PowerShow.com