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The Basics of Lubricants and lubrication

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: Hussam Adeni Last modified by: Hussam Created Date: 1/1/1601 12:00:00 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Basics of Lubricants and lubrication


1
The Basics of Lubricants and
lubrication
  • Hussam Adeni

Lube.specialist_at_gmail.com
2
Meaning of lubrication
  • Friction - is created when there is relative
    motion between two surfaces
  • Resistance to motion is defined as friction
  • Lubrication is use of a material between surfaces
    to reduce friction
  • Any material used is called a lubricant

Lube.specialist_at_gmail.com
3
Methods of lubrication
  • Two main methods
  • Hydrodynamic lubrication
  • Boundary lubrication
  • Hydrodynamic lubrication
  • Also called complete or full flow
  • Occurs when two surfaces are completed separated
    by a fluid film

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4
Methods of lubrication cont..
  • Two main methods
  • Hydrodynamic lubrication
  • Boundary lubrication
  • Boundary lubrication
  • Occurs when Hydrodynamic lubrication fails.
  • By adsorption or chemical reaction

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5
Types of Lubricant - Physical
  • Liquid
  • Solid
  • Semi solid
  • Gases

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6
Types of Lubricant - Physical
  • Liquid
  • Typical lubricants are liquid/fluids
  • Mineral oil or synthetic oils
  • Solid
  • Graphite, MoS2
  • Semi solid
  • Greases
  • Gases
  • Atomised 2 stroke oils

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7
Typical lubricants - Application
  • Engine oils
  • Gear Oils
  • Turbine Oils
  • Hydraulic Oils
  • Metal working oils
  • Cutting oils
  • Forming Oils
  • Rust preventives

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8
Typical lubricants - Application
  • Heat Transfer Oils
  • Heat Treatment Oils
  • Quenching Oils
  • Tempering Oils
  • Refrigeration Oils
  • Rubber Process Oils
  • Ink process Oils

Lube.specialist_at_gmail.com
9
Lubricant - Components
  • Base Oils
  • Mineral by-products of crude oil refining
    process.
  • Base oils are polymerized or synthesized further
    and called synthetic
  • Additives
  • Natural
  • Synthetic

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10
Function of a lubricant
  • Lubricate - Reduce friction
  • Cooling - Heat transfer
  • Cleaning - Detergency
  • Noise pollution - dampening
  • Sealing prevent leakage
  • Protection prevent wear

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11
Lubricate reduce friction
  • The effects of friction
  • Metal to metal contact
  • Leads to wear and tear
  • Generates heat
  • Results in Power loss
  • Lubricant reduces friction by forming a film
  • Reduces ill effect of friction

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12
Cooling
  • When fuel is burnt in an engine
  • 33 is useful power
  • 33 removed by cooling water
  • 33 by lube oil and radiation
  • Lube oil removes heat from all areas and brings
    it to the engine sump.
  • Improper cooling can lead to over heating, lead
    to wear, distortion and failure.

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13
Cleaning
  • Cleans carbon and varnish deposits
  • Flushes the entire system removing
  • Soot
  • Deposits
  • Acids
  • Wear products
  • Moisture
  • Removes external contaminants dust, moisture
    (external)

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14
Noise reduction
  • Reduce noise
  • By preventing metal to metal contact
  • Dampens noise
  • As between camshaft and tappet

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15
Sealing
  • Oil film
  • Between piston ring and liner
  • Helps in creating a gas tight seal

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16
Protection
  • Protection against acids and moisture
  • Very important to increase life of component and
    equipment

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17
Properties of lubricants
  • Kinematic viscosity
  • Viscosity index
  • Pour Point
  • Flash Point
  • Total Base Number (TBN)

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18
Properties of lubricants
  • Kinematic viscosity
  • Measure of internal resistance to flow
  • Thickness of fluid (in laymen terms)
  • Decreases with increase in temperature
  • Important in lubricant selection
  • Increase in used oil indicates oxidation
  • Specified at 40C and 100C
  • Measured in Centi Stokes (CSt)

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19
Kinematic Viscosity - Recommendations
  • Low Viscosity oils used
  • High speeds
  • Low pressure
  • Low temperature
  • High Viscosity oils used
  • Low speeds
  • High pressure
  • High temperature

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20
Properties of lubricants
  • Viscosity index
  • Measure of fluids change of viscosity with
    temperature.
  • Empirical number
  • Higher the VI lower will be the change of
    viscosity with temperature
  • Indicator of temperature range of operations

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21
Properties of lubricants
  • Pour Point
  • Lowest temperature at which the fluid will flow
  • Indicates lowest operating temperature
  • Measured in C

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22
Properties of lubricants
  • Flash Point
  • Lowest temperature at which the vapor above the
    liquid will ignite under flame
  • Indicated safe maximum temperature of operation.
  • Indicator of volatility
  • Test method - COC and PMCC
  • Measured in C

Lube.specialist_at_gmail.com
23
Properties of lubricants
  • Total Base Number (TBN)
  • Measured the acid neutralizing reserve in oil.
  • Important for deciding discard of oil
  • Decreases due to
  • Oxidation of oil
  • Water contamination
  • Fuel contamination
  • Measured in Mg KOH/gm of oil

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24
Lab Tests - for lubricants
  • ASTM D 445
  • ASTM D 2250
  • ASTM D 97
  • ASTM D 92 (COC)
  • ASTM D 93 (PMCC)
  • ASTM D 664

Kinematic viscosity Viscosity index Pour
Point Flash Point Total Base Number (TBN)
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25
What are additives
  • Lubricant additives
  • classified on their functional capability
  • Enhance existing property
  • Suppress undesirable property
  • Impart new property

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26
What are additives What they do in Engine Oils
  • Protect metal surfaces
  • - (rings, bearings, gears, etc.)
  • Extend the range of lubricant
    applicability
  • Extend lubricant life

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27
Surface Protective additives
  • Anti wear and EP Agent
  • Corrosion Rust inhibitor
  • Detergent
  • Dispersant
  • Friction modifier

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28
Surface Protective additives - Automotive
Lubricants
  • Additive type
  • Purpose
  • Typical
  • compounds
  • Function
  • Anti wear EP Agent
  • Reduce friction wear.
  • Prevent scoring seizure
  • ZDDP, Organic Phosphates, acid phosphates,
    organic sulfur and chlorine compounds etc.
  • Chemical reaction with metal surface and forms a
    film.
  • Prevents metal-to-metal contact

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29
Surface Protective additives - Automotive
Lubricants
  • Additive type
  • Purpose
  • Typical
  • compounds
  • Function
  • Corrosion and Rust Inhibitor
  • Prevent corrosion and rusting of the metallic
    parts in contact with lubricant
  • ZDDP, Metal phenolates, Basic Metal sulphonates,
    fatty acid Amines.
  • Preferential adsorbtion of polar constituent on
    metal surface.
  • Provide protective film
  • Neutralize corrosive acids

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30
Surface Protective additives - Automotive
Lubricants
  • Additive type
  • Purpose
  • Typical
  • compounds
  • Function
  • Detergents
  • Keep surface free of deposits
  • Metallo organic compounds of Sodium, Calcium and
    Magnesium phenolates
  • Phosphonates and sulphonates
  • Chemical reaction with sludge and varnish
    percursors to neutralize them and keep them
    soluble

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31
Surface Protective additives - Automotive
Lubricants
  • Additive type
  • Purpose
  • Typical
  • compounds
  • Function
  • Dispersant
  • Keep insoluble contaminants dispersed in the
    lubricant
  • Alkylsuccinimides, alkylsuccinic esters and
    mannich reaction products
  • Contaminants are bonded by polar attraction to
    dispersant molecules.
  • Prevented from agglomerating
  • Kept in suspension due to solubility of dispersant

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32
Surface Protective additives - Automotive
Lubricants
  • Additive type
  • Purpose
  • Typical
  • compounds
  • Function
  • Friction modifier
  • Alters coefficient of friction
  • Organic fatty acids and amides.
  • Lard Oil, high molecular weight organic
    phosphorus.
  • Phosphoric acid esters
  • Preferential adsorbtion of surface active
    materials

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33
Performance additives - Automotive Lubricants
  • Additive type
  • Purpose
  • Typical
  • compounds
  • Function
  • Pour Point Depressant
  • Enable lubricant to flow at lo temperature
  • Alkylated naphthalene
  • Phenolic polymers, Ploymethacrylates
  • Maleate/fumerate copolymer esters
  • Modify wax crystal formation to reduce
    interlocking

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34
Performance additives - Automotive Lubricants
  • Additive type
  • Purpose
  • Typical
  • compounds
  • Function
  • Seal swell Agent
  • Swell elastomeric seals, gaskets
  • Organic phosphates
  • Aromatic hydro carbons
  • Chemical reaction with with elastomer to cause
    slight swell.

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35
Performance additives - Automotive Lubricants
  • Additive type
  • Purpose
  • Typical
  • compounds
  • Function
  • Viscosity modifier
  • Reduce the rate of viscosity change with
    temperature
  • Polymers and copolymers of olefins,
    methacrylates, dienes
  • Alkylated styrenes.
  • Polymers expand with increasing temperatures
  • This counteract oil thinning

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36
Performance additives - Automotive Lubricants
  • Additive type
  • Purpose
  • Typical
  • compounds
  • Function
  • Antifoamant
  • Prevent lubricant from forming a persistent foam
  • Silicone polymers
  • Organic copolymers
  • Reduce Surface tension to speed collapse of foam

Lube.specialist_at_gmail.com
37
Performance additives - Automotive Lubricants
  • Additive type
  • Purpose
  • Typical
  • compounds
  • Function
  • Antioxidant
  • Retard oxidative decomposition
  • ZDDP,
  • Hindered phenols, Aromatic Amines, sulfurized
    phenols
  • Decompose peroxides
  • Terminates free-radical reactions

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38
Performance additives - Automotive Lubricants
  • Additive type
  • Purpose
  • Typical
  • compounds
  • Function
  • Metal deactivator
  • Reduce catalytic effect of metals on oxidation
    rate
  • Organic complexes containing nitrogen or sulfur
  • Amines, sulphides and Phosphates
  • Forms inactive film on metal surfaces by
    complexing with metallic ions

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39
Lubricant - Nomenclature and Specifications
  • Nomenclature
  • Crankcase oils - SAE numbers
  • Viscosity classification ISO 3448
  • Grease NLGI Numbers
  • Performance
  • Crankcase oils - Performance levels
  • Crankcase oils OEM Specifications
  • US Military US-MIL-2104

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40
  • Viscosity Grade Classification Systems
  • ISO Industrial Oils
  • cSt _at_ 40C
  • AGMA Industrial Gear Oils
  • cSt _at_ 40C
  • SAE Engine Oils
  • cSt _at_100C, cP _at_150C
  • cP _at_ -10C to -40C
  • SAE Gear Oils
  • cSt _at_100C
  • cP _at_ -12C to -55C

41
Lubricant - Specifications
  • Crankcase oils - SAE numbers
  • Crankcase oils - Performance levels
  • Crankcase oils OEM Specifications
  • Viscosity classification
  • Grease specification

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42
Major specifying organizations
  • SAE Society of Automotive Engineers (USA)
  • API - American Petroleum Institute
  • US Military Specs US - MIL 2104 -
  • CCMC European Specification
  • ISO International Standard Organization ISO
    3348
  • NLGI National Lubricating Grease Institute

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43
SAE viscosity grades for engine oils
  • Designated
  • With corresponding viscosity
  • For high temperature application
  • Warmer areas/regions
  • SAE 20
  • SAE 30
  • SAE 40
  • SAE 10
  • SAE 50
  • SAE 60

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44
SAE viscosity grades for engine oils
  • Designated
  • With corresponding viscosity
  • For low temperature application
  • Colder areas/regions
  • SAE 0 W
  • SAE 5 W
  • SAE 10 W
  • SAE 15 W
  • SAE 20 W
  • SAE 25 W

Lube.specialist_at_gmail.com
45
SAE viscosity grades for Mono grades - Engine
Oils
  • Mono grades are designated with
    single SAE number
  • SAE 10, 20, 30, 40, 50
  • SAE 5W,10W, 15W,20W,25W
  • Can be used either in summer season or in winter
    seasons.
  • Gradual shift to multi grades.
  • Shift also due to lower oil consumption by multi
    grades
  • Available as Engine oil and Gear Oils

Lube.specialist_at_gmail.com
46
SAE viscosity grades for Multi grades - Engine
Oils
  • Multi grades are designated with
    two SAE number
  • Widely in use today
  • SAE 10w/30, 15w/30, 25w/50
  • SAE 5W/30, 20W/40
  • Suitable for use in winter and summer months or
    seasons
  • Available in Engine oils Gear oil

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47
SAE Crankcase Oil - Viscosity classification
Winter Service
Low temp viscosities Low temp viscosities High temp viscosities High temp viscosities High temp viscosities
SAE Viscosity Grade SAE Viscosity Grade Engine cranking Max. cPs at Temp (C) Max. Temp for pumping viscosity of 60,000 cP(C) Vis. at 100C, cSt Vis. at 100C, cSt High shear (cP) 150C 106 S-¹ Min
SAE Viscosity Grade SAE Viscosity Grade Engine cranking Max. cPs at Temp (C) Max. Temp for pumping viscosity of 60,000 cP(C) Min Max High shear (cP) 150C 106 S-¹ Min
Winter Service Winter Service Winter Service
0W 6200_at_ -35 6200_at_ -35 -40 3.8 - --
5W 6200_at_ -30 6200_at_ -30 -35 3.8 -
10W 7000_at_ -25 7000_at_ -25 -30 4.1 -
15W 7000_at_ -20 7000_at_ -20 -25 5.6 -
20W 9500_at_ -15 9500_at_ -15 -20 5.6 -
25W 13000_at_ -10 13000_at_ -10 -15 9.3
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48
SAE Crankcase Oil - Viscosity classification
Summer Service
Low temp viscosities Low temp viscosities High temp viscosities High temp viscosities High temp viscosities
SAE Viscosity Grade SAE Viscosity Grade Engine cranking Max. cPs at Temp (C) Max. Temp for pumping viscosity of 60,000 cP(C) Vis. at 100C, cSt Vis. at 100C, cSt High shear (cP) 150C 106 S-¹ Min
SAE Viscosity Grade SAE Viscosity Grade Engine cranking Max. cPs at Temp (C) Max. Temp for pumping viscosity of 60,000 cP(C) Min Max High shear (cP) 150C 106 S-¹ Min
Summer Service Summer Service Summer Service Summer Service
20 -- -- - 5.6 lt9.3 2.6
30 -- -- - 9.3 lt12.5 2.9
40 -- -- - 12.5 lt16.3 3.5
40 -- -- - 12.5 lt16.3 3.7
50 -- -- - 16.3 lt21.9 3.7
60 -- -- - 21.9 lt26.1 3.7
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49
API Automotive Gasoline Engine Service Categories
SA, SB,
Category Related Ind Definitions Engine Test Requirements Engine Test Requirements Engine Test Requirements
SA Straight Min None
SB Inhibited only CRC L-4 Sequence IIA Sequence IIIA
SC 1964 Models CRC L-38 Sequence IV Sequence IIA Sequence V Sequence IIIA Fuel -1 S
SD 1968 Models CRC L-38 Sequence IV Caterpillar L-1 Sequence IIB Sequence VB Caterpillar IH Sequence IIIB Falcon Rust
SE 1972 Models CRC-L-38 Sequence IIID Sequence IIB Sequence VC Sequence IIIC Sequence VD
SF 1980 Models CRC-L-38 Sequence IIIE Sequence IID Sequence VD Sequence IIID
Lube.specialist_at_gmail.com
50
API Automotive Gasoline Engine Service Categories
SA, SB,
Category Related Ind Definitions Engine Test Requirements Engine Test Requirements Engine Test Requirements
SG 1989 Models CRC-L-38 Sequence VE Sequence IID Caterpillar IH2 Sequence IIIE
SH 1994 Models CRC-L-38 Sequence VE Sequence IID Sequence IIIE
Category SA, SB, SC, SD, SE,SF,SG,SH have been declared as obsolete. Category SA, SB, SC, SD, SE,SF,SG,SH have been declared as obsolete. Category SA, SB, SC, SD, SE,SF,SG,SH have been declared as obsolete. Category SA, SB, SC, SD, SE,SF,SG,SH have been declared as obsolete. Category SA, SB, SC, SD, SE,SF,SG,SH have been declared as obsolete.
SJ 1997 Models CRC-L-38 Sequence VE Sequence IID Sequence IIIE
SL 2001 Models Sequence IIIF Sequence VIII Sequence IVA Sequence VG
SM 2004 Models Sequence IIIG Sequence VIII Sequence IVA Sequence VG
Category SJ, SL, SM, are currently valid. Category SJ, SL, SM, are currently valid. Category SJ, SL, SM, are currently valid. Category SJ, SL, SM, are currently valid. Category SJ, SL, SM, are currently valid.
Lube.specialist_at_gmail.com
51
API Automotive Diesel Engine Service Categories
CA, CB,
Category Related US Mil spec Engine Test Requirements Engine Test Requirements Engine Test Requirements
CA MIL-L-2104A CRC L-38 Caterpillar L-1 Fuel 0.4 S
CB MIL-L-2104A Supplement 1 CRC L-38 Caterpillar L-1 Fuel 0.4 S
CC MIL-L-2104B MIL-L-46152B CRC L-38 Sequence IID Caterpillar IH2
CD MIL-L-2104C/D/E, MIL-L-45199B, Series 3 CRC L-38 Caterpillar I G2
CD-II MIL-L-2104D/E 2 stroke Hvy Dty CRC L-38 Caterpillar 1 G2 Detroit Diesel 6V53T
CE None CRC L-38 Mack T-6 Caterpillar 1 G2 Mack T-7 Cummins NTC 400
CF None CRC L-38 Caterpillar 1M-PC
Lube.specialist_at_gmail.com
52
API Automotive Diesel Engine Service Categories
CA, CB,
Category Related Ind Spec Engine Test Requirements Engine Test Requirements Engine Test Requirements
CF-2 None CRC L-38 Detroit Diesel 6V92TA Caterpillar 1M-PC
CF-4 None CRC L-38 Mack T-7 Cummins NTC-400 Caterpillar 1K
CG-4 None CRC L-38 Mack T-8 Sequence IIIE RFWT Caterpillar 1N
CH-4 None Mack T8E RFWT Sequence IIIE Mach T-9 Caterpillar 1P, 1K Cummins M 11
CI-4 None RFWT EOAT Cummins M11 EGR Mack T-8E, T-10 Caterpillar 1R, 1K Sequence IIIF
CI-4Plus None RFWT EOAT Cummins M11 EGR Mack T-8E, T-10,T-11 Caterpillar 1R, 1K Sequence IIIF
CA to CE obsolete CF onwards are currently valid CA to CE obsolete CF onwards are currently valid CA to CE obsolete CF onwards are currently valid CA to CE obsolete CF onwards are currently valid CA to CE obsolete CF onwards are currently valid
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53
ISO 3448 Kin Vis - CSt 40C vs SUS 100F
(40C)
Midpoint Minimum Maximum SUS 100F
VG 2 2.2 1.98 2.42
VG 3 3.2 2.88 3.52
VG 5 4.6 4.14 5.06
VG 7 6.8 6.12 7.48
VG 10 10 9 11 60
VG 15 15 13.5 16.5 75
VG 22 22 19.8 24.2 105
VG 32 32 28.8 35.2 150
VG 46 46 41.4 50.6 215
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54
ISO 3448 Kin Vis - CSt 40C versus SUS 100F
(40C)
Midpoint Minimum Maximum SUS 100F
VG 68 68 61.2 74.8 315
VG 100 100 90 110 465
VG 150 150 135 165 700
VG 220 220 198 242 1000
VG 320 320 288 352 1500
VG 460 460 414 506 2150
VG 680 680 612 748 3150
VG 1000 1000 900 1100 4650
VG 1500 1500 1350 1650 7000
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55
National Lubricating Grease Institute - NLGI
Numbers
NLGI Grade Number ASTM worked penetration 77F (25C)
000 445 - 475
00 400 - 430
0 355 - 385
1 310 - 340
2 265 - 295
3 220 - 250
4 175 - 205
5 130 - 160
6 85 - 115
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56
Thank you
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