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U.S. History Review


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Title: U.S. History Review

U.S. History Review
The 7 dates You must know!
  • 1607 Jamestown, Virginia. The first permanent
    English settlement AND colony in North America.
  • 1620 The Mayflower Compact a plan of
    self-government written aboard the Mayflower by
    the Pilgrims in Plymouth Rock, Massachusetts.
  • 1776 Declaration of Independence. On July 4,
    1776, the Second Continental Congress approves
    this document that announces that the 13 American
    colonies were separating from Great Britain and
    that a new nation was formed the United States
    of America!
  • 1787 U.S. Constitution. Written and approved at
    the Constitutional Convention held in
    Philadelphia, Pa.
  • 1803 Louisiana Purchase. Purchased from France
    by Thomas Jefferson, this land deal doubled the
    size of the U.S.
  • 1861-1865 Civil War. The main causes were
    slavery and states rights. The South lost in
    1865 and slavery was ended.
  • 1865-77Reconstruction Rebuilding of the
    southern government

1215 Magna Carta First written document that
limited the power of a king. Introduced rights
for nobles only such as trial by jury, right to
property, and right to privacy. (Signed by King
John I Of England)
1492 Christopher Columbus In 1492, Columbus
sailed the ocean blue Accidentally discovered
the Americas while searching for a new route to
the East.
As a result of this voyage, a new age of European
exploration and conquests of the Americas began!
Reason for European Exploration Colonization
  • 3 Gs God, Glory, and Gold
  • Spanish Spread Catholicism find Gold
  • English Find resources for Mercantilism
  • French Fur Trade

1607 Jamestown, Virginia founded the first
permanent English settlement in N. A., founded
by the Virginia Company of England.
Capt. John Smith
1619-1776 Beginning of Representative Government
  • House of Burgesses (1619)- 1st Representative
  • Mayflower Compact (1620)- 1st form of
  • Fundamental Order of Connecticut
  • 1st Written Constitution

1619 - House of Burgesses-Virginia First
representative government in
the colonies.
1619 - Dutch ship
brings 20 Africans to Jamestown
1620 The Pilgrims, on their ship the
Mayflower, land in Plymouth, Massachusetts.
The Pilgrims write the Mayflower Compact to
establish their own self-government
The Mayflower
1634 the colony of Maryland is started by Lord
Baltimore as a safe place for Catholics.
1636 - Roger Williams starts Rhode Island.
1664 - The Dutch New Netherlands colony becomes
the English colony New York.
1681 - Pennsylvania is founded by William Penn, a
The Quakers were a religious group that believed
in equal rights for women, religious toleration,
and non-violence. They were also the first
anti-slavery society in America.
1732- Georgia, started by James Oglethorpe as a
refuge for debtors, becomes the last of the 13
original colonies.
MERCANTILISM The economic system used by European
colonial powers, allowed them to have total
control over their colonies. Each nation wants a
favorable trade balance. The more gold you have,
the richer your country will be.
Colonies provided nations with raw resources that
master countries could trade for gold.
People came to America for many reasons

?Push Factors
Political oppression
Religious persecution
Lack of jobs/land
?Pull Factors
Religious freedom
Political freedom
Economic opportunity
Abundant land
1689 English Bill of Rights English law that
increased the rights of all English citizens and
further limited the power of the king.
King James II Resigns his monarchy in The
Glorious Revolution.
Queen Mary II Along with her husband, William of
Orange, had to sign the English Bill of Rights in
order to become the new monarchs of England.
The American Colonies grow
  • Between 1607 and 1775 an estimated 690,000
    Europeans 278,000 Africans came to live in the

New England Colonies Massachusetts, New
Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut
  • Made up of small towns that were well-organized
    with a church in the center. The religion was
    primarily Puritan Christianity.
  • The soil was hard and rocky, and the winters were
  • Subsistence farming (just enough to survive) was
  • The primary industries were fishing, timber,
    shipbuilding, whaling, and merchant trade.

Middle Colonies New York, New Jersey,
Pennsylvania, Delaware
  • More fertile soil than New England. Also milder
    winters. Main crops were grains such as wheat,
    rye, and barley (aka the breadbasket colonies),
    also grew crops of fruits and vegetables.
  • Many industries along with skilled labor like
    carpentry and iron works.
  • 100,000 German immigrants settled in
  • Different groups brought diversity to the middle
    colonies. Different religions existed here.

Southern Colonies Maryland, Virginia, North
Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
  • Rich soil and warm, rainy climate leads to
    farming and little or no industry.
  • Tobacco, rice, and indigo were the main cash
    crops. Slaves became necessary.
  • Large farms with slave labor led to a plantation
  • Maryland, founded by Lord Baltimore, became a
    colony where Catholics could settle.
  • Many members of the Church of England (Anglicans)

By 1732, there were 13 flourishing English
colonies on the east coast of North America.

After a century of laissez-faire or letting the
colonies do their own thing, the British
government tried to gain control with disastrous
The French and Indian War 1754-1763 England vs.
  • War between England and France fought in North
    America over territorial claims.
  • A young George Washington serves in the British
  • Benjamin Franklin proposes the Albany Plan of
    Union (Join or Die) to unite the colonies, it
    is rejected.
  • France finally loses and has to give up all of
    its land in North America to the British.
  • The Treaty of Paris of 1763 gave England all land
    between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mississippi

The French and Indian War leaves the British
government with a large debt and begins to pass
taxes that anger the American colonists
  • 1763 - Proclamation of 1763 colonists were not
    allowed west of the Appalachian Mountains
  • 1764 - Sugar Act a tax on sugar and molasses
  • 1765 - Stamp Act a tax on all printed materials,
    caused anger and protests by the Americans. Sam
    Adams and Paul Revere form the Sons of Liberty.
  • 1766 - Quartering Act forced Americans to
    provide housing to British soldiers
  • 1767 The Townsend Acts taxes on many
    different products, Daughters of Liberty are
  • 1773 - Tea Act tax on tea

May, 1770 - The Boston Massacre
British troops fire on American protesters,
killing five of them
Sons of Liberty used the incident as propaganda
to anger Americans.
1773 - Boston Tea Party the Sons of Liberty, led
by Samuel Adams, dump British tea into the Boston
To punish the colonists, the British pass the
Intolerable Acts in 1774 (closed the Boston
Harbor, prohibited town meetings, took away right
to jury, new quartering act, etc.)
April 1775 Paul Revere rouses the Minutemen to
meet the British at Lexington
and Concord, the first battles of the
The shot heard around the world
May, 1775 The Second Continental Congress meets
in Philadelphia and selects George Washington as
the Commander of the Continental Army.
The Olive Branch Petition
  • Written by members of the Second Continental
  • It was a last attempt at peace between the
    Americans and the British
  • It was rejected by King George III

A New Nation
July 4, 1776 Declaration of Independence,
written by Jefferson, is approved by the Second
Continental Congress.
John Adams
Ben Franklin
Richard Henry Lee
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that
all men are created
equal, that they are endowed by their Creator
with certain unalienable rights, that among these
are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.
Thomas Jefferson Declaration of Independence,
Battle of Trenton
December 25, 1776 Washington defeats the
Hessians (German mercenaries) at Trenton, N.J.
Crossing the Delaware River
Battle of Saratoga 1777 The Turning Point
of the War!
American victory that convinced France to join
the Americans
Winter, 1777-1778 the Continental Army, joined
by the Marquis de Lafayette and Baron von
Steuben, camps at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania
becomes a symbol of the hardships of war.
The Battle of Yorktown (1781) The final major
battle of the Revolutionary War. Yeah boi! The
Americans and French win!
General George Washington
Lord Charles Cornwallis
Cornwallis Surrender at Yorktown Oct. 19, 1781
The World Turned Upside Down!
Painted by John Trumbull, 1797
In the Treaty of Paris of 1783, the British
finally recognize the United States as an
independent country.
North America after the Treaty of Paris, 1783
Articles of Confederation 1781-1788 Our first
  • Americas First Government!
  • Created by the Second Continental Congress in
    1777, approved in 1781

Articles of Confederation
  • An agreement by the states to work together. It
    gave the states the most power and formed a very
    weak central government.
  • No judiciary (national court system)
  • No executive branch (no President)
  • One legislature, with little power.
  • Each state had only one vote.
  • No power to tax anyone
  • No power to regulate trade between the states

Successes of the Articles of Confederation
  • Kept the country united during the
  • Revolutionary War
  • 2. Negotiated the Treaty of Paris of 1783, ending
    the revolutionary war
  • 3. Passed the Northwest Ordinance, set the rules
    on how a territory becomes a state. (Once a
    territory reached 60,000 it could apply for

Shays Rebellion 1787
  • Daniel Shays, Revolutionary War veteran and
  • Occurred in western Massachusetts
  • Small farmers angered by crushing debts and taxes
    go on a riot-4 get killed.
  • Made people realize that the Articles government
    needed a lot of improvements!

The U.S. Constitutional Convention (1787)
  • Delegates from the 13 states meet in Philadelphia
    to rewrite the Articles of Confederation but
    instead create a whole new document.
  • The larger populated states present the Virginia
    Plan for representation in the new Congress.
    (representation based on population)
  • The smaller populated states present the New
    Jersey Plan as their plan for representation.
    (each state gets one vote)
  • The southern slave states want their slaves
    counted for representation purposes but not for

Compromises of the Constitutional Convention
  • The Great Compromise created a Congress with a
    House of Representatives based on the population
    of each state and a Senate with two senators for
    each state.
  • The Three-Fifths Compromise (every three out of
    five slaves would be counted) settled the issue
    of counting slaves for representation and
    taxation purposes.

1787- Constitution of the United States is
approved by the delegates.
The Preamble to the Constitution
We the People of the United States, in order to
form a more perfect union, establish justice,
insure domestic tranquility, provide for the
common defense, promote the general welfare, and
secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and
our posterity, do ordain and establish this
Constitution for the United States of America.
7 Principles of the U.S. Constitution
  • Federalism A system of government where power is
    shared between a national (central) government
    and the states.
  • Popular Sovereignty a government in which the
    people rule and all governmental powers rest with
    the people.
  • Republicanism A government where the people
    exercise their power by voting for their
    political representatives.
  • Separation of Powers The division of government
    powers into three branches, none of which has
    more power than the other.
  • Checks and Balances A system of government
    where each branch exercises checks, or controls,
    over the others.
  • Limited Government A system of government where
    everyone, citizens and powerful leaders alike,
    must obey the laws.
  • Individual Rights A system of government where
    a citizens personal freedoms, liberties, and
    privileges are guaranteed by the law.

Yeah! The Constitution is ready for approval! Or
is it?
Federalists (Adams, Hamilton, Madison) supported
a stronger federal government, wanted the
Constitution ratified without a Bill of
Rights. Anti-Federalists (Jefferson, Mason,
Henry) feared a strong central government, wanted
stronger states and a Bill of Rights added before
they would support it.
The Federalist Papers essays written by the
Federalists to convince people that a stronger
federal government was needed and to ratify the
Constitution without a Bill of Rights.
Alexander Hamilton
John Jay
James Madison
Bill of Rights (1791)1st 10 amendments
1st Freedom of speech, of the press, of
religion, and to protest our
2nd Right to own guns 3rd No quartering of
soldiers in our homes 4th Protection against
unreasonable search and seizure 5th Right to
due process, right to remain silent, no
double-jeopardy 6th Right to jury in criminal
trial, speedy trial, and to a lawyer 7th Right
to jury in civil suits 8th Protection against
cruel and unusual punishments 9th We can have
more rights than just the ones in the
Constitution 10th Powers not given to the
national government go to the states
Power divided among three branches
Separation of Powers
The two houses of Congress
House of Representatives
Each state has 2 Senators, So, whats the total
number of Senators?
Representation is based the population of a
state (currently there are 465 reps!)
Each branch can check or control the other two.
We call this Checks and Balances
  • Veto Power
  • Judicial Review
  • Controls Money
  • Makes Appointments
  • Overrides Vetoes
  • Can declare a law unconstitutional
  • Impeachment Power
  • Power to pardon
  • Approve Appointments
  • Can serve for life
  • Issues Executive Orders

Federalism-power shared between federal and state
April 1789 - George Washington becomes the 1st
President of the United States. John Adams,
Thomas Jefferson, and Alexander Hamilton are part
of the First Cabinet
George Washington 1st President
President from 1789-1797
  • Main events
  • Whiskey Rebellion
  • Wars with Indians
  • Farewell Address warned the nation about
  • getting involved in other countries affairs
  • the dangers of political parties

John Adams 2nd President
Thomas Jefferson 3rd President main author of
the Declaration of Independence.
  • MAIN EVENTS (with Hamilton)started the
    Federalists political party stronger central
    government, industrial economy, national bank)
  • XYZ Affair
  • Alien and Sedition Acts
  • Jefferson and Madison respond with the Virginia
    and Kentucky Resolutions, introduce states rights
  • MAIN EVENTS (with Madison) started the
    Democratic-Republican political party stronger
    states, agricultural economy, state banks)
  • Louisiana Purchase (1803)
  • Marbury v. Madison (1803)
  • Lewis and Clark expedition
  • Embargo of 1807

James Madison 4th President the Father of the
James Monroe 5th President
  • Era of Good Feelings
  • Adams-Onis Treaty (U.S. gets Florida)
  • Missouri Compromise of 1820
  • The American System
  • Monroe Doctrine (warning to European nations,made
    the U.S. protector of the Americas)
  • War of 1812 U.S. vs. Great Britain (no clear
  • Star Spangled Banner, written by Francis Scott
  • Battle of New Orleans makes Andrew Jackson a war
  • Stoppage of manufactured imports leads to
    American industrial revolution

Andrew Jackson 7th President of the United States
  • First President from the deep south
  • Introduced Jacksonian Democracy (increased voting
    to more citizens)
  • Represented the common man
  • War hero from War of 1812 (won the Battle of New
    Orleans in 1815)
  • Created the modern Democratic party
  1. Jackson vs. Bank of the U.S. vetoed charter for
    the Bank of the U.S. to continue operating,
    causing the bank to shut down.
  2. Jackson vs. Native Americans had Indian Removal
    Act passed in 1830, ignored Worcester v. Georgia
    ruling, led to the Trail of Tears.
  3. Jackson vs. John C Calhoun Nullification Crisis-
    Calhoun threatens to secede South Carolina from
    the U.S. because of Tariff of 1832. Jackson
    threatens to send in the U.S. Army. Henry Clays
    Comp. of 1833 avoids a war.

States Rights Struggle for Power
States vs. Federal government
States rights Nullification Some states
(mostly in the south) believed that if a federal
law was unconstitutional, then they did not have
to obey it, or they could nullify it.
Origins Jefferson and Madisons Virginia and
Kentucky Resolutions protesting the Alien and
Sedition Acts. Nullification Crisis (1832) South
Carolina, led by John C. Calhoun, refused to obey
the Tariff of 1828 (Tariff of Abominations) and
of 1832. SC threatened to secede (split from) the
United States, Andrew Jackson threatened to
invade SC with the army. A compromise was reached
and South Carolina remained.
Were tariffs really that bad? It depends on where
youre from. The North loved them because it made
European imports more expensive than their goods,
helping them sell more. The South hated them
because they were forced to pay more for European
The Big Three
1. John C. Calhoun Former Vice President and
Senator from South Carolina became the voice for
the South regarding issues such as states rights
and slavery also was Andrew Jacksons political
enemy during the Nullification Crisis. 2. Henry
Clay Senator from Kentucky known as the Great
Compromiser wrote the Missouri Compromise of
1820, the American System, Compromise of 1833,
and the Compromise of 1850 fought for the needs
of the western states. 3. Daniel Webster
Senator from Massachusetts was firmly against
secession by any state, supported an industrial
economy, and became Calhouns political enemy.
The Industrial Revolution
The inventions and their inventors that changed
the history of the United States
Samuel Slater
Robert Fulton
Samuel F.B. Morse
Eli Whitney
Cyrus McCormick
John Deere
Invented the cotton gin, which greatly increased
slavery, and interchangeable parts, which made
factories much more productive
Invented the steel plow, which also led thousands
of Americans to settle in the Great Plains and
further west
Invented the McCormick Reaper, which
revolutionized grain farming and led thousands to
settle the Great Plains
Invented the steamboat (the Clermont),
revolutionized water-transport of goods and people
Invented the first textile mill in the U.S. ,
this started the industrial revolution
Invented the telegraph and Morse code,
revolutionized communication devices
The Era of Reforms Many Americans began to
improve the conditions of their fellow citizens.
Dorathea Dix reformed prisons
Temperance Movement movement to ban alcohol
Horace Mann reformed public education
Frederick Douglass abolitionist and womens
Susan B. Anthony Womens rights, right to
vote (suffrage)
Harriet Tubman abolitionist, conductor on the
Underground Railroad
Sojourner Truth Abolitionist, womens rights,
Aint I a Woman? speech.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton womens rights, Seneca
Falls Convention, Declaration of Sentiments
Steps to the Civil War (part 1)
  • Declaration of Independence removal of
    anti-slavery words Jefferson has to delete
    anti-slavery words to please the southern states
  • Constitutional Convention 3/5 Compromise, slave
    trade until 1808 southern states threaten to
    leave unless their slaves are counted as
  • The Missouri Compromise (1820) southern states
    demand Missouri come in as a slave state, all
    territory below 3630N would be for slavery
  • Difference in economies and growth of Northern
    cities and industry the North is getting far
    more technology, population, and money than the
  • The Tariff of Abominations (1828) South Carolina
    threatens to secede if the tariff is not
    abolished, claims states rights are being
  • Nullification Crisis (1832) SC again threatens
    to secede and nullifies the law, Andrew Jackson
    threatens invasion of SC, a compromise is reached
  • Wilmot Proviso (1846) proposal that would
    eliminate slavery in any territory gained from
    the U.S.- Mexican War

Steps to the Civil War (part 2)
8. Compromise of 1850 California entered as a
free state and the south got a fugitive slave
law 9. Fugitive Slave Act (1850) required all
Americans to capture and hold any runaway slaves
they see, allowed slave-hunters in northern
states 10. Uncle Toms Cabin (1852) book about
slavery written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, caused
many readers to become abolitionists, angered
many in the south 11. Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
Bleeding Kansas allowed people in Kansas to
vote on slavery, led to violence between
northerners and southerners 12. Dred Scot vs.
Sandford (1857) Supreme Court ruling that
declared all slaves as merely property with no
rights as citizens, also nullified the Missouri
Compromise of 1820 13. John Browns attack of
Harpers Ferry (1859) northern abolitionist John
Brown tries to start a major slave rebellion but
fails 14. The Election of Lincoln as President in
1860 causes the south to secede and create their
own slave nation, the Confederate States of
A Country Torn
Civil War 1861 to 1865
1861 11 Southern states seceded and formed the
Confederate States of America. They elect
Jefferson Davis as their President.
President Lincoln called for 75,000 men to put
down the insurrection.
April of 1861 Confederate forces fired on Fort
Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina. The Civil
War had begun.
The Famous Generals of the Civil War
The Confederacy (South)
The Union (North)
Ulysses S. Grant
Robert E. Lee
William Tecumseh Sherman
Stonewall Jackson
Important Battles of the Civil War
Fort Sumter April, 1861 1st battle of the
Civil War. Southern forces attack and capture
Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor.
Battle of Antietam the single bloodiest day in
the Civil War (23,000 casualties combined) Siege
of Vicksburg 1863 Union forces led by Ulysses
S Grant capture Vicksburg, Mississippi, giving
the North control of the Mississippi
River. Battle of Gettysburg 1863 Robert E. Lee
and his Confederate army invade the north and
meet Union forces in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
Lees forces lose, making this battle the turning
point of the Civil War.
The Emancipation Proclamation Issued by Abraham
Lincoln on January 1, 1863
This proclamation announced that all slaves in
Confederate states were from that day on free.
Yet, because in 1863 the war was still being
fought, not a single slave was freed. Still, many
slaves knew about the Proclamation and began to
do their part to see that the Confederacy was
Gettysburg Address
Site of the Battle of Gettysburg July, 1863
President Lincoln gives a speech to dedicate a
cemetery to
the men who died there and to encourage
Americans to finish the war.
The Gettysburg Address
Four score and seven years ago our fathers
brought forth, on this continent, a new nation,
conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the
proposition that all men are created equal.
The Civil War ends in April of 1865
Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at
Appomattox Court House, Virginia.
The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
On April 14, 1865, President Lincoln and his wife
attended a play at Fords Theater in Washington
  • John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confederate
    sympathizer, entered the balcony where the
    President and his wife sat and shot the President
    in the back of his head then escaped the theater.
  • Abraham Lincoln died of his wounds later that
    evening, becoming the first President in our
    history to be assassinated.
  • John Wilkes Booth was found hiding 12 days later
    and, after refusing to surrender, was shot to

The years immediately after the Civil War are
known as Reconstruction. Because much of the
South was destroyed during the war, it was now
time to reconstruct it. During this time, three
very important amendments were added to the
The Reconstruction Amendments
13th Amendment (1865) Ended slavery in the U.S.
14th Amendment (1866) Gave citizenship and due
process to anyone born in the U.S.
15th Amendment (1870) Gave black men the right
to vote
(19th Amendment (1920) gave women the right to
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