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CHAPTERS 2

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Title: CHAPTERS 2


1
CHAPTERS 2 4 CULTURE STRUCTURE
2
CULTURE IS
  • The rules and tools of society (Smith-Lahrman)
  • the total way of life shared by members of a
    society (Brinkerhoff, p. 32).

3
COMPONENTS OF CULTURE
  • Norms
  • Values
  • Material Culture

4
NORMS ARE
  • shared rules of conduct that specify how people
    ought to feel, think, and act (Brinkerhoff, p.
    39).

5
Folkways are norms that are customary, normal,
habitual ways a group does things (Brinkerhoff,
p. 40).
6
Mores are norms associated with strong feelings
of right and wrong (Brinkerhoff, p. 40).
7
VALUES ARE
shared ideas about desirable goals
(Brinkerhoff, p. 39).
8
Values justify norms.
  • They answer the question Why do you follow
    that norm?

9
MATERIAL CULTURE CONSISTS OF ALL THE PHYSICAL
PRODUCTS OF A SOCIETY.
10
is the tendency to view the norms and values of
our own culture as standards against which to
judge the practices of other cultures
(Brinkerhoff, p. 35).
ETHNOCENTRISM
Cultural Relativity
  • requires that each cultural trait be evaluated
    in the context of its own culture (Brinkerhoff,
    p. 35).

11
NATURE VS. NURTURE
12
SOCIOBIOLOGY
  • is the study of the biological basis of all
    forms of human behavior (Brinkerhoff, p. 37).

13
Two tests for determining if a behavior is nature
(biology) or nurture (culture)
  • Peoples ability to act against seemingly
    biological drives.
  • Cultural Diversity

14
SOCIAL STRUCTURE
15
STRUCTURE
recurrent pattern of relationships
(Brinkerhoff, p. 75).
16
STRUCTURE
(1) group (2) status (3) role (4) institutions
17
Group
  • two or more people who interact on the basis of
    shared social structure and recognize mutual
    dependency (Brinkerhoff, p. 101).

18
STATUS
  • a specialized position within the group
    (Brinkerhoff, p. 75) or structure.

19
ASCRIBED STATUS
  • fixed by birth and inheritance and is
    unalterable in a persons lifetime (Brinkerhoff,
    p. 76).

20
ACHIEVED STATUS
  • optional, one that a person can obtain in a
    lifetime (Brinkerhoff, p. 75).

21
ROLES
  • sets of norms specifying the rights and
    obligations associated with a status
    (Brinkerhoff, p. 77).

22
ROLESBUNDLES OF NORMSSTATUS
23
DRAMATURGY
  • Statuses are the characters in the play.
  • Roles are the scripts.

24
ROLE-MAKING rather than passively playing our
roles, we actively create them.
25
COMPATIBILITY OF ROLES
  • 1. Role Strain caused by incompatible role
    demands within a single status (Brinkerhoff, p.
    77).
  • 2. Role Conflict caused by incompatibility
    between the roles of two or more statuses held by
    an individual (Brinkerhoff, p. 77).

26
INSTITUTIONS
enduring and complex social structures that meet
basic human needs (Brinkerhoff, p. 77).
27
FIVE INSTITUTIONS
  • Family
  • Education
  • Economy
  • Politics
  • Religion
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