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Washington Heads the New Government

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Title: Election of 1800 Author: jtaylor Last modified by: Sandell, Mike Created Date: 3/29/2005 3:35:29 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Washington Heads the New Government


1
Washington Heads the New Government
  • Chapter 6
  • Section 1 (Pages 182-187)
  • President Washington and other leaders tried to
    solve the new nations economic problems. This
    led to the rise of political parties.

2
1. Who was our first president?
  • George Washington had no desire to be president
    after the Constitutional Convention.
  • The American people wanted a strong national
    leader of great authority as their first
    president.
  • Thus, Washington was the unanimous choice in the
    first presidential ballot.
  • Washington took charge of a political system with
    no precedent, or prior example.

3
2. What is the history of inauguration day?
  • Inauguration day for George Washington was on
    April 30th, 1789.
  • It was then moved to March 4th/5th for
    Washingtons 2nd term.
  • 20th Amendment moved the date to January 20th for
    FDRs 2nd inauguration.

4
3. Why did Congress pass the Judiciary Act of
1789?
  • Creation of the Federal Court System
  • Judiciary Act of 1789
  • Organized the judicial branch.
  • Established a federal district court for each
    state.
  • Established 3 federal circuit courts.
  • Provided for the Supreme Court, nominated by the
    President, approved by the Senate.
  • Six justices made up the court, there are now
    nine justices.
  • John Jay nominated as 1st Chief Justice
  • Defined the Courts Power.
  • Relationship between Federal and State Courts.
  • Also District courts and Court of Appeals.

5
4. What was the presidents cabinet?
  • After his election in 1789, Washington appointed
    the first four executive departments or cabinet.
  • Originally, there had only been two officials.
  • President (Washington)
  • Vice President (John Adams)
  • Washington chose advisors he knew and trusted.
  • Alexander Hamilton
  • Secretary of the Treasury/national finances
  • Henry Knox
  • Secretary of War/Military
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Secretary of State/Foreign affairs
  • Edmund Randolph
  • Attorney General/Chief lawyer of the government

6
The Presidents Cabinet
  • Washington appointed four cabinet members,
    pictured with him here
  • 1 Henry Knox
  • 2 Thomas Jefferson
  • 3 Edmund Randolph
  • 4 Alexander Hamilton
  • 5 George Washington

7
5. List the other cabinet positions today. (12
positions)
  • Department of War, 1789 Today, this is
    called the Department of Defense.
  • Department of State, 1789
  • Department of the Treasury, 1789
  • Attorney general, 1789 The attorney general
    became the head of the new Department of Justice
    in 1870
  • Department of the Interior, 1849
  • Department of Justice, 1870
  • Department of Agriculture, 1889
  • Department of Commerce, 1903
  • Department of Labor, 1913
  • Department of Health and Human Services, 1953
  • Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1965
  • Department of Transportation, 1966
  • Department of Energy, 1977
  • Department of Education, 1979
  • Department of Veterans Affairs, 1988
  • Department of Homeland Security, 2002

8
6. What was John Adams job as vice president?
  • John Adams had received the second highest number
    of votes in the presidential election, thus
    becoming vice president.
  • His job was to preside over the Senate.
  • This was his only job at this time.
  • He had differences with George Washington and
    avoided working closely with him.

9
7. What did Alexander Hamilton face as the first
Secretary of the Treasury?
  • The government had inherited serious financial
    problems
  • Owed money to foreign nations private lenders.
  • Could not pay off war debts.
  • Total debt was 77 million.
  • Did not have the money to run the country.
  • Hamilton believed a wealthy aristocratic class
    was needed for a stable government.
  • Believed in a strong central government
  • Had little faith in the ability of the common
    people to govern
  • Alexander Hamilton

10
8. What were the differences between Hamiltons
and Jeffersons views of government?
  • Hamilton (Federalist)
  • Secretary of the Treasury
  • Strong central govt
  • Fear of mob rule
  • Nation led by well-educated elite.
  • Natl bank constitutional
  • Loose interpretation
  • Economy bases on shipping and manufacturing
  • Payment of natl state debts (creditors)
  • Support of merchants, manufacturers, landowners,
    investors, lawyers, clergy
  • Jefferson (Demo-Rep)
  • Secretary of State
  • Limited federal government
  • More power to states
  • Fear of absolute power
  • Democracy of virtuous farmers tradespeople
  • Natl Bank unconstitutional
  • Strict interpretation
  • Economy based on farming
  • Payment of only natl debt (debtors)
  • Support of farmers tradespeople

11
9. What was Hamiltons Economic Plan?
  • 1. Pay the national debt owed to foreign govts
    private citizens.
  • Replace creditors bonds w/ low interest bonds
    (2/3)
  • Take over states 25 million war debts (1/3)
  • Build confidence in new nation
  • Free up state money for business and trade
  • Would reward rich speculators
  • Southern states already paid their war debt
  • 2. Raise money to pay the debt
  • Pass the Tariff of 1789
  • New excise tax
  • Raise money for new nation
  • Resented new taxes
  • 3. Standardize the banking system
  • Create a natl bank and natl mint.
  • Raise money for new nation
  • The Constitution doesnt mention a national bank.

12
10. How was the Constitution different from the
Articles of Confederation in terms of income
generation?
  • The Constitution gave Congress the power to
  • impose taxes.
  • Most income, so far, had come from the sale of
    western lands.
  • Hamilton proposed two kinds of taxes
  • Tariff or tax on imported goods (Tariff of 1789)
  • Excise tax, a tax on the production or sale of a
    certain product (tax on liquor, sugar, snuff, and
    carriages)

13
11. HOW DID HAMILTON RESTORE THE NATIONS CREDIT?
  • Adam Smith
  • Hamilton felt the government should encourage
    business and industry.
  • Hamilton was influenced by economist Adam Smith.
  • Capitalism- based on a free market economy and
    private ownership.

14
12. How did a compromise lead to a new capital?
  • Hamiltons debt bill was passed when a compromise
    was reached between Madison, Jefferson, and
    Hamilton.
  • Debt of northern states vs. southern states, bill
    would pass if the capital was moved.
  • The capital was moved from New York to
    Philadelphia in 1790 and then to a new Federal
    City (Washington DC) in the south in 1800 as a
    result of this compromise.
  • Washington was allowed to choose the location, a
    spot on the Potomac River between Virginia and
    Maryland, near his Mt. Vernon home.

15
13. What was the debate over the national bank?
  • Hamiltons bank plan
  • Constitutions loose construction debate allows
    Congress to pass all laws that are necessary and
    proper to carry out assigned powers.
  • Federalists favored this interpretation.
  • Jefferson opposes Hamiltons bank plan
  • Jeffersonian Republicans believed in a strict
    construction of the Constitution or only
    enacting what the Constitution specifically
    delegates to the states.
  • This did not include a national bank.

16
14. Why did Washington sign the bank bill?
  • Many were uneasy with the bank bill.
  • Its directors were to be private bankers, who
    would clearly gain more influence and wealth from
    it.
  • Despite opposition, Congress passed the bill and
    sent it to the president to sign.
  • Washington was greatly perplexed, but did not
    want to use the presidential veto.
  • Hamilton was very persuasive and Washington
    signed the bill to charter the first Bank of the
    U.S. in February 1791.

17
15. What was the basis of the Whiskey Rebellion?
  • Farmers and settlers in the woods and mountains
    of the western frontier had always resented the
    wealth and power of the people in the East.
  • In 1794, with feelings of having their interests
    ignored, the frontier in Pennsylvania erupted in
    violence in response to Hamiltons excise tax on
    whiskey.
  • Livelihoods depended on turning surplus grain
    into rye whiskey.
  • The farmers attacked tax collectors and
    threatened Pittsburg.
  • Washington took command and called out the
    militia from Virginia, Maryland, and New Jersey.
  • This raised of force of 13,000 men, this easily
    squashed the rebellion of 2000 farmers, without
    spilling a drop of blood.
  • Washington wanted to teach a lesson to the
    farmers against an armed rebellion.

18
16. How did political parties form?
  • The rift between how to interpret the
    Constitution created political parties.
  • Federalists wanted a strong national government
    and a loose interpretation of the Constitution.
  • Jeffersonian Republicans favored stronger state
    rights and a strict interpretation of the
    Constitution.
  • Later called Democratic-Republicans to emphasize
    they favored popular government.
  • Ancestors of todays Democratic Party.
  • Thus a two-party system was well established by
    the time Washington left office.

19
17. What were the first two Political Parties and
what did they believe?
20
Chapter 6 Challenges of the 1790s
  • Section 2
  • Pages 190-196
  • The U.S. faced many challenges during the 1790s.
    It tried to remain neutral in European wars,
    while dealing with conflicts with Native
    Americans in the Northwest Territory.

21
1. What was happening in Europe at this time?
  • French Revolution
  • Overthrow of French monarchy
  • Gouverneur Morris, the man responsible for the
    final draft of the Constitution, witnessed the
    Storming of the Bastille, while minister to
    France.
  • Prussia Austria declared war on France, soon
    Great Britain and Spain joined.
  • Democratic-Republicans thought the end of the
    monarchy was a turn towards liberty.
  • But they feared a failure of republican
    government there would cause problems in America.
  • Federalists were shocked with the events in
    Europe.
  • Most had respect for the monarchy and not much
    for democracy.
  • Believed in the strength of the aristrocracy.
  • Federalists were in the minority.

22
2. Why did Washington want to remain neutral in
response to events in Europe?
  • Washington was convinced that the future growth
    and prosperity of the U.S. depended on staying
    neutral.
  • Both France and Great Britain tried to draw the
    U.S. into the conflict.
  • Great Britain was a great sea power (trade).
  • France called on old alliances (Revolutionary
    War) and sympathy for the republican cause.
  • In April 1793, Washington issued the Neutrality
    Proclamation.
  • It committed the U.S. to pursue a conduct
    friendly and impartial towards the belligerent
    powers.
  • He kept this stance for the rest of his
    presidency.

23
3. Why did President Washington demand that
France replace Edmund Genet?
  • Republican newspaper harshly attacked the
    president and the neutrality proclamation.
  • Rumors were spread that the Federalists wanted a
    return to a monarchy.
  • Frances new ambassador to the U.S., Edmund
    Genet, tried to convince American citizens to
    support the French.
  • He openly defied the Neutrality Proclamation and
    even enlisted an American crew to fight on a
    French ship against the British.
  • Washington demanded that Genet be recalled by the
    French government.
  • Genet, however, stays in the US when his
    political backers fall from power in Paris.
  • Thomas Jefferson, frustrated with his job resigns
    in 1793.
  • He did not like the ongoing feud with Alexander
    Hamilton.
  • Federalists had called him a radical for his
    continued support of France.

24
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25
4. What was Pinckneys Treaty?
  • The US wanted to secure land claims west of the
    Appalachian mountains and to gain shipping rights
    on the Mississippi River.
  • To do this, it needed to come to an agreement
    with Spain, which still held Florida and the
    Louisiana Territory.
  • Pinckneys Treaty, also known as the Treaty of
    San Lorenzo, was signed by Thomas Pinckney, US
    minister to Great Britain for land disputed
    between the U.S. Spain
  • It gave the U.S. the rights to use the
    Mississippi River.
  • Recognized the 31st parallel as the southern
    boundary of the US. (except Florida)
  • Spain signed the treaty because of fear from a
    joint British-American action against the
    Louisiana Territory.

26
Pinckneys Treaty-1795
27
5. Why do think Jays Treaty was unpopular?
  • In early 1794 the British began seizing merchant
    ships in the West Indies, saying they contained
    French goods.
  • American sailors were thrown into prison.
  • Also, in the Northwest Territory the British were
    stirring up trouble among the Native Americans.
  • The British still maintained trading forts in the
    Northwest Territory, in direct violation of The
    Treaty of Paris.
  • Washington sent Chief Justice John Jay to
    negotiate with the British.
  • In Jays Treaty (1794) the British agreed to
  • Pay for damages to American ships.
  • Leave their forts in the NW Territory, but
    continue the fur trade on the American side of
    the U.S.-Canadian border.
  • This upset many American leaders, they wanted the
    British to be gone completely.

28
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29
6. Who was Little Turtle?
  • With settlers moving into the NW Territory, many
    Native American tribes were forced to sign
    treaties, giving up their land.
  • Other Native American nations formed
    confederations to resist white settlement.
  • They never accepted the provisions of the Treaty
    of Paris.
  • Little Turtle was a war chief of a confederation
  • of Miamis and Shawnees in Ohio Indiana.
  • Little Turtle and his army were successful in
    turning back a large American force in early
    1790.

30
6. What was the Battle of Fallen Timbers?
  • After American soldiers built multiple forts
    throughout the Ohio Valley, Little Turtle
    realized he could no longer expect help from the
    British because of Jays Treaty.
  • He urged his people to negotiate with Americans,
    but lost their support.
  • At the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794, the
    Americans won a decisive victory over the Miamis.
  • The Treaty of Greenville (1795) the Miamis gave
    up large territories in Ohio, Indiana,
  • Illinois, and Michigan.

31
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32
7. What happened in the Election of 1792?
  • Washington was re-elected!!
  • Announced he would not run for a third term.
  • Controversy over Jays Treaty
  • Growing division between Federalists and
    Democratic-Republicans.
  • His health was not good and he wanted to return
    home to Mt. Vernon.
  • Also, Washington was no longer the universally
    admired hero he had been in the past.
  • Many of his policies were criticized by
    Democratic-Republicans.

33
8. What happened in the 1796 Election?
  • Washington urged the U.S. to steer clear of
    permanent alliances with other nations.
  • Americans faced a new situation a contest
    between opposing parties.
  • The Federalists nominated Vice-President John
    Adams for president and Thomas Pinckney for
    vice-president.
  • The Democratic-Republicans nominated Thomas
    Jefferson for president and Aaron Burr for
    vice-president.
  • Adams received 71 electoral votes, while
    runner-up Jefferson received 68 electoral votes.

34
9. What was the problem with the 1796 Election?
  • Adams won Federalist
  • Jefferson was V.P. Democratic Republican
  • The country found itself with a Federalist
    president and a Democratic Republican
    vice-president.
  • What had seemed sensible when the Constitution
    was written had become a problem because of the
    unexpected rise of political parties.

35
8. What is sectionalism?
  • Sectionalism or loyalty to ones region played a
    big role in the 1796 Election.
  • John Adams, the Federalist candidate after
    Hamiltons decision not to run, was best known in
    New England.
  • In the South, many Federalists preferred his
    running mate, Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina.
  • The 1796 Election was close with Adams winning 71
    electors to Jeffersons 68.
  • This also meant that Jefferson, a strong
    political rival, would be vice-president because
    he finished second.

36
9. What challenges did John Adams face as
president, and what was the XYZ affair?
  • The U.S. now had a poor relationship with France
    after Jays Treaty with Britain.
  • French ships began to seize U.S. merchants
    vessels at sea.
  • Charles Cotesworth Pinckney was sent to France as
    a diplomat, but was turned away by France.
  • Adams then sent Pinckney, Elbridge Gerry, and
    John Marshall to meet with France, but were
    greeted by three minor diplomats.
  • The U.S. considered this an insult by French
    foreign minister Prince Talleyrand.
  • These diplomats met with the Americans and
    demanded bribes and a loan.
  • President Adams was outraged, with many in
    Congress calling for war, and named the French
    agents as X, Y, and Z.
  • The U.S. was able to avoid war by cutting off
    trade to France.
  • Wartime treaties were cancelled.
  • More warships were being built, which allowed the
    U.S. navy to capture French vessels.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte finally signed trade treaties
    with the U.S.

37
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38
10. What provisions of the Alien and Sedition
Acts were unconstitutional?
  • The XYZ affair brought new suspicions of foreign
    enemies and domestic dissent.
  • A series of four laws called the Alien and
    Sedition Acts were aimed at mainly French and
    Irish refugees, most of whom supported France.
  • The Sedition Act outlawed any opposition to
    government policies by actions or by writing.
  • The three Alien acts included
  • Increased period of residency for citizenship.
  • Required foreigners to register with the
    government.
  • President could jail or expel any foreigner
    thought to be dangerous to the safety of the
    country.

39
11. Why did Jefferson and Madison draft the
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions?
  • In an attempt to get rid of the Alien and
    Sedition Acts.
  • These resolutions called the Alien and Sedition
    Acts unconstitutional.
  • They hoped that states would nullify the acts.
  • Madison drew up resolutions that were adopted by
    the Virginia legislature.
  • Jefferson wrote resolutions that were approved in
    Kentucky.
  • Many supporters of states rights believed
    nullification of federal laws by states were
    legal.
  • Ultimately, with Jefferson elected president in
    1800, Congress would allow these acts to expire.
  • This did increase the gap between those in
    Congress.

40
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41
12. How did George Washington spend his final
years?
  • Throughout 1799, George Washington remained
    active, writing letters to recruit possible
    generals and making plans for the army that might
    be needed in a possible war against France.
  • However, on December 14, Washington died after
    catching a severe cold.
  • Washington was buried according to his wishes
    with a military funeral at Mount Vernon.
  • Relations with France improved and Napoleon
    ordered ten days of mourning to be observed by
    the French armies.

42
Jeffersons Presidency
  • Section 3
  • Pages 197-201
  • The rise of political parties influenced the
    election of 1800, bringing Thomas Jefferson and a
    new outlook to the presidency.

43
The Election of 1800 Power Changes Hands
44
1. What happened in the Election of 1800?
  • Democratic Republicans- Thomas Jefferson and
    Aaron Burr
  • Federalists- John Adams and Charles Pinckney
  • Jefferson and Burr received the same number of
    electoral votes
  • At this time political parties did not specify
    who was the partys preferred candidate
  • Went into the House of Reps.
  • 35 votes
  • Jefferson as President (36th vote)
  • Reduce the size of government
  • Only taxed imports and money from land sales
  • Smaller military- threat to civil liberties

45
2. Why was the transfer of power in the election
of 1800 significant?
  • This was the first time that power passed from
    one political party to another.
  • This had been an extremely vicious campaign.
  • Federalists claimed that Jefferson was
    dangerously pro-French.
  • Violence and chaos would occur here, just like in
    France.
  • Claimed Jefferson wanted to destroy organized
    religion because of his interest in science.
  • Democratic-Republicans claimed that policies like
    the Alien/Sedition Acts were a result of Adams
    wanting to crown himself king and limit rights.

46
2. Why was the 12th Amendment ratified?
  • The problem with the voting system in the
    Election of 1800 led to the ratification of this
    amendment in 1804.
  • Changed to separate voting for president and
    vice-president.
  • Hard feelings continued years after the 1800
    election.
  • Aaron Burr blamed Alexander Hamilton for
    preventing him from becoming the governor of New
    York.
  • Hamilton had urged for support of Jefferson.
  • He challenged Hamilton to a duel, shot and killed
    him in July 1804.
  • The news shocked the country and ended Burrs
    political life.

47
Burr/Hamilton Duel (July,1804)
48
3. What changes did Jefferson make when he took
office?
  • Reduced the size and influence of the federal
    government.
  • Changed the tax system in 1802.
  • With this change, only customs duties (tariffs)
    and the sale of lands in the western U.S.
    produced revenue of the government.
  • Treasury Secretary Albert Gallatin also reduced
    the size of the executive department staff.
  • The size of the military was shrank and West
    Point (U.S. Military Academy) was established in
    1802.
  • This changed later as merchant ships were
    attacked by Barbary pirates from N. Africa, who
    demanded tribute in the Mediterranean Sea.

49
4. How did France regain the Louisiana Territory?
  • These lands had gone to Spain in the Treaty of
    Paris in 1763.
  • In 1800, in a secret treaty, Spain returned
    Louisiana to the French, along with the port city
    of New Orleans.
  • Jefferson had hoped to attain this land and the
    important port city of New Orleans for commerce.
  • Spain had closed the port for a short while.
  • Jefferson sent James Monroe to France to
    negotiate for the sale of New Orleans.
  • Monroe and Robert Livingston (ambassador) had
    authority to purchase New Orleans.
  • Little did they know that Napoleon would offer
    Louisiana.

50
5. Why did Napoleon sell the Louisiana Territory
and what did it cost?
  • Napoleon had come to realize that controlling
    North American empire might be difficult.
  • After problems in Haiti and future problems in
    North America, Napoleon decided to abandon his
    claims in North America and focus instead on
    waging war in Europe.
  • When French foreign minister Talleyrand offered
    to sell all of the Louisiana Territory to the
    U.S., Madison and Robert Livingston (US
    Ambassador to France) were stunned.
  • The felt they had to act immediately, before
    Napoleon changed his mind.
  • They did not even have time to mail Jefferson.
  • Thus, they signed the agreement and purchased the
    land for 80 million francs, or 15 million on
    April 30, 1803.
  • This roughly doubled the size of the U.S.

51
6. Was the Louisiana Purchase constitutional?
  • Even though Thomas Jefferson believed in a strict
    interpretation of the Constitution, no where does
    it give the president authority to buy new
    territory.
  • Jefferson knew he had to reconsider his position.
  • Jefferson and his advisors finally decided that
    the right to acquire territory was implicit in
    the presidents constitutional power to make
    treaties.
  • Some Federalists in Congress believed this was
    unconstitutional, but even Alexander Hamilton
    agreed that the purchase was good for the
    country.
  • Congress quickly approved the purchase.

52
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53
7. What was the purpose of Lewis and Clarks
expedition?
  • Americans knew very little about the people and
    the land of this enormous new territory.
  • They were not even sure about the exact size and
    boundaries of the territory.
  • Meriwether Lewis, Jeffersons secretary, and
    William Clark, an experienced frontiersman were
    given the task of exploring, mapping, and
    surveying the territory.
  • This Corps of Discovery wanted to reach the
    Pacific Ocean via a water route.

54
Corps of Discovery (1804-1806)
55
8. What happened during the Lewis Clark
expedition?
  • The expedition left St. Louis in May 1804 with
    about 50 skilled frontiersmen and traveled up the
    Missouri River.
  • They were helped by native peoples and especially
    a Shoshone woman, Sacagawea, the wife of a French
    Canadian trapper.
  • Lewis recorded about 178 plants and 122 animals,
    all previously unknown to scientists.
  • In November 1805 the expedition finally reached
    the west coast of North America.
  • They returned to St. Louis in September 1806.
  • Many Americans had feared that the entire
    expedition had died along the way.
  • In reality, only one man diedof appendicitis.

56
9. How did Zebulon Pikes expedition differ from
Lewis and Clarks?
  • Pike, an army lieutenant, traveled 2,000 miles in
    1805 to explore the upper Mississippi Valley, and
    find the source of the mighty river.
  • In 1806 Pikes group traveled to the Southwest
    and explored the Arkansas and Red Rivers.
  • His purpose was to determine whether this country
    was good for settlement.
  • He reported that the central plains were too dry
    for settlement.
  • Pikes Peak

57
10. How did the role of the Supreme Court change?
  • Judiciary Act of 1801This act created new
    positions in the judicial branch.
  • Departing president John Adams hurried to fill
    them with Federalists before he left office.
  • However, not all the commissions (17) were
    delivered on time and Jeffersons new Secretary
    of State , James Madison refused to deliver them.
  • One of these commissions, not delivered, was for
    William Marbury, who brought suit to the Supreme
    Court.
  • He asked the court to order Madison to deliver
    his commission based on the Judiciary Act of
    1789.
  • Marbury v. Madison (1803) established the Supreme
    Courts power to decide whether laws passed by
    Congress are constitutional, not all types of
    cases.
  • The Supreme Court is considered an Appellate
    court, with few exceptions, only hears appeals of
    decisions from other cases.
  • This ruling made the Judiciary Act of 1789
    unconstitutional.
  • This power, known as judicial review, remains the
    central job of the Supreme Court today.

58
The War of 1812
  • Section 4
  • Pages 224-227
  • In the early 1800s, Americans unified to face
    Great Britain to war once again and to battle
    resistance from Native Americans over attempts to
    seize their lands.

59
1. What violations of American neutrality led to
the War of 1812?
  • Unresolved tensions between the U.S. and Britain
    in the NW Territory and on the seas caused this
    conflict.
  • During the Napoleonic Wars, both France and
    Britain tried to cut off each others access to
    European ports and intercept American ships.
  • Both nations ignored American neutrality.
  • Britain was a more serious threat because of
    impressment, or the kidnapping of sailors to work
    on British ships.

60
2. What was the Embargo Act?
  • Because of the war, British captains claimed they
    had the right to search American ships for
    British deserters.
  • However, while looking for British sailors, they
    often took Americans as well.
  • In 1807 the British ship Leopard stopped the
    American frigate Chesapeake.
  • When Americans refused to let the ship be
    searched, the Leopard opened fire.
  • The British seized four Americans.
  • To avoid war, President Jefferson proposed
  • and Congress passed the Embargo Act.
  • It prohibited exports to foreign countries.

61
3. Why was the Embargo Act an economic disaster?
  • Many captains evaded the act, but the ban on
    trade was a disaster for the economy.
  • Goods piled up in warehouses, ships set in the
    harbors, people lost jobs, and businesses failed.
  • The 1808 Election took place during this time.
  • James Madison, Jeffersons ally, won easily.
  • A new law reopened all trade except that with
    Britain and France.
  • Still, conflicts over commerce were pushing the
    country toward war.

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1808 Election
  • James Madison
  • Democratic-Republican
  • From Virginia
  • Running Mate
  • George Clinton
  • 122 electoral votes
  • Charles C. Pinckney
  • Federalist
  • From South Carolina
  • Running Mate
  • Rufus King
  • 47 electoral votes

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4. How did Tecumseh resist American settlers?
  • Another factor leading to war was the ongoing
    conflict between settlers and Native Americans in
    the NW Territory.
  • Anti-British feelings grew in this area as the
    British tried to rebuild their old alliances with
    Native Americans.
  • Tecumseh, one of two Shawnee leaders, ultimately
    joined with the British and led Native Americans
    in war against the U.S.

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Tecumseh--Shawnee Chief
  • These lands are ours. No one has a right to
    remove us, because we were the first owners. The
    Great Spirit above has appointed this place for
    us . . . and here we will remain.

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5. Who was William Henry Harrison?
  • Harrison was a Virginian who joined the army
  • and fought in the Indian wars. He later
    became the NW Territorys delegate to
    Congress.
  • In 1800, Harrison was named governor of the new
    Indiana Territory.
  • Harrison was supposed to carry out President
    Jeffersons new Native American policy.
  • Under this policy, Native Americans could choose
    to either join white society or to move west of
    the Mississippi.
  • Instead Harrison made illegal treaties in which
    Native Americans lost millions of acres of tribal
    lands in Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois.

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6. How did the war of 1812 begin?
  • Since the Chesapeake/Leopard incident, some
    American politicians had been calling for war.
  • Known as the War Hawks, most came from western
    states.
  • Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, became a
    vocal leader and put pressure on President
    Madison.
  • Madison finally gave in and the U.S.
  • declared war on Britain in June 1812.

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7. What happened early in the war?
  • The war was fought on land and on sea, from
    Canada to Louisiana.
  • The British also staged a massive blockade of the
    American coast and New Orleans.
  • The American navy won several surprising
    victories against the Royal Navy.
  • In August 1812 the USS Constitution sank the
    British Guerriere.
  • British gunfire bounced off the ships oak hull,
    giving it the nickname Old Ironsides.
  • The naval war moved into the Great Lakes.
  • Captain Oliver Hazard Perry had hastily built
    ships and gathered a small fleet.
  • In September 1813, at the Battle of Lake Erie,
    Perry reported We have met the enemy and they
    are ours.

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8. What was the effect of the war on Native
Americans?
  • General W.H. Harrison, the hero of Tippecanoe,
    took command of U.S. forces in the Northwest
    Territory.
  • After the American victory at Lake Erie, the
    British began a retreat from Detroit with
    Harrisons army in pursuit.
  • In October 1813, Harrison met British and Indian
    forces at the Battle of the Thames in Ontario.
  • Native American leader Tecumseh was killed in
    this battle, ending the alliance between the
    British and Native Americans.
  • Tennessee militia leader Andrew Jackson led a
    force against Native Americans in March 1814.
  • This is known as the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.
  • Many Creek women, children and warriors were
    massacred.
  • Jackson later seized the fort at Pensacola in
    Spanish Florida.

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9. What happened in the late stages of the War of
1812?
  • Britain often made quick strikes against coastal
    cities.
  • In August 1814 the British fleet sailed up
    Chesapeake Bay.
  • Soldiers quickly marched to Washington, where
    they burned several major buildings, including
    the White House.
  • They then bombarded Fort McHenry which guarded
    Baltimore harbor.
  • Lawyer Francis Scott Key wrote the Star-Spangled
    Banner after seeing the American flag still
    flying after the battle.
  • In January,1815 Andrew Jackson and an army of
    militia, pirates, and regular soldiers met the
    British at New Orleans and were victorious.
  • Jackson was a hero even though the Treaty of
    Ghent had already been signed in Ghent, Belgium
    in December 1814.
  • The treaty had been signed because the Napoleonic
    wars had been costly to England.
  • The war was now over and Americans had proved
  • themselves as a nation.

71
Burning of the White House
72
Star Spangled Banner
73
Causes/Effects of the War of 1812
74
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