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Basic Concepts: Matter and Measurement

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Basic Concepts: Matter and Measurement Introduction: The scientific method Macro and Particulate Concepts Goals: Classify matter. Recognize elements, atoms, compounds ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Basic Concepts: Matter and Measurement


1
Basic Concepts Matter and Measurement
  • Introduction
  • The scientific method
  • Macro and Particulate Concepts
  • Goals
  • Classify matter.
  • Recognize elements, atoms, compounds, and
    molecules.
  • Identify physical and chemical properties and
    changes.
  • Apply the kinetic-molecular theory to the
    properties of matter.
  • Use metric units and significant figures
    correctly.
  • Understand and use the maths of chemistry.

2
The scientific method
  • Inquiry pose a reasonable QUESTION ?
  • Look for what others have done.
  • Form a _____________ tentative explanation or
    prediction of experimental observations.
  • Perform experiments.
  • Summarize observations in the form of a general
    rule.
  • If the hypothesis is always true it may become a
    _______ concise verbal or mathematical
    statement of a relation that seems always to be
    the same under the same conditions.
  • If the human mind conceives a __________ a
    unifying principle - to explain the observations.
  • Always changing!!!

3
Chemists views of matter
4
What is matter? What are the states of matter?
  • Matter is __________________________.
  • There are other two states of matter. Do you know
    what are they?

SOLID rigid shape, fixed volume
GAS no fixed volume, it is determined by the
size of the container
LIQUID no shape of its own, fixed volume
5
What is the kinetic-molecular theory?
  • The theory which describes matter as extremely
    tiny particles (atoms and molecules) in constant
    motion.
  • Also, the higher the temperature the ________ the
    particles move. The kinetic energy (energy of
    motion) acts to overcome the forces of _________
    between the particles.

6
What are physical properties?
  • Physical properties properties which can be
    observed and measured without changing the
    identity composition of a substance.
  • Examples Color, state of matter, melting
    point, boiling point, density, hardness, odor.
  • Physical changes
  • - boiling of a liquid
  • - melting of a solid
  • - dissolving a solid into a liquid
  • to give a homogeneous mixture
  • (a solution).

7
Density
  • Density important and useful physical property.
  • ratio of the mass of an object to its volume.
  • Which one has more
  • mass per unit volume?
  • Which one would be heavier on Earth?

8
Density
  • Density is an INTENSIVE property of matter does
    NOT depend on quantity of matter.
  • EXTENSIVE properties depend on the quantity of
    matter analyzed.
  • Students should become familiar with
  • using density in calculations.

Temperature Mass Melting Point Length Color
Volume Hardness
9
Mercury (Hg) has a density of 13.6 g/cm3. What
is the mass of 95 mL of Hg in grams? In
kilograms?
Solve the problem using DIMENSIONAL
ANALYSIS -carrying on UNITS-
10
Mercury (Hg) has a density of 13.6 g/cm3. What
is the mass of 95 mL of Hg in grams? In
kilograms?
  • Calculations need to be done in same units.
  • 1 cm3 1mL
  • 1. Calculate mass
  • 2. Calculate mass in Kg

11
What are chemical properties?
  • Chemical properties those which describe the way
    a substance may change, or react, to form other
    substances. Example Flammability
  • Chemical change or Chemical reaction
  • transformation
  • of one or more
  • atoms or
  • molecules
  • into one or more
  • different
  • molecules.

12
Chemical vs. Physical Properties
  • Explosiveness
  • Corrosiveness
  • Flammability
  • Toxicity
  • Temperature
  • Mass
  • Volume
  • Color
  • Density

13
How do we classify matter?
Ask Do the substance has an even texture (to the
microscopic level)? YES homogeneous NO -
heterogeneous
14
How can we separate mixtures?
  • Filtration
  • Distillation
  • Chromatography

15
What is an element?
  • Element substance composed of ____________
    ______________. Pure substance that cannot be
    decomposed by ordinary means to other substances.
  • Students should become familiar with the
  • periodic table - symbols and names of the
    elements.

Aluminum
Bromine
16
The Periodic Table
  • Dmitri Mendeleev (1834 - 1907)

Try to answer Why are elements organized in such
a way?
17
What is an atom?
  • An atom is ___________________ _______that
    retains the chemical properties of that element.

Copper atoms on silica surface.
Distance across 1.8 nanometer (1.8 x 10-9 m)
18
What are atoms composed of?
  • An atom consists of
  • a nucleus
  • of _________ and __________
  • and _____________ in space around the nucleus.

Electron cloud
Nucleus
19
What is a compound?
  • Compounds substance composed of two or more
    different ________ it can be decomposed into
    those __________.
  • Have distinctly different properties from their
    parent elements.
  • Have a definite percentage composition (my mass)
    of their combining atoms.
  • Might be composed of ions (electrically charged
    atoms, or group of atoms) or molecules (the
    smallest discrete units that retain the chemical
    characteristics of the compound).
  • Can be represented by their formula.

20
A compound
The red compound is composed of nickel (Ni)
(silver) carbon (C) (black) hydrogen (H)
(white) oxygen (O) (red) nitrogen (N)
(blue)
21
What is a molecule?
  • A molecule is the ___________ ________that
    retains the chemical characteristics of the
    ____________.
  • Composition of molecules are given by a MOLECULAR
    FORMULA.

H2O
C8H10N4O2 - caffeine
22
Label Elements vs. Compounds
23
What are SI base units?
  • SI International System of Units. It is based
    on the metric system.
  • Give the units with their symbol for
  • Mass kilogram (kg)
  • Length ___________
  • Time ___________
  • Temperature ___________

Learn Table 1.2 in your textbook (page 26).
24
Length
  • 1 m 100 cm 1000 mm
  • 1 mm 1x 10-3 m
  • 1 nm 1 x 10-9 m

Students should become familiar with 1.
equivalents of units and their conversions. 2.
exponential notation and prefixes.
25
Unit Conversion
  • 0.0958 nm to m
  • Look for conversion factor(s)

26
Temperature Scales


Celsius
Kelvin
Fahrenheit
Boiling point of water
Freezing point of water
Notice that 1 kelvin 1 degree Celsius
Students should learn the rules for significant
figures!
27
Temperature Scales
100 oF 38 oC 311 K
5oC
T(oF) 32
T(oC)
9oF
1 K
T(oC) 273.15 oC
T(K)
oF
oC
K
1oC
28
Remember
  • Go over all the contents of your textbook.
  • Practice with examples and with problems at the
    end of the chapter.
  • Practice with OWL tutor.
  • Practice with the quiz on CD of Chemistry Now.
  • Work on your assignment for Chapter 1.
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