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Revolutionary Ideologies

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Title: Revolutionary Ideologies


1
Revolutionary Ideologies
  • HUM 2052 Civilization II
  • Summer 2010
  • Dr. Perdigao
  • June 10, 2010

2
Contextualizing Texts
  • 1808John Dalton formulated modern atomic theory
  • 1831Michael Farady discovered principle of
    electromagnetic induction
  • 1847Hermann von Helmholtz formulate law of
    conservation of energy
  • 1848Marx and Engels, Communist Manifesto
  • 1859Darwin, The Origin of Species
  • 1861Emancipation of Serfs in Russia Louis
    Pasteurs vaccines
  • 1861-1865American Civil War
  • 1864Dostoevsky, Notes from Underground
  • 1869Dmitri Mendeleev constructed periodic table
    for the elements
  • 1871Darwin, The Descent of Man
  • 1874Impressionism launched with Monets painting
  • 1876Telephone
  • 1884-1885European Acquisition of African
    territory (by 1914 all Africa except Ethiopia
    and Liberia succumbs to European rule)
  • 1887Heirncih Hertz discovered electromagnetic
    waves (radio, television, radar) Eiffel Tower
    built for 1889 Paris Worlds Fair Daimlers
    internal combustion engine for automobile
  • 1894X rays discovered
  • 1898Radium discovered by Marie and Pierre Curie
    Spanish-American War erupts

3
Industry, Empire, Revolution
  • Old order of Europe deconstructed, Holy Roman
    Empire and Papal States dissolved (997)
  • Industrial Revolutionterm coined in 1820s,
    parallel to French Revolution shows change during
    the period
  • Age of industry and empire, transforming Europe
    and the world, leads to social questionconcern
    about social and economic changes as a result of
    industrialization and urbanization
  • Global expansion of European cultureto new
    imperialism
  • Humanitarian commitmentgiving way to the
    heart of darkness?
  • Attempts by workers for improved conditions yet
    new divisions and breaks within society
  • Racism, anti-Semitism, ethnic chauvinism
  • Liberty, science, progress, and evolution
    as nineteenth century concepts

4
That fish
  • Charles Darwin (1809-1892)
  • Erasmus Darwingrandfatherpublished Zoonomia, or
    the Laws of Organic Life, and evidence that earth
    exited for millions of years before people,
    animal modifications (Perry 579)
  • Naturalist, HMS Beagle (1831-36), surveyed South
    America and Pacific islands
  • Darwin did for biology what Newton had done for
    physics he made it an objective science based on
    general principles (Perry 578)
  • mutability of species, natural selection,
    survival of the fittest (1370)
  • A natural selection acts by competition (1372)
    The natural system is a genealogical
    arrangement, in which we have to discover the
    lines of descent by the most permanent
    characters, however slight their vital importance
    may be (1374).

5
Creationism vs. Evolutionary Theory
  • Completes trend initiated by Galileo and
    contributes to the waning of religious belief
    and to a growing secular attitude (Perry 581)
  • Rejection of literal interpretation of the Bible
    It is so easy to hide our ignorance under such
    expressions as the plan of creation, unity of
    design, et cetera (1375)
  • Backlash Genesis is a lie. . . The revelation
    of God to man, as we Christians know it, is a
    delusion and a snare (qtd. in Perry 580)
    practically destructive of the authority of
    divine revelation, and subversive of the
    foundation of religion and morality (qtd. in
    Perry 581)
  • In the distant future I see open fields for far
    more important research. Psychology will be
    based on a new foundation, that of the necessary
    acquirement of each mental power and capacity by
    gradation. Light will be thrown on the origin of
    man and his history (1375).
  • Christianity more of an issue of faith than
    reason. Copernicanism had deprived people of
    the comforting belief that the earth had been
    placed in the center of the universe just for
    them Darwinism deprived them of the privilege of
    being Gods special creation (Perry 580).
  • http//www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/s
    copes/evolut.htm

6
Sigh
7
Social Sciences
  • The Descent of Man
  • man is descended from some less highly organized
    form (1376) We thus learn that man is
    descended from a hairy, tailed quadruped,
    probably arboreal in its habits, and an
    inhabitant of the Old World (1377)
  • Social Darwinism as work of social science,
    applying Darwins theories to social and economic
    issues struggle for existence and survival of
    the fittest
  • Loose application leads to problematic
    useslanguage of imperialism, racism,
    nationalism, militarism, doctrines that preached
    relentless conflict (Perry 581)
  • Darwinian biology to promote belief in
    Anglo-Saxon (British and American) and Teutonic
    (German) racial superiority (Perry 581)
  • Growth of British Empire, expansion of United
    States to Pacific, and extension of German power
    seen by Social Darwinists as issues of racial
    superiority, domination of American Indians,
    Africans, Asians, Poles (Perry 581)

8
Social Sciences
  • Whereas the philosophes emphasized human
    equality, Social Darwinists divided humanity into
    racial superiors and inferiors (Perry 582)
  • Racial and national conflict as biological
    necessity, law of history, and a means of
    progress and distorted the image of progress
    (Perry 582)

9
Reconfiguring Darwin
  • Creation Museum
  • http//www.creationmuseum.org/about
  • Unicorn Museum
  • http//www.unicornmuseum.org/
  • Inherit the Wind (1960)
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vvtNdYsoool8
  • Planet of the Apes (1968)
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vCvR2mCx-Jnc
  • Planet of the Apes (2001)
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v1BB2pSE6z_s

10
Defining the Revolution
  • From Revolutionary Principles (1369-1370)
  • Change in assumptions in science, philosophy, the
    structure of society, human identity
  • Nietzsches argument that Western culture is in
    declinemoral decay of society and loss of
    individual freedom
  • Marx and Engelscultural declineproblems in
    capitalist free society that produced the Crystal
    Palace was falling apart and would be overturned,
    foreseeing revolutions in their times
  • Revolutions of the mind challenging accepted
    ideas in science, philosophy, and society
  • The woman question answered best in theory or
    in salons, their place in history
  • After Newton, questions of Gods role in world,
    Darwins theories in relation to that center,
    creationism

11
Liberalism
  • Roots in John Locke (17th century) and
    Enlightenment philosophy (18th century)
    continuation of democratic practices and rational
    outlook of ancient Greece work of French
    philosophes (Montesquieus separations of powers
    and checks and balances, religious toleration and
    freedom of thought American and French
    Revolutions Bill of Rights French National
    Assembly of 1789 (Perry 534)
  • Constitutional guarantees of personal liberty and
    free trade in economics, leading to social
    improvement and economic growth Adam Smiths
    laissez-faire theory
  • Support of Industrial Revolution but opposing
    violence and state power promoted by French
    Revolution, repudiated Jacobin radicalism called
    for end to legacy of Middle Ages and aristocracy
  • Middle classmanufacturers, merchants,
    professionals support liberalism

12
Liberalists
  • Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859), Democracy in
    America (1835-1840), advocated destruction of
    aristocracy (Perry 537)
  • Thomas Paine (1748-1832), The Rights of Man
    (1791-1792) following Burkes Reflections on the
    Revolution in France
  • Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832), utility as reform,
    pain and pleasure, philosophical radicals (Perry
    539)

13
Socialism
  • Following liberalism
  • liberties advocated by liberals benefited only
    the middle classthe owners of factories and
    businessesnot the workers (MW 675)
  • Sought to reorganize society
  • Critique of Industrial Revolution for creating
    two classes new middle class (capitalists who
    own the wealth) and working class
  • Early socialists as romantics, dreaming of a
    New social order, a future utopia, where each
    individual could find happiness and
    self-fulfillment (Perry 540), did not advocate
    class warfare
  • Charles Fourier (1772-1837), phalansteries,
    communities Robert Owen (1771-1858)Welshfactory
    town in Scotland, then Indiana (New Harmony,
    1920s) (Florida?) (Perry 540-541)
  • Emancipation of women

14
Collectivists and Communists
  • After failed revolutions in 1848, Marxists and
    anarchists as chief proponents of revolution
    (Perry 584) both liberalism and Marxist shared
    principles derived from Enlightenment, social
    progress
  • Differences as seizure of power by working class
    and destruction of capitalism, violence and
    struggle as essence of history, instruments of
    progress for Marxists while liberals upheld
    education and self-discipline as means to
    overcome inequality and poverty (Perry 584)
  • emphasizing their desire to replace private
    property by communal, collective ownership (676)
  • Marx (1818-1883) and Engels (1820-1895), German,
    Marx forced to leave France in 1849, moved to
    London
  • Communist League, 1848 Communist Manifesto

15
Marxs Science
  • Marx as strict materialist and Young
    Hegelian, belief that the Germany of their day
    had not attained a harmony between the
    individual and society it as not rationally
    organized and did not foster freedom (Perry
    531) dialectical conflict between opposing
    forces, thesis (force) and antithesis
    (adversary), not abstract natural rights but
    true freedom attained through the social
    group (Perry 530), history as not an assortment
    of unrelated and disconnected events, but a
    progressive development (Perry 585)
  • For Marx, clash of classes rather than opposing
    ideasdialectical materialism which accounts
    for change and progress (Perry 585) saw Hegel as
    too metaphysical

16
Marxist Theory
  • Marx and Engelsturn to economic relationships
    that influence societysocial, political,
    intellectual, and culturaland change throughout
    history with production change
  • Revolutionizing instruments of production great
    crises, according to Marx and Engels, in
    production and production forces
  • capitalist free enterprise system that had
    created the crystal palace was now on the verge
    of collapse and would soon be overturned by the
    very class of laborers it had created to meet
    industrial demands (1369)
  • Bourgeoisie vs. proletariat
  • Bourgeoisie (capitalist)
  • Proletariat (working class)
  • Embrace industrialization to bring about
    proletarian revolution and abolition of
    exploitation, private property, and class
    society (676)

17
Rise of Marxism
  • Marx political theorist and labor organizer
  • Scientific theory (like Darwin?) mathematical
    calculations of production and profit
  • Das Kapital
  • Returns to John Locke (another influential text
    for Frankenstein) that human existence was
    defined by the necessity to work to fulfill basic
    needs such as food, clothing, and shelter (MW
    713).
  • Materialism as class relationships developed
    around work the mode of production
  • Feudalism (serf and medieval lord) slavery
    (slave and master) capitalism (worker
    proletariat and capitalist)

18
The Road to Revolution
  • Rather than emphasize individual rights, focus on
    unequal class relations and discards the
    romantic views of the Utopian socialists to
    focus on struggle as means to bring change
  • Marx rejected the liberal Enlightenment view
    that society was basically harmonious,
    maintaining instead that social progress could
    occur only through conflict (MW 714)
  • Anarchism as destruction of state power because
    the existence of the state was the root of
    social injustice (713)
  • Mikhail Bakunin (1814-1876), wanted all oppressed
    people to revolt, secret societies rather than
    mass political parties, feared Marxists would
    become new masters and exploiters , instead
    should destroy the state (Perry 588-589)

19
Limits of Civilization
  • the epidemic of over production that leads
    society into momentary barbarism (return to
    Montaigne?)
  • Because there is too much civilisation, too much
    means of subsistence, too much industry, too much
    commerce. The productive forces at the disposal
    of society no longer tend to further the
    development of the conditions of bourgeois
    property on the contrary, they have become too
    powerful for these conditions, by which they are
    fettered, and so soon as they overcome these
    fetters, they bring disorder into the whole of
    bourgeois society . . . (1386).
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