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The Nervous System


The Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Do Now: Get Your Clicker! ... receive sensory info Afferent division ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Nervous System

The Nervous System
  • Central Nervous System (CNS)
  • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

Do Now
  • Get Your Clicker!
  • Contract a K-W-L chart on loose-leaf
  • List everything you already Know about the
    Nervous System in the K-column
  • List everything you Want to know in W-column

  • Monitors internal and external environments
  • Integrates sensory information
  • Coordinates voluntary and involuntary responses
    of other organ systems
  • 2 subdivisions
  • CNS brain and spinal cord
  • Intelligence, memory, emotion
  • PNS all other neural tissue
  • sensory, motor

Receptors and Effectors
  • Receptors receive sensory info
  • Afferent division carries info from sensory
    receptors to the CNS
  • Efferent division carries info from CNS to PNS
    effectors (muscles, glands, adipose)
  • Somatic Nervous System (SNS)
  • Controls skeletal muscles (voluntary)
  • Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
  • Controls involuntary actions
  • Sympathetic Division (increase heart rate)
  • Parasympathetic Division (decreases heart rate)

(No Transcript)
  • Construct a flow chart detailing the direction in
    which information flows in the nervous system

The sensory part of the PNS is...
  1. Somatic division
  2. Sympathetic division
  3. Parasympathetic
  4. Afferent division
  5. Efferent division
  6. Control center

The fight or flight response is the...
  1. Somatic division
  2. Sympathetic division
  3. Parasympathetic division
  4. Afferent division
  5. Efferent division
  6. Control Center

A change in ambient temperature would be detected
  1. Somatic division
  2. Sympathetic division
  3. Afferent division
  4. Efferent division
  5. Control Center

Label Neuron
  • Read the functions to determine the structure of
    a typical neuron

  • Communicate w/other neurons
  • Soma-Cell body
  • Dendrites - receive info
  • Axon- sends signal to synaptic terminals
    (terminal buds)
  • Synapse site of neural communication (gap)
  • Myelin fatty insulation
  • Node of Ranvier exposed axon between myelin
  • 3 structural types
  • Multipolar multiple dendrites single axon
    (motor neurons)
  • Unipolar continues dendrites axon, cell body
    lies to side (sensory neurons)
  • Bipolar one dendrite and one axon w/cell body
    between them (special senses)

Types of Neurons
  • 3 functional types
  • Sensory afferent division
  • info about surrounding environment
  • position/movement skeletal muscles
  • digestive, resp, cardiovasc, urinary, reprod,
    taste, and pain
  • Motor efferent division (response)
  • skeletal muscles
  • cardiac and smooth muscle, glands, adipose tissue
  • Interneurons
  • Brain and spinal cord - memory, planning, and

  • Regulate environment around neurons can be
    phagocytes actively divide
  • Functions in CNS
  • maintains the blood-brain barrier
  • create myelin (lipid) to coat axon
  • Nodes gaps between myelinated sections
  • Internodes areas covered in myelin
  • Phagocytic cells
  • Secrete cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

The most common type of neuron is
  1. multipolar
  2. bipolar
  3. unipolar

The part of the neuron that has receptor proteins
on its surface is
  1. Dendrites
  2. soma
  3. axon
  4. Myelin sheath

The part of the neuron that increases the speed
of transmission is the
  1. Dendrites
  2. soma
  3. axon
  4. Myelin sheath

Complete Action Potential POGIL
  • Remember
  • Discuss each question and answer with your group
  • Use the information from the models to support
    your responses
  • You may use any resources to assist you

Membrane Potential
  • Cells are polarized (measured in volts)
  • Resting potential of neuron -70mV
  • Remains stable due to Na/K Pumps

Leak channels always open (K diffuses out)
K Proteins- Net - charge
Na Cl-
Gated channels open/closed under specific
Changes in Membrane Potential
  • Depolarization
  • Stimulus opens Na gated channels
  • increase charge of cell towards 0mV
  • Action Potentials
  • Affects entire surface of cell membrane
  • () feedback as nerve impulse continues
  • Hyperpolarization
  • Stimulus opens K gated channels
  • Increases charge (from -70mV to -80mV)
  • Restores resting potential

Action Potential All or Nothing Principal
  • Only skeletal muscle fibers and neuron axons have
    excitable membranes
  • Graded potential increases pressure until
    sufficient enough to reach action potential
  • Resting potential (-70mV)
  • Reaches Threshold (-60mV)
  • Refractory Period cell cannot respond to
  • Depolarization
  • Repolarization
  • Continuous Propagation
  • chain rxn until reaches cell memb
  • Unmyleinated 1m/s (2mph)
  • Salatory Propagation
  • Myelinated (blocks flow of ions except at nodes)
  • Action potential jumps from node to node
  • 18-40m/s (30-300mph)

Neural Communication
  • Nerve impulse info moving in the form of action
    potentials along axons
  • At end of axon the action potential transfers to
    another neuron or effector cell by release of
    neurotransmitters from synaptic terminal (only
    occur in 1 direction)
  • Activity of neuron depends on balance between
  • Excitatory neurotransmitters - depolorization
  • ACh Norepinephrine
  • Inhibitory neurotransmitters -hyperpolarization
  • Dopamine, Seratonin, GABA

An excitatory neurotransmitter
  1. Increases electrical impulse
  2. Causes the release of more neurotransmitters
  3. Is released in a synaptic cleft
  4. All of the above

The resting membrane potential inside a neuron is
  1. 0mV
  2. 30mV
  3. -60mV
  4. -70mV

After stimulus, the rush of sodium ions into the
cell is called
  1. depolarization
  2. repolarization
  3. hyperpolarization

The action potential is propagated by
  1. More Na rushing into the cell
  2. K leaving the cell
  3. Neurotransmitters binding to dendrite
  4. Vesicles release neurotransmitters

The cells charge at the peak depolarization is
  1. 0mV
  2. 30mV
  3. -60mV
  4. -70mV

During repolarization
  1. The resting potential is restored
  2. K diffuse out of cell
  3. The cell membrane becomes negatively charged
  4. All of the above

Once the action potential reaches the axon
terminal, the signal will be carried to the next
neuron by
  1. Na ions
  2. Neurotransmitters
  3. K ions
  4. All of the above

If an excitatory neurotransmitter binds to neuron
number one, how will that affect the number of
neurotransmitter released?
  1. more
  2. less
  3. No effect at all

If previous neuron releases GABA, an inhibitory
neurotransmitter, how will that affect neuron 2
  1. Increase electrical stimulus
  2. Decrease electrical stimulus
  3. Increase neurotransmitters released
  4. decreased neurotransmitters released
  5. 13
  6. 24

  • Reflex involuntary response to stimulus w/o
    requiring the brain
  • Reflex arc- sensory neuron? Interneuron? motor
    neuron (opposes initial stimulus)
  • Ex. Knee jerk reflex
  • Babinski reflex (infants only)
  • Stroke sole of foot ? toes fan out
  • Plantar reflex (adults only)
  • Stroke sole of foot? toes curl
  • Signals sent to brain by interneurons allow for
  • Ex. Toilet training, gag, blink

Testing reflexes activity