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Chapter 50: An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere

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Title: Chapter 50: An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere


1
Chapter 50 An Introduction to Ecology and the
Biosphere
2
Ecology
  • The study of the interactions between organisms
    and their environment.

3
Organisms
  • All living things.
  • Studied at many levels.

4
Ecology - levels
  • 1. Organismal Ecology
  • 2. Population Ecology
  • 3. Community Ecology
  • 4. Ecosystem Ecology
  • 5. Biosphere Ecology

5
Environment
  • Abiotic Factors non-living factors.
  • Ex Temperature, Light, Water
    Nutrients
  • Biotic Factors effect of other organisms.
  • Ex Competition, Predation

6
Abiotic Factors
  • 1. Temperature
  • 2. Water
  • 3. Sunlight
  • 4. Wind
  • 5. Rocks and Soil
  • 6. Disturbance

7
Abiotic Factors
  • Temperature
  • Effects biological processes.
  • Ex
  • Cold cells will rupture if they expand while
    freezing.
  • Hot many proteins denature above 45 oC.
  • Point life can only exist over a fairly narrow
    temperature range.
  • Water
  • Review the properties of water from Chapter 3.
  • Cells must maintain a correct water potential
    (keep from exploding or drying out).

8
Abiotic Factors
  • Sunlight
  • Provides energy for Ps, which drives most food
    webs.
  • Plants often compete for light because of shading
    or absorption of light by deep columns of water.
  • Wind
  • Effects temperature and water conditions for many
    organisms.
  • May carry abrasive particles that limit plant
    growth by killing the SAM areas.

9
Abiotic Factors
  • Rocks and Soil
  • Physical structure, pH, mineral composition of
    rocks and soil limit where plants can grow. Ex.
    Se soils.
  • Plants limit what animals can be found in an
    area.
  • Disturbance
  • Disturbance is often an important part of an
    environment.
  • Allows organisms to re-colonize an area.
  • Ex Fire Humans Wind

10
Climate
  • Shapes environments and what organisms can live
    in a particular area.
  • Climatic Factors
  • Solar Radiation and Latitude
  • Axis Tilt/Seasons
  • Air/Water Circulation Patterns

11
Solar Radiation and Latitude
  • Changes the amount of light and energy delivered
    per surface area.
  • Result
  • Poles less light
  • Equator more light
  • The unequal heating causes air and water to
    circulate.

12
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13
Seasons
  • Caused by the Earth's tilt.
  • Day length changes over time.
  • Many organisms are restricted in range by how
    well they adapt to changing seasons.

14
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15
Global Air Patterns
  • Air rises when heated, sinks when cools.
  • Zones of rising/sinking are created.
  • Earth's rotation causes zones to "twist.
  • Result
  • Air circulation patterns.
  • Rainfall patterns.
  • rising air wet areas
  • descending air dry areas

16
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17
Biomes
  • Broad geographical regions with characteristic
    communities of organisms.
  • Biomes Controlled by
  • Temperature
  • Water
  • Geography

18
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19
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20
Tropical Forests
  • Areas covered with dense growth of trees and
    vines.
  • Climate
  • Warm temperatures.
  • Constant day length.
  • High water.

21
Tropical Forests
22
Tropical Forests
  • Have the greatest diversity of species of any
    area on Earth.
  • Soil is usually very infertile. Most of the
    nutrients are in the plant life.
  • One of the most endangered Biomes.

23
Savanna
  • Grasslands with a few trees.
  • Climate with three growing seasons
  • Cool and dry
  • Hot and dry
  • Warm and wet

24
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25
Savanna
  • Rich in herbivores and predator species.
  • Only major biome not found on North America.

26
Desert
  • Characterized by plants adapted to dry growing
    conditions.
  • Climate
  • Dry (lt30cm/yr).
  • May be cold or hot.
  • Often found in areas of descending air masses.
  • Low productivity, but still fairly diverse in
    species.

27
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28
Chaparral
  • Characterized by spiny evergreen shrubs.
  • Climate
  • Mild rainy winters
  • Hot summers
  • Ex Southern California

29
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30
Chaparral
  • Maintained by fires.
  • Plants adapted to periodic fires by seeds or
    re-growing from the roots.

31
Temperate Grasslands
  • Grasses and other herbs are the dominant
    vegetation.
  • Climate
  • Intermediate water
  • Relatively cold winters

32
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33
Grasslands
  • Very productive for agriculture. (wheat, corn)
  • Need disturbance (fires) to keep trees out.
  • Come in several types
  • Tall grass
  • Short grass

34
Temperate Forests
  • Deciduous trees dominate.
  • Climate
  • Relatively high rain
  • Cold winters
  • Very little natural area left.
  • Good diversity of species.

35
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36
Taiga
  • Coniferous trees dominate.
  • Climate
  • Long cold winters
  • Short wet summers
  • Long summer daylength

37
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38
Taiga or Boreal Forest
  • Relatively low species diversity.
  • Being logged at an alarming rate.

39
Tundra
  • Grasses and sedges dominate.
  • Climate
  • Very cold and dry
  • Low light in winter

40
Tundra
  • Permafrost present.
  • Plants low in height.
  • Poor species diversity.

41
Altitude and Latitude
  • Mirror each other. Their Biomes are similar
    because the environments are similar.
  • Ex Alpine Tundra

42
Aquatic Biomes
43
Fresh water Biomes
  • Have lt1 salt concentration.
  • Strongly influenced by temperature and light.
  • Classification based on water flow patterns.

44
Marine Biomes
  • Cover 3/4 of the Earth's surface.
  • Average 3 salt.
  • Controlled by light and the distance to the shore.

45
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46
Light Zones
  • Photic - Enough light for Ps. Red light lost
    rapidly as depth increases.
  • Aphotic - Lacks enough light for Ps and depends
    on food made in photic zone for energy. Part of
    the most extensive biome on the planet.

47
Marine Biomes
  • 1. Estuaries
  • 2. Intertidal
  • 3. Coral Reefs
  • 4. Pelagic
  • 5. Benthos

48
Estuaries
  • Where a freshwater river meets the ocean.
  • Salinity variable.
  • Very productive Biome.

49
Coral Reef
  • Characterized by coral.
  • Found in shallow warm waters.
  • Very productive.
  • High species diversity.

50
Benthos
  • Bottom area.
  • Usually fed by nutrients drifting down from upper
    levels.
  • Fairly rich in life.

51
Summary
  • Know what is involved with the study of
    Ecology.
  • Know the major factors of planet Earth that shape
    climate.
  • Know the major terrestrial biomes and the factors
    that control them.

52
Summary
  • Know the major types of aquatic biomes and the
    factors that control them.
  • What are the differences between conformers and
    regulators.
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