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Classification of Organisms

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Unit 13 Classification of Organisms I. Isn t everything living thing either a plant or an animal? A. Aristotle is credited with the first true classification system. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classification of Organisms


1
  • Unit 13
  • Classification of Organisms

2
  • I. Isnt everything living thing either a plant
    or an animal?
  • A. Aristotle is credited with the first true
    classification system. He grouped all living
    things into two basic groups plant and animal.

OR
3
  • B Linnaeus further classified plants and animals
    by dividing them into related groups. He used
    the Latin language, because Latin was not longer
    spoken conversationally and thus was less likely
    to change.
  • 1. He first grouped related organisms. He called
    this a genus. For example, all of the dog-like
    creatures were grouped as the genus Canis.

4
  • 2. He next gave every different type of organism
    in the group a specific name, which he called
    specie. For example, the dog became
  • Canis familiaris and the wolf
  • Canis lupus. Notice the genus is capitalized
    but the specie begins with a lower case letter!
  • Both are italicized or underlined.

5
Loxosceles reclusa (Brown Recluse)
  • 3. Thus, every organism was given a two-word
    name, the genus and specie. This practice of
    binomial nomenclature continues today, giving
    each organism a scientific name.
  • 4. The benefit of binomial nomenclature includes
    eliminating confusion due to common names (ex.
    cottonmouth and water moccasin are actually the
    same animal) and allows scientists around the
    world to more easily communicate.

What name do you use for this organism?
6
  • C. Even after the microbial world was discovered,
    the two kingdom system continued. (Yes,
    science can be very slow to change.)
  • D. As knowledge of the diversity of organisms
    increased, Whittaker (in 1969) expanded
    classification to include five kingdoms.

7
  • E. The science of classification, taxonomy, now
    allowed scientists to assign seven levels of taxa
    to living organisms

King Phillip Came Over For Green Soup
8
  • 1. The kingdom is the most general of these seven
    taxa, thus the kingdom would contain the greatest
    number of organisms.
  • 2. Specie is the most specific of these seven
    taxa, thus the specie would contain only one type
    of organism. A specie is defined as a group of
    organisms which can interbreed and produce
    fertile offspring.

9
  • F. Today, we use three domains, which are divided
    into six kingdoms. These domains are based on
    new information about possible evolutionary
    relationships.

10
  • II. What happens when you find an organism and
    you are stymied?
  • A. Dichotomous keys are tools that use a series
    of paired statements and the visible
    characteristics of the organism. Of course, a
    dichotomous key is only useful if the organism
    has already been classified and given a
    scientific name.

11
  • 1. Always start at statement 1 (or the beginning
    point)
  • 2. Decide which path best describes the organism
    (Statement A or Statement B)
  • 3. Follow that path to find the next choice (Go
    to )
  • 4. When you can go no further, you will find the
    name!

12
  • B. If the organism has NOT been classified,
    taxonomists must begin the process of
    classification. In order to correctly classify
    an organism, scientists use many modern tools
  • 1. Morphology describes the physical
    characteristics of an organism. Typically, this
    is enough information to place the organism
    within a domain and kingdom.
  • Example Presence of a nucleus places the
    organism in Domain Eukarya

13
  • 2. DNA and biochemical analysis allow scientists
    to test less visible, but distinguishing,
    characteristics.
  • Example Gram staining a bacteria cell allows
    scientists to distinguish between archaea and
    prokarya.

Gram-positive anthrax bacteria (purple rods) in
cerebrospinal fluid sample. If present, a
gram-negative bacterial species would appear
pink. (The other cells are white blood cells)
Gram-negative E. Coli bacteria.
14
  • 3. Comparing embryology allows scientists to
    group organisms that share common fetal
    development.
  • Example The diagram below would suggest the
    last two organisms are most closely related.

15
  • 4. Evolutionary phylogeny describes the
    evolutionary relationships between organisms.
    These relationships are deduced based on shared
    traits that may have been passed from ancestor to
    new species. Traits may include physical traits
    (ex. presence of jaws), or may be genetic traits
    (shared genes). These relationships can be
    illustrated in a phylogenetic tree or cladogram

16
1) German Shepherd, Great Dane, parrot, Irish
setter, canary, husky, robin, pigeon
  • Title_________________
  • _____________________ _____________________
  • _____________________ _____________________
  • Title_________________
  • _____________________ _____________________
  • _____________________ _____________________

17
2) apples, peas, orange, banana, carrot, lettuce,
turnip, pear, grape, potato
  • Title_________________
  • _____________________ _____________________
  • _____________________ _____________________
  • _____________________
  • Title_________________
  • _____________________ _____________________
  • _____________________ _____________________
  • _____________________

18
  • Review Questions
  • 1. Who first officially classified organisms?
  • Aristotle, then Linnaeus created our current
    system
  • 2. What was the contribution of Linneaus to
    taxonomy?
  • He grouped related organisms and created
    binomial nomenclature (every organism has a two
    word name- genus and species)
  • 3. What are the two parts of a scientific name?
  • Genus and species
  • 4. What are the domains used in the current
    classification system?
  • Prokarya, Archae, Eukarya

19
  • Review Questions
  • 5. How many kingdoms are used in the current
    classification system?
  • Six
  • 6. What is a dichotomous key?
  • A key that uses paired statements and visible
    characteristics to identify a known organism.
  • 7. What 4 modern tools are used to classify a
    newly discovered organism?
  • Morphology, biochemical similarities,
    embryology, and phylogeny (evolutionary
    relationships)

20
  • III. Why am I not a fungus?
  • A. Kingdom Bacteria
  • 1. Cellular Structure Prokaryotic with cell
    wall, unicellular
  • 2. Metabolism
  • a. Food getting Very diverse some are
    photosynthetic, some are chemosynthetic and
    some are heterotrophic, taking in food by
    active transport.
  • b. Cellular energy Some are aerobic for
    the production of ATP, some are anaerobic.

21
WARNING- X-Rated Image of Bacteria Sexually
Reproducing
  • 3. Reproduction Mostly asexual through binary
    fission may exchange DNA using a process called
    conjugation.
  • 4. Ecological/Economic Importance Bacteria are
    important to the environment because they drive
    the nitrogen cycle and are decomposers. Bacteria
    can be beneficial to humans (ex. useful in making
    foods such as yogurt) or harmful (ex. some may
    cause disease such as syphilis)

22
  • B. Kingdom Archaea (Extreme bacteria!)
  • 1. Cellular Structure Prokaryotic with cell
    wall, unicellular (different chemicals in cell
    wall than Kingdom Bacteria)
  • 2. Metabolism
  • a.Food getting Very diverse some are
    photosynthetic, some are chemosynthetic and
    some are heterotrophic, taking in food by active
    transport.
  • b. Cellular energy Some are aerobic for the
    production of ATP, some are anaerobic.

Aerobic Oxygen used Anaerobic No oxygen used
23
  • 3. Reproduction Mostly asexual through binary
    fission may exchange DNA using a process called
    conjugation.
  • 4. Distinguishing habitats They are all
    classified as extremophiles they live in
    extreme environments such as thermal vents,
    swamps, guts of animals, and areas of high
    salinity.

24
  • C. Kingdom Protista
  • 1. Cellular Structure Eukaryotic (some with
    cell wall and some without), some are unicellular
    (amoeba) and some are multicellular (seaweed)
  • 2. Metabolism
  • a. Food getting Very diverse some are
    photosynthetic (plant-like), and some are
    heterotrophic (animal-like), taking in food by
    active transport.
  • b. Cellular energy All utilize aerobic
    respiration for the production of ATP.

25
  • 3. Reproduction Asexual through binary fission
    (in animal-like protists) and fragmentation (in
    plant-like protists). Some may exchange DNA
    though conjugation (sexual).
  • 4. Ecological/Economic Importance
  • a. Plant-like protists (commonly called algae)
    are the primary producers of oxygen used for
    cellular respiration. They are also the
    producers that form the base of all aquatic food
    webs.

26
  • b. Animal-like protists (commonly called
    protozoans) are important primary consumers in
    aquatic food webs. Many protozoans also cause
    diseases such as malaria.
  • c. A specialized group of protists called slime
    molds are important decomposers.

27
  • D. Kingdom Plantae
  • 1. Cellular Structure Eukaryotic with cell
    wall, all multicellular
  • 2. Metabolism
  • a. Food getting All are photosynthetic
    (autotrophic).
  • b. Cellular energy All utilize aerobic
    respiration for the production of ATP.
  • 3. Reproduction All reproduce sexually (using
    sperm and egg or spores) may reproduce asexually
    (using vegetative propagation or spores)

Each one of these buds can develop into a new
plant next year. In fact a whole row of potato
plants can be started from just one good tuber.
28
  • 4. Ecological/Economic Importance Plants are
    exponentially more complex as compared to algae,
    but perform many of the same ecological roles
    (oxygen production, base of food web). Plants
    are also used for numerous products such as
    clothing (cotton), paper, medicine (aspirin), and
    lumber.

29
  • E. Kingdom Fungi
  • 1. Cellular Structure Eukaryotic with cell
    wall, mostly multicellular (mushroom) with some
    unicellular (yeast)
  • 2. Metabolism
  • a. Food getting Heterotrophic with
    extracellular digestion (fungi secrete
    digestive enzymes and absorb nutrients across
    the cell wall)
  • b. Cellular energy Some utilize aerobic
    respiration for the production of ATP
    (mushrooms), some are anaerobic (yeast).

Birds Nest Fungi
30
  • 3. Reproduction May be asexual (budding in
    yeast and spore production in other fungi), or
    sexual (spores).
  • 4. Ecological/Economic Importance Fungi are
    important decomposers. Fungi can be beneficial
    to humans (ex. used to make food and alcohol), or
    harmful (cause diseases such as ring worm and
    athletes foot)

31
  • F. Kingdom Animalia
  • 1. Cellular Structure Eukaryotic with no cell
    wall, all are multicellular
  • 2. Metabolism
  • a. Food getting All are heterotrophic and
    have diverse methods for acquiring food.
  • b. Cellular energy All utilize aerobic
    respiration for the production of ATP but some
    specialized cells can convert to anaerobic
    respiration when oxygen is scarce

32
  • 3. Reproduction All animals reproduce sexually
    (egg and sperm), but some simple animals may also
    reproduce asexually (fragmentation in sponges,
    regeneration in worms)
  • 4. Ecological/Economic Importance Animals are
    important consumers in food webs. Animals may be
    beneficial to humans (ex. foods) or harmful (ex.
    worms may cause disease)

33
  • Review Questions
  • 1. Which 2 kingdoms contain bacteria?
  • Archaebacteria and Eubactera
  • 2. Which 2 kingdoms are prokaryotic?
  • Kingdom Bacteria and Kingdom Archae
  • 3. The organisms of which kingdom do not have
    cell walls?
  • Kingdom animalia
  • 4. Name the kingdoms that contain important
    decomposers.
  • Bacteria and Fungi
  • 5. Name the kingdoms that contain producers.
  • Plantae and Protista
  • 6. Why are you not a fungus?
  • I am not a decomposer, do not get my food
    through extracellular digestion, and do not
    reproduce asexually!
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