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Dissociative, Schizophrenia, and Personality Disorders

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Title: Dissociative, Schizophrenia, and Personality Disorders


1
Dissociative, Schizophrenia, and Personality
Disorders
  • Module 29

2
Dissociative Disorders Types
  • Disorders in which the sense of self has become
    separated (dissociated) from previous memories,
    thoughts, or feelings
  • Three main types
  • Dissociative Amnesia
  • Dissociative Fugue
  • Dissociative Identity Disorder

3
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4
Dissociative Dissociative
Amnesia Fugue
  • A dissociative disorder characterized by loss of
    memory in reaction to a traumatic event
  • Example soldiers in combat
  • A Dissociative disorder characterized by loss of
    identity and travel to a new location
  • The person may develop a new identity and begin a
    new life.

5
Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • A rare and controversial dissociative disorder in
    which an individual experiences two or more
    distinct and alternating personalities
  • Formerly called multiple personalities
  • Personalities can be different ages, sex, and
    self perception of characteristics
  • EX Hershel Walker

6
Schizophrenia
  • A group of severe disorders characterized by
    disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed
    perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and
    actions
  • Is not one disorder but a family of disorders
  • Is not split personality
  • Occurs in about 1 of the population

7
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
  • Symptoms of schizophrenia include
  • Delusions (false beliefs)
  • Hallucinations (false perceptions)
  • Inappropriate emotions or behaviors

8
Delusions
  • False beliefs of schizophrenia and other serious
    psychological disorders
  • Four major types of delusions
  • Grandeur
  • Persecution
  • Sin or guilt
  • Influence

9
4 Types of Delusions
  • Grandeur
  • False beliefs that a person is more important
    than they really are
  • Patients may believe they are a famous person
    (e.g. Napoleon)
  • Sin or guilt
  • False beliefs that the person is responsible for
    some misfortune
  • Persecution
  • False beliefs that people are out to get the
    person
  • Believe they are being followed, the phone is
    wiretapped, etc.
  • Influence
  • False beliefs of being controlled by outside
    forces

10
Hallucinations
  • False perceptions of schizophrenia or other
    serious psychological disorders
  • Types of hallucinations
  • Auditory (hearing voices)
  • Visual (seeing things)
  • Tactile (feeling skin sensations)
  • Can also have distorted smell and taste

11
Inappropriate Emotions/Behaviors
  • Flat affect showing little or no emotional
    response
  • Word salad nonsense talk
  • Waxy flexibility the persons arms and legs
    will remain in place after being moved there

12
Types of Schizophrenia
13
Paranoid CatatonicSchizophrenia Schizophrenia
  • Characterized by delusions, especially grandeur
    and persecution.
  • Auditory and other hallucinations support the
    delusions.
  • Characterized by variations in voluntary movement
  • Catatonic excitement
  • Rapid movements with delusions and hallucinations
  • Catatonic stupor
  • Little or no activity, movement, or speech (waxy
    flexibility)

14
Disorganized Undifferentiated
Schizophrenia Schizophrenia
  • Characterized by bizarre behavior, delusions, and
    hallucinations.
  • Very disturbed thought and language (word salad)
  • Symptoms that dont clearly fit into one of the
    other types of schizophrenia but still show clear
    symptoms of schizophrenia

15
Schizophrenia DisordersCauses
  • Module 29 Dissociative, Schizophrenia, and
    Personality Disorders

16
Biological Factors - Genetics
  • Schizophrenia tends to run in families.
  • Genetics appears to produce a predisposition
    (increased likelihood) to develop schizophrenia.

17
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18
Biological Factors Brain Structure
  • Brain structure of those with schizophrenia is
    different than the normal brain
  • Those with schizophrenia have smaller amounts of
    brain tissue and larger fluid filled spaces.
  • The thalamus is smaller in those with
    schizophrenia.

19
Biological Factors Brain Function
  • The brain of those with schizophrenia operates
    differently than the normal brain.
  • The frontal lobes show less activity.
  • Those with schizophrenia have a larger number of
    receptor sites for the neurotransmitter dopamine.

20
Biological Factors Prenatal Viruses
  • A viral infection during the middle of pregnancy
    may increase schizophrenia risk.

21
Psychological Factors
  • Two main areas
  • Stress
  • Disturbed family
  • Its unclear whether these are causes or
    consequences of schizophrenia.

22
Personality Disorders
  • Module 29 Dissociative, Schizophrenia, and
    Personality Disorders

23
Personality Disorders
  • Psychological disorders characterized by
    inflexible and lasting behavior patterns that
    disrupt social functioning
  • Divided into three clusters
  • Related to anxiety
  • With odd and eccentric behaviors
  • With dramatic or impulsive behaviors

24
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25
Personality Disorders Related to Anxiety
  • Module 29 Dissociative, Schizophrenia, and
    Personality Disorders

26
Avoidant Dependent Personality Disorder
Personal. Dis.
  • So sensitive about being rejected that personal
    relationships become difficult
  • Behave in clingy, submissive ways and displays a
    strong need to have others take care of them

27
Personality Disorders with Odd or Eccentric
Behaviors
  • Module 29 Dissociative, Schizophrenia, and
    Personality Disorders

28
Paranoid Schizoid Personality
Disorder Personal. Dis.
  • Shows deep distrust of other people, which gets
    in the way of personal relationships
  • Different than paranoid schizophrenia
  • Is detached from social relationships
  • Are true hermits, preferring life alone and
    avoiding intimate interactions at all costs

29
Personality Disorders with Dramatic or Impulsive
Behaviors
  • Module 29 Dissociative, Schizophrenia, and
    Personality Disorders

30
Borderline Antisocial Personality
Disorder Personal. Dis.
  • Exhibit instability of emotions, self-image,
    behavior, and relationships
  • Shows absolutely no concern for the rights or
    feelings of other people
  • Has no conscience and shows no remorse
  • Also known as psychopathic or sociopathic
    personality disorder
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