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???? ????? Clone and Medicine

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Title: Author: lx Last modified by: walkinnet Created Date: 9/4/2003 2:06:09 AM Document presentation format: – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ???? ????? Clone and Medicine


1
???? ????? Clone and Medicine
??? ????????? A Brief History
of Cloning ??? ???????
principle and technology ??? ???????????
Application of Cloning
2
??? ????????? A Brief History of Cloning what
is Cloning
  • A clone is a copy of something.
  • Computers that mimic IBMs are called clones.
  • In genetics, a clone is a genetic copy of another
    organism.
  • Clones occur naturally
  • Asexual breeding in plants lower animals
  • Identical twins (triplets) in higher animals

3
??? ????????? A Brief History of Cloning what is
Cloning
Clones occur naturally
4
Cloning is to make a genetically
identical organism through non-sexual means.
??? ????????? A Brief
History of Cloning what is Cloning
5
??? ????????? A Brief History of Cloning what is
Cloning
  • Natural non-sex Clones occur naturally in plants
    and lower animals

6
??? ????????? A Brief History of Cloning what is
Cloning
  • For centuries it has been known that simple
    animals worms starfish can be cloned by
    cutting them in half.
  • This doesnt work for higher animals!
  • Part of the problem is cell specialization
  • Nerve
  • Bone
  • Muscle, etc.

7
??? ????????? A Brief History of Cloning
Cloning in the 20th Century
  • We now realize that each specialized cell has all
    the genetic information, but much of it is turned
    off.
  • Problem how to reset the program so this
    information is usable?
  • Cloning of frogs successful in 1950s
  • Cloning of livestock from fetal cells in 1970s

8
??? ????????? A Brief History of Cloning Dolly
- 1996
  • Clone from an adult sheep cell by Scots
    researchers under Ian Wilmut
  • Had only one success in 300 tries.
  • Dolly grew to maturity, and successfully had a
    lamb by natural means in 1998.
  • But Dolly seems to be prematurely old.

9
Dolly 1996
10
??? ????????? A Brief History of Cloning Cloning
since Dolly
  • Cloning of this sort has now been done on cattle,
    pigs and mice also.
  • The success rate has improved considerably.
  • Cloning humans begins to show up in science
    fiction in 1970s.
  • This is now a realistic possibility.

11
??? ????????? A Brief History of Cloning
Cloning since Dolly
  • These female pigs are also cloned. 2001.

Five genetically identical cloned pigs.
12
??? ????????? A Brief History of Cloning Cloning
since Dolly
  • The pair of calves were born. 1998

13
??? ????????? A Brief History of Cloning
Cloning since Dolly
  • The world's first cloned cat. 2002

14
??? ????????? A Brief History of Cloning
Cloning since Dolly CC and Rainbow, the donor of
CC's genetic material
15
??? ????????? A Brief History of Cloning
Cloning since Dolly
  • The mule in the picture is the worlds first
    cloned mule. 2003.

16
Types of cloning Reproductive cloning-
Therapeutic cloning-
??? ??????? Principle and technology
17
??? ??????? Principle and technology Other
types of cloning
  • Single cell organisms, like bacteria and fungi.
    This includes fermentation processes for
    production of bread, beer, and wine.
  • Entire plant asexual replication
  • Natural cloning occurs in sexual reproduction,
    when the embryo splits in two to produce twins.

18
??? ??????? Principle and technology
  • Cells of higher animals (mammals) are
  • much more specialized than plant cells or
  • lower animals.
  • Therefore, much more difficult to change
  • them to become unspecialized for cloning.

19
??? ??????? Principle and technology ????? How
Dolly was cloned?
  • In 1997 Dolly the sheep became the first
    vertebrate cloned from the cell of an adult
    animal. Not only was this a remarkable
    scientific breakthrough but it immediately gained
    interest and concern from around the world on the
    future of cloning technology as it would effect
    humans.

20
??? ??????? Principle and technology ?????How
Dolly was cloned?
21
??? ??????? Principle and technology ????? How
Dolly was cloned?
22
??? ??????? Principle and technology ????? How
Dolly was cloned?
23
??? ??????? Principle and technology Problems
with cloning?
  • Low success rate (Dolly took 276 attempts)
  • Tumours
  • Genetic defects
  • Over-growth syndrome
  • Pre-mature ageing (genetic age)
  • Massive quantities of human eggs required
  • Reduction in adaptability genetic uniformity
  • Insertion of genes
  • Lack of knowledge

24
??? ????????? Application of Cloning
  • Clone animal
  • Saving endangered species
  • To answer questions of basic biology
  • For pharmaceutical production.
  • For herd improvement.
  • To satisfy our desires (e.g. pet cloning).
  • For human Therapeutic cloning
  • Replacing organs and other tissues
  • Gene therapy
  • Reversing the ageing process
  • Clone Human
  • Infertility
  • Replacing a lost child
  • Creating donor people

25
??? ????????? Application of
Cloning Application of animal cloning
Cloning of endangered species
26
??? ????????? Application of Cloning Application
of animal cloning
  • the first clone of an endangered animal (2001),
    a baby bull gaur????

27
??? ????????? Application of
Cloning Application of animal cloning Pharming
  • Pharming is the production of pharmaceuticals in
    animals engineered to contain a foreign,
    drug-producing gene

28
??? ????????? Application of Cloning
Therapeutic cloning
  • Research could give insight to origins of cancer
    and other cellular processes such as aging.
  • Techniques could be used with nerve cells that do
    not regularly reproduce. Could possibly help
    Alzheimer or Parkinsons sufferers.
  • Nuclear replacement could help those with
    diseases that are inherited from mitochondria.
    The nucleus is removed from the diseased cell and
    placed into one with healthy mitochondria.

29
??? ????????? Application of Cloning Therapeutic
cloning
30
??? ????????? Application of
Cloning Therapeutic cloning
  • The body will not reject this clone, as the DNA
    of the new heart is the same of that of the
    patients.
  • Possible source of stem cells
  • - umbilical cord
  • - Adult cells (?)

31
??? ????????? Application of Cloning Therapeutic
cloning
32
??? ????????? Application of Cloning The hot
debate-----clone human
  • The prospect of cloning humans is highly
    controversial and raises a number of ethical,
    legal and social challenges that need to be
    considered.

33
??? ????????? Application of Cloning The hot
debate-----clone human
Are there human clones? Yes Identical Twins
34
??? ????????? Application of Cloning The hot
debate-----clone human
35
??? ????????? Application of Cloning The hot
debate-----clone human
36
??? ????????? Application of Cloning The hot
debate-----clone human
37
??? ????????? Application of Cloning The hot
debate-----clone human The Inner Cell Mass is
the Source of Embryonic Stem Cells
38
??? ????????? Application of Cloning The hot
debate-----clone human The Inner Cell Mass is
the Source of Embryonic Stem Cells
39
??? ????????? Application of Cloning The hot
debate-----clone human
  • Is it ethical to harvest embryonic stem cells
    from the extra embryos created during in vitro
    fertilization
  • Are these masses of cells a human?

40
??? ????????? Application of Cloning The hot
debate-----clone human
?
Stem Cell Research Embryonic Adult When
do you believe life begins?
?
?? Yes!!
?
??
No!!
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