????????? ??????????? How to Write an Abstract for a Research Paper in Linguistics and Applied Linguistics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – ????????? ??????????? How to Write an Abstract for a Research Paper in Linguistics and Applied Linguistics PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 6fb42b-OWY1M



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

????????? ??????????? How to Write an Abstract for a Research Paper in Linguistics and Applied Linguistics

Description:

How to Write an Abstract for a Research Paper in Linguistics and Applied Linguistics – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:55
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 57
Provided by: lsb5
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: ????????? ??????????? How to Write an Abstract for a Research Paper in Linguistics and Applied Linguistics


1
????????? ??????????? How to Write an Abstract
for a Research Paper in Linguistics and Applied
Linguistics
  • ???? ???
  • ltflshgw_at_mail.sysu.edu.cngt

2
????(???),CSSCI????
  • ???????????5?????????????!
  • ????????????????!
  • ???????????????
  • www.cflo.edu.cn / flc_at_pub.hep.cn
  • ???????????????????!

3
?????
  • ????M. Ghadessy(2008)??????????,???????(???????
    ?????????)?
  • ???????? M. Ghadessy(2006)????????,???????(?????
    ???????????)?
  • ??????????(???/2011)????????????,??????????

4
Outline
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Structure of an Abstract
  • 3 Questions on the Abstract
  • 4 Elements of structure in an Abstract
  • 5 The language of an Abstract
  • 6 Summary

5
1 Introduction
  • An essay may be based on what is termed as common
    knowledge or the personal experiences of a
    student, but a research paper should draw upon a
    number of other primary and secondary sources of
    information to complete the project.
  • Writing a research paper is a complex and
    demanding task. It requires a lot of planning and
    preparation before the final copy is produced.
  • A research paper can be written on any
    topic/subject under the sun. The level of
    required research for a paper depends on many
    factors.

6
  • Because of its importance in academic writing, a
    research paper has a special form/format that has
    to be followed if one is to get a good grade from
    the instructor marking the paper or have the
    paper published/accepted.
  • Each section and sub-section should be clearly
    marked.
  • This is done by using different names/labels for
    the sections and sub-sections of the paper.

7
  • For example, the paper has a Method section that
    is further sub-divided into Data Collection and
    Methodology.
  • Experts on the subject have proposed slightly
    different formats for the paper but a general
    format may consist of Abstract, Introduction,
    Background, Previous Studies, Method, Results,
    Discussion, Conclusions, and References.

8
2 Structure of an Abstract
  • An Abstract of a research paper is the first
    source of information for a would-be reader.
  • Of course the title of the research paper would
    provide information about the topic of
    investigation but it is the Abstract that
    provides a birds eye view of the subject matter,
    the purpose of the study, the way the research is
    carried out, some important findings, the
    implications, and a conclusion.
  • The Abstract summarizes the study for people who
    would like to spend no more than a few minutes on
    the paper.

9
  • An important issue here is the time for the
    writing of the Abstract.
  • Usually it is written after the study/research is
    completed but this is not always the case as, for
    example, people send abstracts of unfinished
    papers to conferences they would like to
    participate in.
  • Such abstracts are not totally different from
    those written for finished papers they may
    include less information in some parts like in
    the Results and Implications sections.

10
  • Because of its importance, the Abstract has
    acquired a very rigid structure used by most
    writers.
  • In order to find out what this structure is, we
    look at an Abstract of a research paper from the
    Journal of Asian Pacific Communication and then
    ask a number of questions.
  • Here is the title of the paper and the Abstract
    the questions follow. (Numbers have been added to
    the sentences for ease of reference.)

11
  • George Braine, From a teacher-centred to a
    student-centred approach A study of peer
    feedback in Hong Kong writing classes, Journal
    of Asian Pacific Communication 12/2, 2003.

12
  • (1) There is a common belief that, owing to the
    highly teacher-centred form of education, Chinese
    students are passive learners. (2) As a result, a
    student-centred approach such as process writing
    is believed to be difficult to implement in
    classes that consist mainly of Chinese students.
    (3) This study tested these beliefs by
    introducing peer feedback, the backbone of
    process writing, to Chinese students enrolled in
    university writing classes and by measuring the
    effectiveness of the feedback both quantitatively
    and qualitatively. (4) The study showed that,
    with proper training, Chinese students could
    quickly adapt to a student-centred approach, and
    also provide rich and useful feedback on the
    writing of their peers. (5) This study has
    promising implications for educational contexts
    where students are considered passive learners,
    teacher-centred learning is the norm, or the
    process approach to writing faces daunting
    challenges to its implementation.

13
  • (1) There is a common belief that, owing to the
    highly teacher-centred form of education, Chinese
    students are passive learners.
  • (2) As a result, a student-centred approach such
    as process writing is believed to be difficult to
    implement in classes that consist mainly of
    Chinese students.
  • (3) This study tested these beliefs by
    introducing peer feedback, the backbone of
    process writing, to Chinese students enrolled in
    university writing classes and by measuring the
    effectiveness of the feedback both quantitatively
    and qualitatively.

14
  • (4) The study showed that, with proper training,
    Chinese students could quickly adapt to a
    student-centred approach, and also provide rich
    and useful feedback on the writing of their
    peers.
  • (5) This study has promising implications for
    educational contexts where students are
    considered passive learners, teacher-centred
    learning is the norm, or the process approach to
    writing faces daunting challenges to its
    implementation.

15
1. What is the subject matter/area the research
paper is dealing with?
  • The following words and expressions tell the
    reader what the subject matter is, i.e. answer to
    question concerning the subject matter
  • teacher-centred (S-1), student-centred (S-2),
    process-writing (S-2), peer feedback, the
    backbone of process writing (S-3), writing
    classes (S-3), the effectiveness of the feedback
    (S-3), a student-centred approach (S-4), useful
    feedback on the writing of their peers (S-4),
    teacher-centred learning (S-5), the process
    approach to writing (S-5).

16
2. What background information is provided by the
author(s)?
  • The first two sentences give the background
    information
  • (1) There is a common belief that, owing to the
    highly teacher-centred form of education, Chinese
    students are passive learners. (2) As a result, a
    student-centred approach such as process writing
    is believed to be difficult to implement in
    classes that consist mainly of Chinese students.

17
3. What is the purpose of the present study?
  • The third question is concerned with the purpose
    of the study, and tested these beliefs. (S-3)
    indicates the purpose of research.
  • (3) This study tested these beliefs by
    introducing peer feedback, the backbone of
    process writing, to Chinese students enrolled in
    university writing classes and by measuring the
    effectiveness of the feedback both quantitatively
    and qualitatively.

18
4. How is the research to be done?
  • The fourth question is How is the research to be
    done?, which is concerned with the method of the
    research.
  • The two prepositional phrases in Sentence (3) by
    introducing peer feedback, the backbone of
    process writing and by measuring the
    effectiveness of the feedback both quantitatively
    and qualitatively clearly indicate how the
    research is to be carried out.

19
5. What are some of the important findings?
  • (4) The study showed that, with proper training,
    Chinese students could quickly adapt to a
    student-centred approach, and also (that Chinese
    students) provide rich and useful feedback on the
    writing of their peers.
  • Sentence (4) serves the purpose of giving the
    reader two findings of the study.

20
6. What are some of the implications of the study?
  • (5) This study has promising implications for
    educational contexts where students are
    considered passive learners, teacher-centred
    learning is the norm, or the process approach to
    writing faces daunting challenges to its
    implementation.
  • This final sentence in the abstract tells the
    reader the implications for the study, and thus
    it answers the last question in the abstract,
    i.e. What are some of the implications of the
    study?

21
An analysis of another abstract
  • Biber, D. et al., Speaking and Writing in the
    University A Multidimensional Comparison. TESOL
    Quarterly, 2002.

22
  •  
  • (1) The dozens of studies on academic discourse
    carried out over the past 20 years have mostly
    focused on written academic prose (usually the
    technical research article in science or
    medicine) or on academic lectures. (2) Other
    registers that may be more important for students
    adjusting to university life, such as textbooks,
    have received surprisingly little attention, and
    spoken registers such as study groups or
    on-campus service encounters have been virtually
    ignored. (3) To explain more fully the nature of
    the tasks that incoming international students
    encounter, this article undertakes a
    comprehensive linguistic description of the range
    of spoken and written registers at U.S.
    universities.

23
  • (4) Specifically, the article describes a
    multidimensional analysis of register variation
    in the TOEFL 2000 Spoken and Written Academic
    Language Corpus. (5) The analysis shows that
    spoken registers are fundamentally different from
    written ones in university contexts, regardless
    of purpose. (6) Some of the register
    characterizations are particularly surprising.
    (7) For example, classroom teaching was similar
    to conversational registers in many respects, and
    departmental brochures and Web pages were as
    informationally dense as textbooks. (8) The
    article discusses the implications of these
    findings for pedagogy and further research.

24
  • (1) The dozens of studies on academic discourse
    carried out over the past 20 years have mostly
    focused on written academic prose (usually the
    technical research article in science or
    medicine) or on academic lectures.
  • (2) Other registers that may be more important
    for students adjusting to university life, such
    as textbooks, have received surprisingly little
    attention, and spoken registers such as study
    groups or on-campus service encounters have been
    virtually ignored.
  • (3) To explain more fully the nature of the tasks
    that incoming international students encounter,
    this article undertakes a comprehensive
    linguistic description of the range of spoken and
    written registers at U.S. universities.

25
  • (4) Specifically, the article describes a
    multidimensional analysis of register variation
    in the TOEFL 2000 Spoken and Written Academic
    Language Corpus.
  • (5) The analysis shows that spoken registers are
    fundamentally different from written ones in
    university contexts, regardless of purpose.
  • (6) Some of the register characterizations are
    particularly surprising.
  • (7) For example, classroom teaching was similar
    to conversational registers in many respects, and
    departmental brochures and Web pages were as
    informationally dense as textbooks.
  • (8) The article discusses the implications of
    these findings for pedagogy and further research.

26
3 Questions on the Abstract
  • 1. What is the subject matter/area the research
    paper is dealing with?
  • 2. What background information is provided by the
    author(s)?
  • 3. What is the purpose of the present study?
  • 4. How is the research to be done?
  • 5. What are some of the important findings?
  • 6. What are some of the implications of the
    study?

27
  •  1. It is not difficult to answer the first
    question.
  • The subject matter is academic discourse and
    within this reference is made to written
    academic prose and academic lectures (S-1).
  • But these two sub-areas are not the concern of
    the paper.
  • The paper focuses on the language of textbooks,
    study groups, and service encounters (S-2).

28
  • .       
  • 2. The authors provide some general background
    information.
  • For example, there have been some studies dozens
    of studies, over the past 20 years (S-1), and
    Other registers have received surprisingly
    little attention and have been virtually
    ignored (S-2).
  • In addition to providing background information,
    the authors give a reason to justify the present
    research.
  • They refer to a gap in knowledge on academic
    discourse that they would like to fill. This is
    labeled as gap indication.

29
  • 3.  The purpose of the paper is given next by
    this article undertakes a (S-3).
  • At the same time we see that there is a focus on
    incoming international students and at U.S.
    universities (S-3).
  • 4. The methodology of the research is indicated
    next by a multidimensional analysis of register
    variation and the proposed source of data by
    the TOFEL Corpus (S-4).

30
  • 5. Reference to findings is indicated by The
    analysis shows (S-5).
  • The authors also state that the findings are
    surprising (S-6), i.e. classroom teaching was
    similar to conversational registers and
    departmental brochures were as informationally
    dense as textbooks (S-7).
  • 6. And finally we get the reference to
    implications for pedagogy and further
    research (S-8).

31
4 Elements of structure in an Abstract
  • We can see that by asking a number of questions
    we can discover the structure of the Abstract.
  • We can refer to each section as an element of
    structure. The six elements of structure can
    then be referred to as
  • Topic Specification (TS),
  • Background Information (BI),
  • Purpose Statement (PS),
  • Methodology and Data (MD),
  • Results/Findings (RF), and
  • Implications/Conclusions (IC).

32
  • Although the example discussed above has ALL the
    structural elements of an Abstract, we are not
    saying that ALL other Abstracts have the same
    elements as well.
  • We can say that some elements are obligatory and
    some are optional.
  • Let us look at another Abstract to see how the
    elements are presented.

33
Elizabeth Black Metaphor, simile and cognition
in Goldings The Inheritors
  • This article discusses the relationship between
    underlexicalisation, metaphor and simile in
    Goldings The Inheritors. It argues that they are
    deployed to reflect the developing cognitive and
    linguistic abilities of the novels characters.
    It is suggested that certain structures, which
    may appear metaphorical, are best treated as
    cases of underlexicalisation.
  • (Editor Mick Short Language and Literature,
    1(2) (1993) pp. 37-48.

34
  • (1) This article discusses the relationship
    between underlexicalisation, metaphor and simile
    in Goldings The Inheritors.
  • (2) It argues that they are deployed to reflect
    the developing cognitive and linguistic abilities
    of the novels characters.
  • (3) It is suggested that certain structures,
    which may appear metaphorical, are best treated
    as cases of underlexicalisation.

35
Questions on the abstract
  • 1. Subject matter
  • (1) the relationship between underlexicalisation,
    metaphor and simile
  • 2. Background information
  • No background information.
  • 3. Purpose
  • (1) discusses the relationship between
  • 4. Methodology
  • (2) argues
  • 5. Findings
  • (3) it is suggested that
  • 6. Implications
  • No implications mentioned.

36
Obligatory and Optional?
  • 1. What is the subject matter/area the research
    paper is dealing with?
  • 3. What is the purpose of the present study?
  • 4. How is the research to be done?
  • 5. What are some of the important findings?
  • 2. What background information is provided by the
    author?
  • 6. What are some of the implications of the
    study?

37
Thomas T. Ballmer Words, sentences, texts, and
all that (Text 1(2) (1981) pp. 163-189)
  • (1) The topic of this paper concerns the relation
    between three levels of language words,
    sentences, and texts. (2) After a presentation of
    state of the art of text linguistics it is shown
    that the somewhat neglected area of lexicology
    casts new light on the issue of text vs. sentence
    linguistics. (3) A dynamic conception of language
    based on its mechanism of context change together
    with the lexical analysis of the word thesaurus
    of a language leads the way to a description of
    the expressions, text structures, and context
    structures. (4) This conception makes it possible
    to proceed further and characterize the task of
    text theory. (5)The formal prerequisites are
    language reconstruction systems, context-change
    logic, and the background of optimization.

38
  • (1) The topic of this paper concerns the relation
    between three levels of language words,
    sentences, and texts.
  • (2) After a presentation of state of the art of
    text linguistics it is shown that the somewhat
    neglected area of lexicology casts new light on
    the issue of text vs. sentence linguistics.
  • (3) A dynamic conception of language based on its
    mechanism of context change together with the
    lexical analysis of the word thesaurus of a
    language leads the way to a description of the
    expressions, text structures, and context
    structures.
  • (4) This conception makes it possible to proceed
    further and characterize the task of text theory.
  • (5)The formal prerequisites are language
    reconstruction systems, context-change logic, and
    the background of optimization.

39
  • 1. Subject matter
  • (1) The topic of this paper concerns the
    relation
  • 2. Background information
  • No background information.
  • 3. Purpose
  • (1) this article deals with one particular
    problem
  • 4. Methodology
  • (2) After a presentation of state of the art of
    text linguistics it is shown that
  • (3) A dynamic conception leads the way to a
    description
  • (4) This conception makes it possible to proceed
    further and characterize the task of text
    theory.
  • 5. Findings
  • (5) The formal prerequisites are language
    reconstruction systems, and the background of
    optimization
  • 6. Implications
  • No implications mentioned.

40
Ballmer
  • No background information.
  • No implication mentioned.
  • The expression of findings not clear.
  • Description of Methodology not clear.

41
Robert de Beaugrande Linguistic theory and
metatheory for a science of texts (Text 1(2)
(1981) pp. 113-161)
  • (1) This article explores the typical reactions
    which occur when an established science confronts
    a new object of inquiry, as we find when
    linguistic theory encounters the text. (2) The
    usual discussions are not productive as long as
    the old paradigm is still accepted as the
    framework for achievement. (3) The issues are
    therefore re-examined in terms of the metatheory
    of science (e.g. Sneed, Stegmüller, Lakatos,
    Feyerabend, Hempel), and some general solutions
    are expounded for the problems of validating
    theories on the basis of empirical content. (4) A
    paradigmatic example is then presented in order
    to show a possible role for logical linguistics
    in future theories a computer grammar that
    parses text sentences into a progressive network
    and back again via theorem-proving, with further
    capacities for applying schemas, answering
    questions, and generating summaries. (5) This
    example serves as an application of general
    design values and criteria for preferring and
    comparing alternative theories.

42
  • (1) This article explores the typical reactions
    which occur when an established science confronts
    a new object of inquiry, as we find when
    linguistic theory encounters the text.
  • (2) The usual discussions are not productive as
    long as the old paradigm is still accepted as
    the framework for achievement.
  • (3) The issues are therefore re-examined in terms
    of the metatheory of science (e.g. Sneed,
    Stegmüller, Lakatos, Feyerabend, Hempel), and
    some general solutions are expounded for the
    problems of validating theories on the basis of
    empirical content.
  • (4) A paradigmatic example is then presented in
    order to show a possible role for logical
    linguistics in future theories a computer
    grammar that parses text sentences into a
    progressive network and back again via
    theorem-proving, with further capacities for
    applying schemas, answering questions, and
    generating summaries.
  • (5) This example serves as an application of
    general design values and criteria for preferring
    and comparing alternative theories.

43
  • 1. Subject matter
  • (1) the typical reactions which occur when an
    established science confronts a new object of
    inquiry
  • 2. Background information
  • (2) The usual discussions are not productive as
    long as the old paradigm is still accepted as
    the framework for achievement.
  • 3. Purpose
  • (1) This article explores the typical reactions
  • 4. Methodology
  • (3) The issues are re-examined in terms of the
    metatheory of science and some general
    solutions are expounded
  • (4) A paradigmatic example is presented
  • 5. Findings
  • ?(4) to show a possible role for logical
    linguistics in future theories
  • 6. Implications
  • (5) This example serves as an application of
    general design values and criteria for preferring
    and comparing alternative theories.

44
R. de Beaugrande
  • Argumentation (vs description)
  • Speculative, literature review, library research,
    theorizing
  • Element structures of the abstract not
    clearly-cut

45
M. Couthard The linguist as expert witness
(Linguistics and the Human Sciences 1(1) (2005
  • This article illustrates the problems faced and
    the techniques used by the linguist when acting
    as an expert witness. Examples are drawn from a
    wild variety of cases. The article first
    exemplifies disputes about the meaning of
    individual morphemes in a trademark case, where
    the American burger chain McDonalds claimed
    ownership of the morpheme Mc on the grounds
    that they had invented a McLanguage, and about
    the interpretation of individual words like
    sufficient, preclude and impairment in jury
    instructions and health insurance proposals,
    where convincing evidence is offered that
    cooperative readers would not have derived the
    meaning intended by the legal authors of the
    texts. The articles then examines the
    contribution linguists made in two specific cases
    to resolving questions about the degree of
    grammatical complexity in a disputed letter and a
    statute whose interpretation had been appealed,
    before moving on to use the concept of linguistic
    uniqueness to help resolve the question of the
    ownership of particular words and phrases in
    two cases of suspected plagiarism. The concepts
    used in the plagiarism cases are then used to
    resolve a dispute about whether a whole interview
    record had been fabricated by the police in a
    murder case. Throughout the article examples are
    provided of the wide range of techniques that
    forensic linguists have developed and now use to
    reach and support their opinions, ranging from
    evidence derived from corpora and questionnaires
    to insights drawn from morphology, grammar,
    lexis, pragmatics, semantics and discourse and
    text analysis.

46
  • (1) This article illustrates the problems faced
    and the techniques used by the linguist when
    acting as an expert witness.
  • (2) Examples are drawn from a wild variety of
    cases.
  • (3) The article first exemplifies disputes about
    the meaning of individual morphemes in a
    trademark case, where the American burger chain
    McDonalds claimed ownership of the morpheme Mc
    on the grounds that they had invented a
    McLanguage, and about the interpretation of
    individual words like sufficient, preclude
    and impairment in jury instructions and health
    insurance proposals, where convincing evidence is
    offered that cooperative readers would not have
    derived the meaning intended by the legal authors
    of the texts.

47
  • (4) The articles then examines the contribution
    linguists made in two specific cases to resolving
    questions about the degree of grammatical
    complexity in a disputed letter and a statute
    whose interpretation had been appealed, before
    moving on to use the concept of linguistic
    uniqueness to help resolve the question of the
    ownership of particular words and phrases in
    two cases of suspected plagiarism.
  • (5) The concepts used in the plagiarism cases are
    then used to resolve a dispute about whether a
    whole interview record had been fabricated by the
    police in a murder case.
  • (6) Throughout the article examples are provided
    of the wide range of techniques that forensic
    linguists have developed and now use to reach and
    support their opinions, ranging from evidence
    derived from corpora and questionnaires to
    insights drawn from morphology, grammar, lexis,
    pragmatics, semantics and discourse and text
    analysis.

48
  • 1. Subject matter
  • (1) This article illustrates the problems faced
    and the techniques used by the linguist
  • 2. Background information
  • ???(2) Examples are drawn from a wild variety of
    cases.
  • 3. Purpose
  • ???
  • 4. Methodology
  • ???(3) The article first exemplifies disputes
    about the meaning
  • ???(4) The articles then examines the
    contribution
  • ???(5) The concepts used in the plagiarism cases
    are then used to resolve a dispute about whether
    a whole interview record had been fabricated by
    the police in a murder case.
  • ???(6) Throughout the article examples are
    provided of the wide range of techniques
  • 5. Findings
  • ???
  • 6. Implications
  • ???

49
M. Couthard
  • Purpose is not clearly stated.
  • Methodology is not clearly stated.
  • No obvious findings.
  • No obvious implications.
  • The use of examples has been emphasized (e.g.
    Sentences (2) (6).)

50
Discussion
  • Types of research and ways of presentation
  • Different disciplines have different norms and
    conventions
  • Differences between linguistics and applied
    linguistics (e.g., previous studies,
    implications)
  • Some senior people may not follow the norm, and
    they are often allowed to have deviations.

51
5 The Language of an abstract
  • The information in an abstract is condensed in
    nominal groups with special types of verbs.
  • There are certain grammatical patterns that are
    usually used.
  • The best way is to see, from a purely
    linguistic/grammatical perspective how people
    write abstracts.

52
Some examples
  • This paper, this article, this study, this
    research, this project, the author, we, I,
  • Argue, report, investigates, focus on, survey,
    review, present, address, give, look, examine,
    outline, explore, deal with, consider, discuss,
    suggest, be concerned with, approach, analyse,
    describe, demonstrate, illustrate, evaluate,
  • Aim to challenge, attempt to argue, seek to argue,

53
  • The secret of a successful Abstract is in giving
    the most information in the least number of words
    in a coherent structure.
  • This can be achieved by reading good Abstracts
    and then imitating them when you need to write
    one.

54
Pieces of advice
  • We can safely assume that if a research paper is
    accepted by an international journal, then its
    Abstract can be imitated by people learning to
    write this kind of text.
  • If someone is recognized in the field, his way of
    writing is also accepted. (but)
  • To write a good Abstract, we have to follow the
    conventions set by more experienced people in the
    field.
  • If you want to have a paper accepted by a
    journal, you should read the journal and see the
    underlying principle/requirement.

55
6 Summary
  • We have focused on the discourse structure.
  • The two main features of an Abstract are its
    discourse structure and the language used for
    condensing the information.
  • The secret of a successful Abstract is in giving
    the most information in the least number of words
    in a coherent structure. This can be achieved by
    reading good Abstracts and then imitating them
    when you need to write one.

56
Reminder Six questions on the Abstract
  • 1. What is the subject matter/area the research
    paper is dealing with?
  • 2. What background information is provided by the
    author(s)?
  • 3. What is the purpose of the present study?
  • 4. How is the research to be done?
  • 5. What are some of the important findings?
  • 6. What are some of the implications of the
    study?
About PowerShow.com