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Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) Dr Sithabiso Gandure, The Wahenga Institute Multiparty Women s Caucus Capacity Development Workshop Gender and Climate Change – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Disaster%20Risk%20Reduction%20(DRR)

Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR)
Dr Sithabiso Gandure, The Wahenga
Institute Multiparty Womens Caucus Capacity
Development Workshop Gender and Climate
Change Cape Town, 19 October 2011
Outline of Presentation
  • Disasters (Incidences and trends)
  • Global
  • South Africa
  • Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), Climate change
    (CC) and Gender What are the linkages?
  • Impacts of Disasters particularly from CC
  • Interventions and responses
  • Adopting a Gender Approach to CC and DRR
  • National Platforms for DRR
  • Concluding remarks

Natural Disasters Global incidences trends
500 people killed
Malawi drought February 2002
300,000,000 people affected
India drought July 2002
15, 000, 000 people affected
South Africa drought January 2004
222,570 people killed
Haiti earthquake January 2010
Worst drought in Somalia since 1991/92 -
3.7 million people in crisis
28,050 people killed
Japan tsunami March 2011
Trends of World Natural Disasters (1975-2009)
EM-DAT The OFDA/CRED International Disaster
Database, www.em-dat.net
Disaster occurrence, 5-year period (1975-2009)
EM-DAT The OFDA/CRED International Disaster
Database, www.em-dat.net
Impacts of natural disasters by region (2009)
EM-DAT The OFDA/CRED International Disaster
Database, www.em-dat.net
What is the outlook for South Africa?
KZN Hard Hit by Floods (Jan 7 2011)
Limpopo families count losses after storm (Dec 18
South Africa can expect more natural disasters
26 Sept 2011 (Long Term Mitigation Study (LTMS)
The Government should not negotiate for South
Africans but with them.......The voices of the
poor, underdeveloped, women, youth must be heard
(Minister Edna Molelwa, Water Environmental
Natural Disasters in South Africa (1992 to 2011)
 Type of natural disaster Number of Events Number killed Total people affected Damage (000 US)
Drought 2 - 15,300,000 -
Extreme temp(cold wave) 2 52 - -
Flood 15 246 131,690 390,424
Landslide 1 34 - -
Local storm 12 113 131,909 219,041
Wildfire 1 34 25 430000
Source "EM-DAT The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database
www.em-dat.net - Université Catholique de Louvain - Brussels - Belgium"
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What is Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR)?
  • Disaster risk reduction describes policies and
    practices to minimise (with a view to longer-term
    prevention) disaster losses. These involve
    interventions in
  • Mitigation reducing the frequency, scale,
    intensity and impact of hazards.
  • Preparedness strengthening capacity of
    communities to respond to recover from hazards,
    of government, implementing partners to provide
    effective response.
  • Advocacy favourably influencing the social,
    political, economic and environmental issues that
    contribute to the causes and magnitude of impact
    of hazards.

A natural hazard does not in itself cause a
  • A disaster results when a hazard impacts on a
    vulnerable exposed and ill prepared community.
  • Weather related hazards are becoming more
    frequent due to climate change killing more
    people overtime and costing more.
  • According to IPCC reports, one of the anticipated
    effects of climate change is the increase in both
    frequency and intensity of extreme weather
    events, such as hurricanes, floods, and droughts.

What determines level of impact and vulnerability?
  • The intensity and scale of a hazard and the
    vulnerability of individuals and communities
    determines the magnitude of impact
  • The degree of vulnerability is defined by
  • social variables such as gender, age, health
    status, economic status, ethnicity etc.
  • Existing socio-economic and political conditions
    mean that disasters can lead to different
  • Research reveals that disasters reinforce,
    perpetuate and increase gender inequality.

  • Successful DRR must occur before a disaster
  • Need to shift focus away from response to
    disaster prevention and preparedness activities
  • Disasters constrain national efforts to
    mitigating the impacts of CC due to
  • Limitations in Early Warning Systems,
  • Limitations in institutional capacities in
    dealing with and mitigating disasters
  • Hence, in general DRR tends to be more reactive

Disaster Risk Reduction, Climate Change, Gender
  • DRR and CC adaptation are cross-cutting
    development issues
  • Share the same goals reduce vulnerability,
    increase resilience and achieve sustainable
  • Need to address root causes of vulnerability that
    include human, economic, social, environmental
    and physical factors in a gender sensitive way

The rationale for gender concerns
  • Gender equality is a generic principle across all
    developmental areas including CC and DRR.
  • The rationale for gender equality has at least
    three dimensions
  • First, it is a rights issue and the principle is
    enshrined in international and regional protocols
    and national policies.
  • Second, it is an economic environmental issue
    in that gender inequality undermines development
  • Third, it is a social issue in that women perform
    a vital and unique role in household and
    community structures which is under-recognized
    and under-valued.

The rationale for gender concerns
  • Effectively mainstreaming gender in DRR and CC
    like in other sectors faces significant
    challenges because
  • it requires shifting cultural norms,
  • of an absence of entitlement legislation and a
    reluctance to enforce it where it does exist or
    monitor implementation
  • of the prevailing gender balance within national
    executives and legislatives.
  • The net result, is that international, regional
    national policies have not been translated into
    tangible public actions.

Examples of Gendered Impacts of CC related
natural disasters
Among women aged 20-44, the death rate was 71 per
1000, compared to 15 per 1000 for men
Bangladesh cyclone flood of 1991,
Warning information transmitted between men in
public spaces, but rarely to the family
Women were not allowed to leave the houses
without a male relative
Women and children are 14 times more likely to
die than men during disasters
IUCN/WEDO, 2007 report
Examples of Gendered Impacts of CC related
natural disasters
Gender inequalities exacerbated in the aftermath
of disasters. Increase in workload may force many
girls to drop out of school
Research by Davies et al, 2005
Women and girls are more likely to become victims
of domestic and sexual violence after a disaster
particularly when families have been displaced
and are living in overcrowded emergency or
transitional housing where they lack privacy
Why the gender differences?
  • An analysis of 141 countries showed that gender
    differences in deaths from natural disasters are
    directly linked to womens economic and social
  • When womens rights are not protected, more women
    than men will die from disasters.
  • The study also found the opposite to be true in
    societies where women and men enjoy equal rights,
    disasters kill the same number of women and men
  • (London School of Economics)

DRR as a mitigation strategy against climate
  • Making gender-sensitive DRR a tool for climate
    change adaptation in-order to enhance resilience
    to disasters and climate change
  • The existing methods and tools of disaster risk
    reduction are useful for adaptation to climate
  • Risk and vulnerability assessments approaches
    (community involvement )
  • Early warning
  • Hyogo Framework for Action
  • Guidelines on national platforms for disaster
    risk reduction

Community involvement in risk assessment
Tackling DRR
  • The cornerstone of DRR The Hyogo Framework for
    Action 2005-2015 Building the Resilience of
    Nations and Communities to Disasters, adopted by
    168 Governments in January 2005 ensures that
    disaster risk reduction is a national and a local
  • SADC Disaster Risk Reduction Strategic Plan
  • South Africa Disaster Management Act 57,2002 Set
    the National Disaster Management Centre (NDMC)

Role of National DRR platforms
  • A national platform for DRR is a mechanism to
    address disaster risk reduction issues through a
    coordinated, participatory and interactive
  • It comprises representatives from major line
    ministries, UN Agencies, civil society
    organisations including NGOs, the private sector
    and academic institutions
  • South Africa has the National Disaster Management
    Advisory Forum (NDMAF) that meets every quarter,
    chaired by the head of NDMC

Adopting a Gender Sensitive Approach to CC and DDR
  • The Gender Approach should be integrated in the
    entire programming process.
  • Disaggregate all data by gender to allow for
    gender sensitive strategies.
  • Gender Analysis
  • Preparation prevention both men and women
    should be involved in various aspects such as
    emergency plans, capacity training etc
  • Response psycho-social counseling support to
    men and women should be provided per specific
  • Recovery interventions should address the needs
    of both men and women

Concluding remarks
  • Gender equality in DRR CC does not mean
    addressing womens issues it means addressing
    concerns of both men and women
  • However, gender inequality is a root cause of
    womens vulnerability to disasters CC.
  • Gender shapes vulnerability to as well as
    capacity to cope with disasters.
  • Women are active and are in the fore front in
    terms of adaption to CC although often regarded
    as helpless victims.

Thank you
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