The Passport to Higher Education: Disability Documentation That Students Need Addressing Achievement Gaps: Students with Learning Disabilities Transitioning from High School to College Princeton, NJ October 4, 2006 Loring C. Brinckerhoff, - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Passport to Higher Education: Disability Documentation That Students Need Addressing Achievement Gaps: Students with Learning Disabilities Transitioning from High School to College Princeton, NJ October 4, 2006 Loring C. Brinckerhoff,

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Title: The Passport to Higher Education: Disability Documentation That Students Need Addressing Achievement Gaps: Students with Learning Disabilities Transitioning from High School to College Princeton, NJ October 4, 2006 Loring C. Brinckerhoff,


1
The Passport to Higher Education Disability
Documentation That Students NeedAddressing
Achievement Gaps Students with Learning
Disabilities Transitioning from High School to
CollegePrinceton, NJOctober 4, 2006Loring C.
Brinckerhoff, Ph.D.Director, Office of
Disability PolicyEducational Testing Service
lbrinckerhoff_at_ets.org
2
ETS Web Page
3
ETS Policy Statements for LD, ADHD, Psychiatric
and Physical Disabilities
  • ETS mission
  • Confidentiality statement
  • Qualified professional must conduct the
    evaluation
  • Documentation must be current
  • Documentation to support the diagnosis must be
    comprehensive
  • Documentation must include a specific diagnosis

4
ETS Policy Statements for LD, ADHD, Psychiatric
and Physical Disabilities
  • Documentation must include a description of the
    current functional limitations
  • Actual test scores from standardized instruments
    must be provided
  • Each accommodation recommended by the evaluator
    must include a rationale
  • Alternative diagnoses or explanations should be
    ruled out

5
Keep this Continuum in mind

a functional limitation that substantially
limits
a learning problem
a relative performance deficit
a glitch
6
Eligibility Considerations
  • Does the test taker have a disability that
    necessitates testing accommodations?
  • Does the test taker receive accommodations in
    school or the workplacebased on the disability?
  • Does the documentation meet the criteria outlined
    in the ETS Policy Statements?

7
Writing Quality Reports 12 Pitfalls to Consider
  • Pitfall 1 - Documentation should be typed or
    printed on letterhead, dated, signed, and be
    legible with the name, title and professional
    credentials of the evaluator.
  • Pitfall 2 - Documentation should be recent.
    Documentation should be no more than 5 years old
    for LD 3 years for ADHD and 6 months for
    psychiatric disabilities.
  • Pitfall 3 - Documentation should include the
    reason for referral.

8
Writing Quality Reports12 Pitfalls to Consider
(cont.)
  • Pitfall 4 - Documentation should include a
    listing of all the tests that were used to
    establish the disability and to support the
    accommodation requests. Evaluation measures
    selected for the assessment battery should be
    reliable, valid, and age appropriate.
  • Pitfall 5 - Documentation should include
    developmental, educational, and medical
    histories.
  • Pitfall 6 - The diagnostic report should have a
    clear statement of the disability.

9
Writing Quality Reports12 Pitfalls to Consider
(cont.)
  • Pitfall 7 - It is important that the report
    includes a rule-out statement.
  • Pitfall 8 - The report should provide
    appropriate measures of achievement.
  • Pitfall 9 - Test results should be clearly
    stated with all subtests noted.

10
Writing Quality Reports12 Pitfalls to Consider
(cont.)
  • Pitfall 10 - The clinical summary should recap
    the high points, rule out alternative
    explanations, and summarize how the findings
    support any substantial limitation to a major
    life activity.
  • Pitfall 11 - Support for the requested
    accommodations must be tied to specific test
    results.
  • Pitfall 12 - Support for extended testing time
    should be specifically addressed by the
    evaluator.

11
Accommodation Trends in High Stakes Testing
  • Accommodation requests for licensure and high
    stakes exams are receiving greater scrutiny
  • Co-morbid diagnoses mean accommodation decisions
    are more complex
  • More documentation is being received from foreign
    countries
  • More requests by test takers to use the latest
    technology with the test
  • SOPs become part of documentation
  • Relative performance deficits arent cutting
  • it for accommodations

12
Determining Accommodations
  • Section 504 requires individualized
  • determination of accommodations requested
  • Blanket policies for any one disability group
    should be avoided
  • Past history of an accommodation may be relevant
    in making an accommodation decision
  • Testing agencies and disability service providers
    do not have to change their standards or provide
    accommodations that are an undue hardship

13
Reasonable Accommodations
  • Additional time (1.5 or double time, typically)
  • Additional rest breaks
  • Larger font size, larger monitor
  • non-glare screen
  • Large print answer sheet
  • Audio tapes, or a reader

14
Reasonable Accommodations (cont.)
  • Scribe or keyboard entry aide
  • Quiet room with a few others or a separate room
  • Basic 4-function calculator
  • ETS Spell-checker
  • Other accommodations/courtesies considered
  • Colored overlays
  • Additional scratch paper
  • Multi-day testing

15
Sources of Accommodation Conflicts
  • Accommodation requests are too sweeping and
    include students learning preferences
  • Accommodations may be presented as a menu of
    options for students to try out and may not be
    supported by data
  • Evaluators often recommend multiple
    accommodations (i.e., a laundry list) for a
    specific functional limitation

16
Sources of Accommodation Conflicts (cont.)
  1. Evaluators typically do not distinguish between
    study skills, remedial strategies, counseling,
    and ADA accommodations
  2. Accommodation requests are couched in disability
    jargon and may not be warranted
  3. Students often request accommodations they have
    used in the classroom for test-taking situations

17

New ETS policy on LD and LD/ADHD Documentation
Shelf Life
  • A complete diagnostic reevaluation is no longer
    necessary for
  • basic accommodations (time and one half and/or
    additional rest
  • breaks) if ALL of the following apply
  • Test taker has a longstanding learning
    disability, or learning disability with ADHD
    (LD/ADHD) and
  • Test taker has provided ETS with a signed
    Certification of Eligibility (COE) that attests
    that the documentation is written in accordance
    with the ETS Documentation Criteria using adult
    measures (e.g., WAIS-III, Woodcock-Johnson III,
    etc.) and
  • Test taker has a history of receiving
    accommodations on campus or on the job.

Source www.ets.org
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