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Title: Unit 1: The Ancient Roman Empire


1
Unit 1 The Ancient Roman Empire The Empire That
Shaped the Western World
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  • I. How Rome Began The Monarchy Period (about
    753-642 B.C.)
  • A. The Legend of Romulus and Remus
  • B. Romulus - first king of Rome (753 -717 B.C.)
  • C. Six different kings followed Romulus

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  • II. The Enemy The Etruscan Period (642 B.C
    509 B.C)
  • A. Etruscans - very advanced enemy, overpowered
    the Romans (642 B.C.)
  • Etruscans cruel, overbearing rulers
  • Romans overthrow hated Etruscan king (509 B.C.)
    end of Etruscan period

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  • The Ideal The Republic Period (509 B.C. 133
    B.C.)
  • A. Romans despised Etruscan monarchy system
  • B. Republic thing of the people
  • 1. keep one person from getting too much
    power
  • 2. The Senate
  • a) elected senators
  • b) patricians (upper class) only
  • c) Twelve Tables first laws
  • 3. The Co-Consuls
  • a) army commanders (usually 2)
  • 4. Dictator
  • a) during war time only
  • C. Plebians (lower class)
  • 1. Tribune plebian officials who could
    veto laws that hurt the plebians

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IV. Growing The Republics Expansion
Period A. Romes masterful army
legions 1. Rewards for bravery, death for
cowardice B. Conquered lands 1. Rome
treated conquered enemies w/ justice 2.
Many conquered people supported Rome C.
And the republic expanded. .. . and expanded
and expanded.. D. All of Italy is under Roman
control (270 B.C.)
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V. War The Republics Rivalry With Carthage
Period (270-146 B.C.) A. Carthage city-state
in Tunisia (Africa) B. Three Punic Wars 1.
War 1 Rome Wins (241 B.C.) a) Rome gains Med
islands, Sicily, Corsica, and Sardina 2.
War 2 Rome Wins (203 B.C.) a) Carthage
leader Hannibal leads war elephants into
Rome b) Rome attacks Hannibals
homeland 3. War 3 Rome Wins (146
B.C.) a) Carthage is destroyed, survivors
sold into slavery
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VI. Turmoil The Republics Civil War Period
(133 48 B.C.) A. Senate rich and corrupt
1. The Gracchus Brothers elected Tribunes
2. Both were killed by thugs sent by
senators (120 B.C.) B. Generals recruit
plebians to fight 1. Generals will give
them land in exchange for service and
loyalty 2. Generals begin using armies to
seize political power from the Senate
14
C. Roman Civil War 1. Julius Caesar (a new,
young senator) gains popularity with the
poor,becomes influential (59 B.C.) 2. Pompey
and Crassus co-consuls of Rome 3. Caesar (C)
and Pompey (P) become friends, respect each
other 4. C is appointed tri-consul w/ Pompey
and Crassus Triumvirate
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  • 5. P crushes slave rebellions across Roman land
    hero
  • 6. C is jealous of Ps popularity, needs a
    military victory
  • 7. Cs daughter, Julia, forms relationship w/P
  • 8. C offers Julia to P in exchange for Ps
    50,000 soldiers and moves them to Gaul
  • 9. C conquers Gaul (today France) (50 B.C.)
  • P becomes concerned about Cs popularity
  • Crassus is killed in battle

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D. Vini, Vidi, Vici 1. C attacks P and his
supporters in Rome 2. C forces senate to make
him dictator (48 B.C.) 3. C absolute ruler
of Rome 4. C demands P be killed
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VII. Stability The Julius Caesar Period (48
B.C. 44 B.C.) A. Employs the jobless B.
Reorganizes the govt more Senators C.
Granted citizenship to the poor D. Institutes
the Julian Calendar
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VIII. Power The Roman Empire Period (31
B.C.-476 A.D.) A. The Ides of March 1.
Caesar stabbed in the senate chambers (44
B.C.) 2. Who will lead Rome? a) Mark
Antony? -- Caesars chief general --
allied w/ Cleopatra of Egypt -- perceived by
Romans to be immoral b) Octavian?
-- Caesars closest heir B. Octavian
Exalted One AUGUSTUS (31 B.C.) C. The
Roman Empire is born
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IX. Peace The Pax Romana Period (31 B.C.
180 A.D.) A. Time of Peace and Prosperity for
Rome 1. innovation, education,
motivation 2. Empire grew Egypt to
Britain 3. set up a postal service made
trade easier 4. economy was strong,
majority of Romans lived well 5. many
good and bad emperors a) good Marcus
Aurelius (161 A.D. 180 A.D.) b) bad
Nero, Caligula, Tiberius, Commodus
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  • 6. Mass Entertainment is Popular
  • a) Chariot Races _at_ Circus Maximus
  • b) Gladiator Contests _at_ Colosseum
  • c) Emperors used entertainment to distract
    public from real problems

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  • 7. Roman Technology Grows
  • a) aqueducts the worlds first water supply
    line to private homes or public baths

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X. Chaos The End of the Pax Romana Period
(180-284) A. Death of Emperor Marcus Aurelius
(180) B. 50 emperors followed in the next 49
years C. No stability, no confidence no
loyalty to Rome
Marcus Aurelius
Commodus
27
XI. The Rise of Christianity Period (35-476
A.D.) A. Early Roman Religion 1.
Polytheistic Jupiter main god 2. Rome said
it tolerated other religions B. Rome
conquered Judea --Jewish land (63 B.C.) C.
Jesus is born (4 B.C.) D. Many Jews began to
follow a Jew named Jesus 1. teaching through
parables - forgiveness - sympathy for
the poor - message of peace
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E. Romans officials believe Jesus is a threat
to their power 1. Judas, disciple of Jesus,
betrays Jesus for 2. Jesus is crucified,
considered a martyr (35 A.D.) 3. Jews who
believe in Jesus then become Christians F.
Christianity is born, spreads throughout Roman
Empire G. Christianity is the official religion
of Roman Empire (392 A.D.)
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XII. Control The Diocletian Period (284)
A. Diocletian took control of chaotic Empire
1. separated Rome into East and West 2.
served as an absolute dictator 3. demanded a
caste social structure be implemented 4.
controlled borders from invaders 5. persecuted
Christians (about 5 of pop.) 6. has been
compared to Augustus b/c he brought stability
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Western Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
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XIII. The Constantine Period (312) A.
Constantine welcomed and supported
Christianity B. Constantinople -- new Eastern
Capital better resources C. West was in decline
and was constantly invaded
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Western Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
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XIV. The Fall The Foreign Invasions Period
(200-476) A. Germanic Tribes from the North
(Visigoths, Franks) B. Rome surrenders
Britain, Gaul, Spain (200) C. The Asian
Huns -- led by Attila the Hun take most of
Eastern Rome (453) D. Last Western Roman
Emperor loses power to the Germanic Invaders
(476)
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XV.Why did the Roman Empire fall? A. Military
Reasons 1. tribal invasions 2. weakened
Roman army B. Economic Reasons 1. Heavy
taxes needed to protect huge empire C.
Political Reasons 1. Divided empire 2.
Disloyalty and lack of respect for
leadership
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