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Remote Direct-Reading Monitoring of Residential Air Quality:

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Title: Slide 1 Author: Dorr Dearborn Last modified by: SOM-Staff Created Date: 8/8/2011 8:58:09 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Remote Direct-Reading Monitoring of Residential Air Quality:


1
Remote Direct-Reading Monitoring of Residential
Air Quality  Initial Experience
  • Dorr G. Dearborn, PhD, MD
  • Dept Environmental Health Sciences
  • Case Western Reserve University
  • Cleveland, Ohio

2
Remote Monitoring of Residential Air Quality
  • FINANCIAL DISCLOSURES (Dr. Dearborn)
  • NONE
  • Funding all from federal agencies (NIH, HUD) and
  • Intwine Connect (self funding some of the
    development no support to CWRU staff)

3
Remote Monitoring of Residential Air Quality
  • Overview
  • Calibration and QA
  • Household Activities
  • Status of Current Projects
  • Current Challenges
  • HUD-COPD Study

4
Remote Monitoring of Residential Air Quality
  • FUNDING-
  • NIH National Childrens Study, formative research
    project
  • HUD Office of Healthy Homes Lead hazard
    Control, HH Technical grant
  • RESEARCH TEAM-
  • CWRU-
  • Dept EHS Dorr Dearborn, Ellen Wells, Jeno
    Mozes,
  • Ying Huang, Mary Ellen Scott, NCS staff
  • Dept EECS Ken Loparo, Don Moore
  • Environmental Health Watch- Stu Greenberg, Matt
    Berges
  • Battelle MI- Marcia Nishioka, Thomas Kelly
  • Intwine Connect, Inc- Dave Martin, Joe Logan

5
Remote Monitoring of Residential Air Quality
  • Overview
  • Calibration and QA
  • Household Activities
  • Status of Current Projects
  • Current Challenges
  • HUD-COPD Study

6
Remote Monitoring of Residential Air Quality
  • NCS Goal To develop a low cost multi-sensor
    technology for real-time, remote monitoring of
    residential air quality in NCS homes .
  • NCS Formative Research Project Develop and
    investigate the feasibility, acceptability and
    cost of this technology.
  • HUD Goal To monitor air quality in homes
    retrofitted to Energy Star and Deep Energy.

7
Remote Monitoring of Residential Air Quality
  • Approach
  • real-time sensor array with telemetry over
    cellular networks enabling data transfer to
    central server for translation, analysis, and
    storage
  • Home indoor air quality parameters-
  • temperature,
  • humidity,
  • particulates (PMgt2.5 and PMgt0.5),
  • total volatile organic compounds (VOCs),
  • nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
  • carbon monoxide (CO)
  • carbon dioxide (CO2)

8
Air Quality Monitoring Units
Intwine air quality monitor (AQM)
DYLOS particulates unit
9
Data Transmisson
AQM
10
Residential Air Quality
CO, CO2, NO2, tVOC
PM 2.5-10 µm 0.5-2.5 µm
Temperature/Humidity
Q min
Cellular Router
CWRU Server
11
SENSOR CHARACTERISTICS
Sensor Model (type) Typical Detection Range Detection Limit
Temp Microchip TC1047A (bipolar diode) -40 C to 125 C -40 C
Relative Humidity Honeywell HIH-5031 (thermoset polymer capacitive sensor) 0 to 100 RH 0 RH
CO Figaro TGS 5042 (fuel cell type electrochemical sensor) 1 to 10,000 ppm 5 ppm
Total VOCs Figaro TGS 2602 (MOS sensor) 1 to 10 ppm Depends on target gases
NOx Synkera 706 (MOS sensor) 1 to 20 ppm 0.5 ppm
Particulate Matter Dylos DC1100 Pro (Laser particle counter) 0.5, 2.5 micron bins 0.5 micron particles
CO2 Figaro TGS 4161 (solid electrolyte sensor) 350 to 10,000 ppm 350ppm
MANUFACTURERS DATA
12
SENSOR CHARACTERISTICS
Sensor Model (type) Typical Detection Range Detection Limit
Temp Microchip TC1047A (bipolar diode) -40 C to 125 C -40 C
Relative Humidity Honeywell HIH-5031 (thermoset polymer capacitive sensor) 0 to 100 RH 0 RH
CO Figaro TGS 5042 (fuel cell type electrochemical sensor) 1 to 10,000 ppm 5 ppm
Total VOCs Figaro TGS 2602 (MOS sensor) 1 to 10 ppm Depends on target gases
NOx Synkera 706 (MOS sensor) 1 to 20 ppm 0.5 ppm
Particulate Matter Dylos DC1100 Pro (Laser particle counter) 0.5, 2.5 micron bins 0.5 micron particles
CO2 Figaro TGS 4161 (solid electrolyte sensor) 350 to 10,000 ppm 350ppm
MANUFACTURERS DATA
LOW COST - lt1000 PER UNIT
13
Initial Sensor Challenges
  • Sensitivity and Range
  • Temperature (humidity) dependent

14
Phase 1 air quality testing with PORTABLE monitors
Parameter INDOOR (8-9 houses) OUTDOOR (5-6 houses) Sensors
Average Range Average Range detect range Lower limit
Temperature, F 76.6 68.6-92.0 75.9 62.4-88.4 -40 - 125 C -40
Humidity, rel 56.3 38.9-70.9 60.8 45.2-78.7 0 - 100 0
CO, ppm 1.4 0.3-4.2 1.0 0.1-2.0 1-10,000 5
CO2, ppm 609 342-3952 359 331-543 350-10,000 350
NO2, ppm 0.08 0.0-0.6 0.06 0.0-0.4 1-20 0.5
Total VOCs, ppb 342 0 -812 34 0 -204 1000- 107
PM gt2.5, ct/ft3 5410 1000-20700 145497 1900-604700 2000
PM gt0.5, ct/ft3 248609 17800-648100 303626 7500-598600 8000
manufactures values, depends on target gas
15
Phase 1 air quality testing with PORTABLE monitors
Parameter INDOOR (8-9 houses) OUTDOOR (5-6 houses) Sensors
Average Range Average Range detect range Tested Lower limita
Temperature, F 76.6 68.6-92.0 75.9 62.4-88.4 -40 - 125 C -40
Humidity, rel 56.3 38.9-70.9 60.8 45.2-78.7 0 - 100 0
CO, ppm 1.4 0.3-4.2 1.0 0.1-2.0 1-10,000 0.2a
CO2, ppm 609 342-3952 359 331-543 350-10,000 331a
NO2, ppm 0.08 0.0-0.6 0.06 0.0-0.4 1-20 0.005a
Total VOCs, ppb 342 0 -812 34 0 -204 1000- 107 0.8a
PM gt2.5, ct/ft3 5410 1000-20700 145497 1900-604700 2000
PM gt0.5, ct/ft3 248609 17800-648100 303626 7500-598600 8000
manufactures values, depends on target gas
aSensors have dynamic range to reach lower
levels however, lowest level tested, which is
listed here as the lower limit, was the
background level in ambient air.
16
Initial Sensor Challenges
  • Sensitivity and Range
  • Temperature (humidity) dependent
  • Individual sensor calibration needed
  • Metal oxide sensors are highly variable
  • Sensors cross talk
  • Each sensor array unit has to be calibrated
  • Opportunity to increase sensitivity
  • 70 point gas mixture matrix in an environmental
    chamber

17
Remote Monitoring of Residential Air Quality
  • Overview
  • Calibration and QA
  • Household Activities
  • Status of Current Projects
  • Current Challenges
  • HUD-COPD Study

18
Calibration of Gas Sensors
  • Gas sensor platforms (AQMs) are placed in an
    environmental chamber with external data logging.
  • Concentrations of NO2, CO, CO2 and
    VOCs(alpha-pinene) are simultaneously controlled
    per pre-defined profiles at several different
    temperatures and relative humidity.
  • Parallel Gold Standard and raw AQM data are
    collected for a 70 point matrix.
  • Calibration equations are derived using a
    multi-dimensional linear regression taking the
    log of the Gold Std measurements and the raw AQM
    data.
  • Enables a linear relationship between the raw
    data and physical concentrations.

19
Calibration of Gas Sensors
  •  

20
SENSOR DRIFT
Plots of CO and CO2 data using calibration
equations which include CO2 (blue lines note the
drift upward) and exclude CO2 (red lines drift
removed)
21
AIR QUALITY INSTRUMENTS
Measurement Characteristic Gold Standard Portable Monitors
Temperature Model HOBO Model H14-002/S-THA-M002 TSI VelociCalc 9555, probe 982
Temperature Sensor type ND NDb
Temperature Typical rangea -40 to 75C (-40 to 167F) -10 to 60C
Temperature Precisiona 0.7 _at_ 20C 0.3C
Relative humidity Model HOBO Model H14-002/S-THA-M002 TSI VelociCalc 9555, probe 982
Relative humidity Sensor type ND NDb
Relative humidity Typical rangea 0 to100 RH (between 0 and 50C) 0 to 95 RH
Precisiona 3 RH over range 3 RH
a. Based on manufacturer specifications unless
otherwise noted. b. ND Data not provided
22
AIR QUALITY INSTRUMENTS
Measurement Characteristic Gold Standard Portable Monitors
Carbon dioxide Model LiCOR Model LI-820 TSI VelociCalc 9555, probe 982
Carbon dioxide Sensor type Infrared (NDIR) gas analyzer NDb
Carbon dioxide Typical rangea 0-20,000 ppm 0 to 5000 ppm
Carbon dioxide Precisiona lt3 of reading 3 or 50 ppm
Carbon monoxide Model Thermo Environmental Model 48C TSI VelociCalc 9555, probe 982
Carbon monoxide Sensor type Gas filter correlation spectroscopy NDb
Carbon monoxide Typical rangea 0-10,000 ppm 0 to 500 ppm
Carbon monoxide Precisiona 1 ppm 3 or 3 ppm
a. Based on manufacturer specifications unless
otherwise noted. b. ND Data not provided
23
AIR QUALITY INSTRUMENTS
Measurement Characteristic Gold Standard Portable Monitors
Oxides of nitrogen Model Thermo Environmental Model 42C RAE Systems QRAE Plus
Oxides of nitrogen Sensor type Chemiluminescence analyzer Electrochemical
Oxides of nitrogen Typical rangea 0-100 ppm 0-250 ppm (NO) 0-20.0 ppm
Oxides of nitrogen Precisiona 0.4 ppb NDb
Total volatile organic compounds Model VIG Model 20 RAE Systems, ppbRAE 3000
Total volatile organic compounds Sensor type Flame ionization Photoionization
Total volatile organic compounds Typical rangea 0-10,000 ppm 1 to 10,000 ppb
Total volatile organic compounds Precisiona 1 NDb
Particulate matterc Model Climet CI-500 Dylos DC1100 Pro
Particulate matterc Sensor type Laser diode particle counter Laser particle counter
Particulate matterc Typical rangea 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0, 10.0 µm 0.5, 2.5 µm bins
Particulate matterc Precisiona ND 28c
  • Based on manufacturer specifications unless
    otherwise noted.
  • DN data not provided.
  • c. . Based on the authors testing versus the
    Climet CI-500.
  •  

24
VALIDATION Application of calibration equations
to actual environmental chamber readings
25
Field Quality Assurance
Comparison of particulate matter information from
remote monitors versus portable monitors for one
volunteer home.
26
Quality Assurance Testing with Portable Field
Instruments
Have had difficulties with NO2 readings with the
portable field instruments
27
Remote Monitoring of Residential Air Quality
  • Overview
  • Calibration and QA
  • Household Activities
  • Status of Current Projects
  • Current Challenges
  • HUD-COPD Study

28
Household Activities
  • Smoking
  • Screen shots of air quality perturbations

29
SMOKER vs NON-SMOKER
PM gt0.5 Counts/0.01ft3
30
At pm 0.5 um
31
CO (ppm)
CO2 (ppm)
VOC (ppm)
CO
CO2
VOC
Tea Pot
Particles
Particles
NO2(ppb)
pm0.5um
pm2.5um
NO2
Coffee Pot
Kitchen Activities electric coffee percolator
vs heating water on gas stove
32
VOC
33
VOC
34
VOC
35
(No Transcript)
36
(No Transcript)
37
Dry wall sanding clean-up Particle counter in
upstairs bedroom
Impact of Room Air Cleaner
38
Air Quality Perturbations Household
ActivitiesSYSTEMATIC STUDIES EXAMPLES
  • Mothballs
  • Plug-in air freshener
  • Incense burning
  • Lysol spray
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Room air cleaner (vs purifier)
  • Stove (hood alternatives)
  • Stove (Bunsen burner) on
  • Fry onions (hotplate)

CHARACTERISTIC PATTERNS?
39
Remote Monitoring of Residential Air Quality
  • Overview
  • Calibration and QA
  • Household Activities
  • Status of Current Projects
  • Current Challenges
  • HUD-COPD Study

40
National Childrens Study Project Status
  • FEASIBILITY
  • Technology --gt Generation 4 system
  • ACCEPTIBILITY
  • Just completed study with 9 NCS participants
  • COST
  • AQM unit (2/house) 1500
  • Calibration (2/house) 500
  • Transmission, analysis ?

41
Deep Green and Healthy Homes
  • Retrofit of 12 single-family, inner city homes
  • 6 Energy Star 6 Deep Energy
  • Monitored energy use indoor air quality
  • Challenges
  • Establishing maintaining connectivity
  • within house locations and cellular 3G
  • Developing less expensive means of calibration
  • Currently assessing the validity of averaging the
    calibration equations across multiple NCS units.
  • Managing analyzing a large amount of data
    (ongoing)
  • Initial Results
  • Large amount of short-term variability

42
Remote Monitoring of Residential Air Quality
  • Overview
  • Calibration and QA
  • Household Activities
  • Status of Current Projects
  • Current Challenges
  • HUD-COPD Study

43
Data Management
  • Each house
  • 2 AQM units/house --gt 8 x 2 16 parameters
  • Data collected every 60 secs
  • --gt 288 kilobytes/house/day
  • Data transmission (cellular)
  • Intelligent sampling (threshold approach)
  • If all sensors stable --gt Q 5 min
  • Any change in any sensors --gt back to Q60 sec
  • Store-Forward memory device
  • Only transmit Q12h to Q24h

44
Data Analysis
  • Data cleaning-
  • e.g. removing non-reporting times
  • Exposure analysis-
  • Algorithms for accumulative exposures
  • Pattern recognition for activities

45
Practical Questions for Field Study
  • Frequency of data points (30-60 sec?)
  • How much smoothing for routine analysis?
  • Stability? (calibrate before install at end)
  • Memory at unit
  • Need to cover power outages?
  • Need to cover intermittent cellular coverage?
  • Acceptability to subjects
  • Activity portal

46
Sensor Challenges
  • Sensitivity and Range
  • Temperature (humidity) dependent
  • Individual sensor array calibration needed
  • Long term stability
  • Can we go for 12 months?

47
CURRENT DESIGN CHALLENGES
  • Data as absolute or trend values
  • Impact on system cost
  • Level of resolution?
  • Projection of importance for health studies
  • Relates to both sensor sensitivity and
    specificity
  • Allowable error?
  • Exact calibration conditions/parameters
  • Oxygen concentrations
  • Barometric pressure

48
GENERATION 4 SYSTEM
  • Sensor array platform
  • Optimal sensor selection, e.g. new CO2 sensor
  • Considering additional sensors HCHO, O3, O2,
    barometric pressure
  • Optimize sensor placement and interface circuits
  • Upgrade AQM mechanical / industrial design
  • Local server class gateway
  • Local calculations, storage, batch transmission
  • Remote selection of data window viewing
  • Cellular network
  • Data storage and analysis site

49
Health Effects of NO2
  • Know to be an inducer of airway inflammation
  • Prior exposure associated with more severe
    virus-induced asthma exacerbations.
  • Chauhan et al., Lancet, 3611939, 2003
  • Indoor NO2 associated with increased asthma
    symptoms in inner city children.
  • Hansel et al., Envir Hlth Persp, 1161428,
    2008
  • Increased ambient NO2 associated with increased
    prevalence of allergic sensitization.
  • Weir e al., Resp Med, 1071763, 2013

50
Pollutant Standard and Guideline Concentrations
Logue et al., http//dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.130667
3
51
Natural Gas Cooking Burners
  • Logue et al., http//dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.130667
    3
  • -simulation modeling in Southern California
    homes (without ventilating hoods winter)
  • A -exposures exceeding health-based standards
    guidelines.
  • B increased sample median of highest simulated
    1-hr indoor concentrations.
  • _A_ __B__
  • NO2 62 100 ppb
  • CO 9 3000 ppb
  • HCHO 53 20 ppb
  • Suggest that 55-70 homes using NGCB are in
    non-attainment

52
Remote Monitoring of Residential Air Quality
  • Overview
  • Calibration and QA
  • Household Activities
  • Status of Current Projects
  • Current Challenges
  • HUD-COPD Study

53
PLANNED HUD-COPD STUDY
  • Home environment largely ignored in COPD medical
    management
  • Many of same environmental triggers for asthma
    the same with COPD
  • PLAN pilot study of highly selected COPD pts
  • Monitor home air quality in parallel with daily
    telemedicine monitoring of pulse Ox, peak flow,
    etc
  • Look for any correlation with clinical
    exacerbations
  • Consider interventions to improve air quality and
    look for changes in Air Quality and Clinical
    Outcome

54
Residential Air Quality
CO, CO2, NO2, tVOC
PM 2.5-10 µm 0.5-25 µm
Temperature/Humidity
Q min
Ventilation, Appliances
Cellular Router
Q 24h
CWRU Server
55
Residential Air Quality COPD Study
Air Quality System bedroom kitchen
Telemedicine
Temperature/Humidity
CO, CO2, NO2, tVOC
PM 2.5-10 µm 0.5-25 µm
pO2, peakF, P, BP, wt, survey
Q min
1-6x per day
Cellular Router
Ventilation, Appliances, (Air cleaner)
VA telemedicine system
Q 24h
CWRU Server
Data Analysis
Additional Clinical Data
56
COPD Project Basic Design
  • Patients (pilot study- before after)
  • 15 COPD patients from VA hospital
  • Highly selected- no longer smoke, no significant
    co-morbidities
  • Telemedicine and clinical parameters
  • Housing
  • Single family house without structural problems
  • Study
  • __12 mo observation____12 mo F/U_____
  • Major house cleaning bedroom air cleaner

57
Remote Direct-Reading Monitoring of Residential
Air Quality  Initial Experience
  • National Childrens Study- Additional parameters
  • NOISE (SOUND)
  • LIGHT

58
Remote Direct-Reading Monitoring of Residential
Air Quality  Initial Experience
  • QUESTIONS?
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