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The Library Catalog Does it have a future?

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Title: The Library Catalog Does it have a future?


1
The Library CatalogDoes it have a future?
  • Gary R. Houk
  • OCLC

NYC June 10, 2003
SLA Conference
2
Overview
  • Where did we come from?
  • Where are we going?
  • Metadata and Standards
  • Propelling discovery
  • Enabling retrieval
  • HELPING PATRONS FIND IT ? GET IT

3
Where did we come from?
  • Started with an inventory of physical items
  • Metadata on sealed clay tablet tax records
  • Pinakes, a catalog in 120 books (Alexandria)
  • The card catalog
  • COM (Computer Output Microfiche)
  • MARC format arrives
  • Shared online catalogs and ILL (OCLC, RLIN)
  • OPACs (Online Public Access Catalogs)
  • We added electronic resource descriptions
  • We add links to those electronic resources
  • We put the catalogs on the Web but the indices
    are not visible outside the library portal

4
Where are we going?Changing library collections
collected
high
low
low
uniqueness
uniqueness
high
5
Managing metadata (present)
  • For the last century, a significant emphasis on
    describing and organizing physical collections at
    the item level
  • Leveraging cooperative metadata resources
  • Strengthened cooperative programs
  • PCC (BIBCO, CONSER, NACO, SACO)
  • Better interoperability within the library space
  • Various interfaces of ILS vendors bib.
    Utilities
  • Use of Z39.50
  • Always the push for better, faster, cheaper
  • Shelf-ready services
  • Cataloging of widely held non-unique items are
    more and more automated
  • Numerous standards evolving
  • METS, MODS, XML, Dublin Core, EAD, etc.

6
MetaMap
http//mapageweb.umontreal.ca/turner/meta/english/
metamap.html
7
There is life beyond MARC21!
  • Metadata landscape evolving
  • Plethora of standards, but converging on common
    base layers (XML, Unicode)
  • Interoperability gaining favor (e.g., Dublin
    Core)
  • Capturing upstream metadata from authors,
    publishers and distributors (non print
    non-English)
  • Evaluative metadata no longer optional as users
    expect to see cover art, annotations, reviews,
    etc.
  • New modes for metadata publishing transfer
  • OAI (Open Archives Initiative)
  • A new conceptual model
  • Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records
  • FRBR implementations nascent, but promising
  • Grouping of related records could lead to
    economies for creating new records

8
Propelling discovery (present)
  • Library catalogs facilitate both known item and
    more general subject, etc. searches
  • Scope of discovery shifting
  • Traditionally emphasized physical holdings
  • Increasingly including records for remotely held
    resources, and/or,
  • Serving as portals to facilitate searching remote
    databases
  • Consortia/group catalogs increasingly favored
    search/show all holdings popular with a set of
    users
  • Library catalogs just one option against many
  • Users use search engines, Amazon, other sources
    for initial discovery, then searching library
    catalog for known items

9
Why Library Catalogs Fail as Information Finding
Tools
  • They are unable to search the entire universe of
    information
  • Local catalogs often lack books that can be
    requested
  • They have too little information about items
  • Most are unable to accept multiple metadata
    formats
  • Many have hostile user interfaces
  • Union catalogs often have multiple records for
    the same item (which to request?)
  • There are too many to consult and no way for
    users to figure out which one to search

10
Propelling discovery (forward)
  • The library catalog is rich in content but we
    need better finding aids (Google, Amazon)
  • Only librarians like to search, everyone else
    likes to find (Roy Tennant)
  • Custom local views of collections within the
    larger union catalog (OCLC Group Services)
  • By state, region, library type, format type,
    topic, ..
  • Digital Collections
  • ILS vendors adding digital object modules to
    support management, searching of digitized
    materials, electronic finding aids
  • OCLC also active in this space
  • Harvesting of ContentDM records into WorldCat
  • Increase the visibility of library collections
  • OCLC Library Access Cooperative Pilot test

11
Propelling greater visibility
  • OCLC will be testing a cooperative service that
    integrates libraries into the Web services used
    by information seekers.
  • Public view of WorldCat
  • Access from heavily used web services
  • Links to libraries and their services

12
EXAMPLE
13
EXAMPLE
14
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15
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16
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17
What Better Case for FRBR?
  • Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records
    / IFLA Study Group on the Functional Requirements
    for Bibliographic Records
  • Defines a bibliographic model independent of
    cataloging rules
  • Clusters bibliographic items into a four-level
    structure
  • Work (distinct intellectual or artistic creation)
  • Expression (intellectual or artistic realization
    of a work)
  • Manifestation (the physical embodiment of an
    expression of a work)
  • Item (a single exemplar of a manifestation)

18
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19
OCLC FRBR
  • OCLC Office of Research has developed an
    algorithm to FRBRize WorldCat
  • Sample use Researchs Fiction Finder prototype
  • Research team mined record content from a subset
    (all records for fiction materials) of WorldCat
    and applied FRBR algorithm and additional
    processing to yield
  • A best-of-related-records-content enriched
    record view for every work of fiction represented
    in WorldCat
  • Better searching, browsing (esp. genre), and
    search results displays for WorldCat fiction
    records
  • An optimized work-set record display that
    combines the enriched record view with a
    user-friendly, presentation of links to groups of
    related WorldCat records (e.g., a list of links
    with one link per language to all editions of the
    work published in language x, language y, etc.)

20
Fiction Finder result set display
21
Fiction Finder record display
22
Record display example
WorldCat record
23
Enabling retrieval (present)
  • Beyond discovery - find and retrieve landscape
  • Traditional call numberbased retrieval
  • Many innovations in ILL/document delivery
  • Circulation-based ILL (esp. consortial ILS)
  • Patron-initiated ILL (e.g., OCLC FirstSearch)
  • ILL management software (e.g., ILLIAD)
  • Multiple choices among doc supplier vendors
  • Strong trend towards e-resource delivery
  • E-journals (often linked to AI dbs)
  • E-books (e.g., netLibrary)
  • E-reserves (often supported by ILS, but also done
    through reserve pak vendors)
  • Standards bodies, associations, technical
    publishers, govt. agencies routinely issuing
    materials in e-format

24
Enabling retrieval (forward)
  • On the horizon
  • FRBR could aid ILL and Acquisitions
  • Experimental OCLC xISBN service, similar
  • Standard patron data format (NCIP)
  • Will facilitate easier patron authentication
    across systems suppliers
  • Should make system migration easier
  • Persistent identifiers
  • Still a problematic area
  • New tools like Open URLs will help
  • Improved rights and resolution
  • Difficult to solve, but work progressing
  • Useful systems now (e.g., SFX), better soon
  • OCLC working on Rights Resolution service

25
So does the Library Catalog have a future?
DefinitelyBut will your Mother recognize it!
26
Questions?
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