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Proteins%20and%20%20%20Vegetarianism

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Proteins and Vegetarianism Lecture 5 Units 15, 16 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Proteins%20and%20%20%20Vegetarianism


1
Proteins and Vegetarianism
  • Lecture 5 Units 15, 16

2
Chemistry
  • Composition C H O N (S)
  • Amino Acids building blocks
  • Amine group (NH2)
  • Acid group (COOH)
  • Differ by side group (R)
  • 9 from food
  • 11 Nonessential AA can be made from other AA

3
Amino Acid, Peptide Protein
  • Amino acid
  • NH2
  • R C COOH
  • Peptide and protein
  • AA1-AA2-AA3-AA4--- AAn

4
Digestion Absorption
  • HCl
  • Enzymes split long chain of AA for absorption
  • Blood transports AA to liver muscle

5
Functions of Protein
  • Growth, build maintenance of tissues
  • Regulate body processes
  • Water (fluid) balance--prevent edema
    Acid-Base (pH)
    balance--buffers Immune
    system - antibodies
  • Energy source--4 calories / gram

6
Protein Synthesis
  • DNA code controls Which AA needed
    What order AA go on new chain
  • AA3
  • AA1 AA2 AA1AA2 AA1AA2AA3
  • Requires
  • Calories
    Essential AA from AA
    pool Non-essential
    AA from synthesis or diet

7
Process of Protein Synthesis
  • DNA ------?RNA ----? Protein
  • Transcription Translation
  • DNAdeoxyribonucleic acid
  • RNAribonucleic acid

8
Catabolism of Protein
  • Breakdown of protein to AA
  • AA converted to fat when
    excess AA
  • N from AA is reused for AA synthesis excess is
    excreted in urine
  • May cause loss of Ca in urine
  • Kidney disease problem

9
Protein Quality
  • Complete Protein High quality
  • All essential AA in needed amounts Animal
    sources
  • Incomplete Protein
  • Plant sources
  • 70 of protein from animal sources in US

10
Complementary Protein
  • Plant protein (legume) with limiting AA combined
    with different plant protein (grain) different
    limiting AA eaten together give complete protein

11
Plants provide Incomplete Protein
  • Low in one or more ess. AA
  • Eat in combo to complete the AA balance

12
Protein Requirements
  • .8 gm/kg body weight
  • Protein RDA
  • 46 gm for women
  • 58 gm for men
  • 10-12 kcal from protein
  • Actual US Intake
  • gt80 gm
  • gt110 gm
  • 17 kcal from protein

13
Food Sources of Proteins
  • Meat
  • Fish
  • Poultry
  • Eggs
  • Beef pork rich in iron but high in fat

14
More Good Protein Sources
  • Dairy products select low fat (butter
    not protein)
  • Legumes
  • Cereal grains
  • Seeds
  • Nuts
  • Plant sources of protein are low in fat

15
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16
What about protein for athletes?
  • Athlete needs 1.26 gm / Kg (90 gm)
  • (but typical US male eats gt110 gm and female eats
    gt80 gm)
  • Thus supplements not needed
  • What does the body do with the added amino acid?
  • What builds muscle exercise and a good diet

17
Amino Acid Supplement
  • High intake of a single AA leads to AA imbalance
    and is harmful
  • Many AA supplements on market,
  • Surplus of AA causes diarrhea, loss of appetite,
    GI upsets
  • Tryptophan supplements were banned in 1990
  • Athletes

18
Vegetarian Diets
  • Semi-vegetarian
  • lacto vegetarian
  • ovo vegetarian
  • Strict vegetarian
  • Vegan
  • healthy diets use complementary proteins
  • Macrobiotic diet locally grown and whole foods
    Yin(cold)yang(warm) foods

19
Vegetarian Diets Health
  • Associated with low risk of chronic diseases
  • May lead to
  • Vegans vitamins B12 and D, Ca, Zn are at risk
  • Adequately planned vegetarian diets can
  • The key to achieve healthy diet variety

20
Protein deficiency--Marasmus
  • Chronic food deprivation,diseases
  • Protein calories
  • Impairs brain development learning
  • Severe weight loss
  • Infection, diarrhea

21
Protein deficiency --Kwashiorkor
  • Deficiency in protein but not calories
  • Children 1-3 years
  • Some weight loss
  • Edema
  • Hair dry, brittle, changes color (lack of AA to
    make melanin)
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