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If you do not have a copy of the SWTRs handouts, a copy can be downloaded from the Encounter Collaborative meeting page: https://ei.e2c.com/enc/enc-pc.pmtg

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Title: If you do not have a copy of the SWTRs handouts, a copy can be downloaded from the Encounter Collaborative meeting page: https://ei.e2c.com/enc/enc-pc.pmtg


1
If you do not have a copy of the SWTRs handouts,
a copy can be downloaded from the Encounter
Collaborative meeting pagehttps//ei.e2c.com/enc
/enc-pc.pmtg
2
Encounter Customer Care
  • General Technical Support at Encounter
  • 800-290-5900, Option 1
  • Or press 0 on your telephone when dialed into
    your Express, Priority, or Broadcast Number to be
    transferred directly to Customer Care.

3
How many people are attending at your location?
  • 1 Person
  • 2 - 4 People
  • 5 - 10 People
  • 10 - 20 People
  • More than 20 People

4
Evaluation Form
New
  • Available on the web at
  • http//yosemite.epa.gov/ogwdw/ogwdwsurvey.nsf/surv
    eyhome?openform
  • Enter code survey07
  • Please email webcastinfo_at_cadmusgroup.com if you
    have questions

5
Happy Sweet Sixteen!!!!!!!!
June 29, 1989
June 29, 2005
6
Surface Water Treatment Rules (SWTRs)
  • U.S. EPA
  • Webcast Training Session
  • June 29, 2005
  • 200-400pm EST

7
SWTRs
  • SWTRs Training encompasses requirements of the
    following regulations
  • Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR)
  • Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule
    (IESWTR)
  • Long Term Enhanced 1 Surface Water Treatment Rule
    (LT1ESWTR)
  • Filter Backwash Recycling Rule (FBRR)

8
SWTRs
Size Filtration Type SWTR 1989 IESWTR 1998 LT1 2002 FBRR 2001
Serving at least 10,000 Conventional or Direct Filtration ? ? ?
Serving at least 10,000 Slow Sand, Diatomaceous Earth or Alternative Filtration ? ?
Serving at least 10,000 Unfiltered Systems ? ?
Serving fewer than 10,000 Conventional or Direct Filtration ? ? ?
Serving fewer than 10,000 Slow Sand, Diatomaceous Earth or Alternative Filtration ? ?
Serving fewer than 10,000 Unfiltered Systems ? ?
9
SWTRs Purpose
  • Purpose To improve public health protection
    through the control of microbial contaminants,
    including requirements for removal and/or
    inactivation of
  • Viruses
  • Giardia Lamblia
  • Cryptosporidium

10
SWTRs Scope
  • Scope
  • Applies to all public water systems using surface
    water or ground water under the direct influence
    of surface water (GWUDI), otherwise known as
    Subpart H systems.
  • Require all Subpart H systems to
  • Disinfect
  • Filter
  • Individual filter monitoring establishes CFE
    limits
  • Apply treatment technique requirements for
    control of microbials.
  • Exception Systems meeting Filter Avoidance
    Criteria only need to disinfect

11
Outline
  • History of Microbials
  • Overview of SWTR, IESWTR, and LT1ESWTR
    Requirements
  • Disinfection Profiling and Benchmarking
  • Lessons Learned in the Process (City of Manassas,
    VA)
  • Other Requirements under the SWTR
  • Turbidity Requirements
  • Conventional and Direct Filtration Systems
  • Systems using Slow Sand, Diatomaceous Earth or
    Alternative Filtration
  • Unfiltered Systems
  • Case Studies
  • Additional Resources

Overview
12
Applicability to Systems
  • This presentation covers
  • Conventional and Direct Filtration Systems
  • Slow Sand and Diatomaceous Earth or Alternative
    Filtration Systems
  • Unfiltered Systems

Overview
13
Presenters
Panelists
  • Ed Moriarty, U.S. EPA
  • Maria Lopez, U.S. EPA
  • Linda Hills, The Cadmus Group, Inc.
  • Tom Grubbs, U.S. EPA
  • Mike Finn, U.S. EPA

Overview
14
Disclaimer
  • The examples included in this presentation are
    intended for discussion purposes only.
     Throughout this presentation, the terms state
    or states are used to refer to all types of
    primacy agencies including U.S. territories,
    Indian tribes, and EPA Regions. The statutory
    provisions and EPA regulations described in this
    document contain legally binding requirements.
    This presentation is not a regulation itself, nor
    does it change or substitute for those provisions
    and regulations. Thus, it does not impose legally
    binding requirements on EPA, states, or public
    water systems. This guidance does not confer
    legal rights or impose legal obligations upon any
    member of the public. While EPA has made every
    effort to ensure the accuracy of the discussion
    in this presentation, the obligations of the
    regulated community are determined by statutes,
    regulations, or other legally binding
    requirements. In the event of a conflict between
    the discussion in this presentation and any
    statute or regulation, this presentation would
    not be controlling.

Overview
15
Public Health Regulated Pathogens
  • Regulated Pathogens
  • Viruses
  • Giardia
  • Cryptosporidium
  • In excess amounts
  • Nausea
  • Cramps
  • Diarrhea
  • Associated headaches
  • More serious health effects for infants, elderly
    or other immune-compromised people

Overview
16
History of Microbials
17
The Challenge of Microbial Organisms
  • What They Do Was Known Before What They Are
  • Hippocrates Boil and Strain Water 300BC
  • Chlorination to Prevent Child Bed Fever - 1846
  • John Snow Closes the Broad Street Well, London,
    1854 - Terminates Cholera Epidemic
  • What They Do Was Known Before How To Detect Them
    In Drinking Water

Overview
18
History of M-DBP Regulations
200? Future Rules Revised TCR
2005 Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
LT1ESTWR 2002
FBRR 2001
IESWTR and S1DBPR 1998
SDWA Amendments 1996
WI Crypto Outbreak 1993
MO E. Coli Outbreak 1989
TCR and SWTR 1989
GA Crypto Outbreak 1987
SDWA Amendments 1986
MA Giardia Outbreak 1985
THM 1979
NPIDWRs 1976
SDWA 1974
Overview
19
History of M-DBP Regulations
200? Future Rules Revised TCR
2005 Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
LT1ESTWR 2002
FBRR 2001
IESWTR and S1DBPR 1998
1974 Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)
SDWA Amendments 1996
WI Crypto Outbreak 1993
MO E. Coli Outbreak 1989
TCR and SWTR 1989
GA Crypto Outbreak 1987
SDWA Amendments 1986
MA Giardia Outbreak 1985
THM 1979
NPIDWRs 1976
SDWA 1974
Overview
20
History of M-DBP Regulations
200? Future Rules Revised TCR
2005 Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
LT1ESTWR 2002
FBRR 2001
IESWTR and S1DBPR 1998
SDWA Amendments 1996
WI Crypto Outbreak 1993
MO E. Coli Outbreak 1989
TCR and SWTR 1989
GA Crypto Outbreak 1987
SDWA Amendments 1986
MA Giardia Outbreak 1985
THM 1979
NPIDWRs 1976
SDWA 1974
Overview
21
History of M-DBP Regulations
200? Future Rules Revised TCR
2005 Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
LT1ESTWR 2002
FBRR 2001
1976 National Interim Primary Drinking Water
Regulations (NIPDWR) Coliform and Turbidity
IESWTR and S1DBPR 1998
SDWA Amendments 1996
WI Crypto Outbreak 1993
MO E. Coli Outbreak 1989
TCR and SWTR 1989
GA Crypto Outbreak 1987
SDWA Amendments 1986
MA Giardia Outbreak 1985
THM 1979
NPIDWRs 1976
SDWA 1974
Overview
22
History of M-DBP Regulations
200? Future Rules Revised TCR
2005 Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
LT1ESTWR 2002
FBRR 2001
IESWTR and S1DBPR 1998
SDWA Amendments 1996
WI Crypto Outbreak 1993
MO E. Coli Outbreak 1989
TCR and SWTR 1989
GA Crypto Outbreak 1987
SDWA Amendments 1986
MA Giardia Outbreak 1985
THM 1979
NPIDWRs 1976
SDWA 1974
Overview
23
History of M-DBP Regulations
200? Future Rules Revised TCR
2005 Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
LT1ESTWR 2002
FBRR 2001
IESWTR and S1DBPR 1998
1986 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments (SDWA
Amendments)
SDWA Amendments 1996
WI Crypto Outbreak 1993
MO E. Coli Outbreak 1989
TCR and SWTR 1989
GA Crypto Outbreak 1987
SDWA Amendments 1986
MA Giardia Outbreak 1985
THM 1979
NPIDWRs 1976
SDWA 1974
Overview
24
History of M-DBP Regulations
200? Future Rules Revised TCR
2005 Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
LT1ESTWR 2002
FBRR 2001
IESWTR and S1DBPR 1998
SDWA Amendments 1996
WI Crypto Outbreak 1993
MO E. Coli Outbreak 1989
TCR and SWTR 1989
GA Crypto Outbreak 1987
SDWA Amendments 1986
MA Giardia Outbreak 1985
THM 1979
NPIDWRs 1976
SDWA 1974
Overview
25
History of M-DBP Regulations
200? Future Rules Revised TCR
2005 Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
LT1ESTWR 2002
FBRR 2001
IESWTR and S1DBPR 1998
1989 Total Coliform Rule (TCR) Surface Water
Treatment Rule (SWTR)
SDWA Amendments 1996
WI Crypto Outbreak 1993
MO E. Coli Outbreak 1989
TCR and SWTR 1989
GA Crypto Outbreak 1987
SDWA Amendments 1986
MA Giardia Outbreak 1985
THM 1979
NPIDWRs 1976
SDWA 1974
Overview
26
History of M-DBP Regulations
200? Future Rules Revised TCR
2005 Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
LT1ESTWR 2002
FBRR 2001
IESWTR and S1DBPR 1998
SDWA Amendments 1996
WI Crypto Outbreak 1993
MO E. Coli Outbreak 1989
TCR and SWTR 1989
GA Crypto Outbreak 1987
SDWA Amendments 1986
MA Giardia Outbreak 1985
THM 1979
NPIDWRs 1976
SDWA 1974
Overview
27
History of M-DBP Regulations
200? Future Rules Revised TCR
2005 Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
LT1ESTWR 2002
FBRR 2001
IESWTR and S1DBPR 1998
1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments (SDWA
Amendments)
SDWA Amendments 1996
WI Crypto Outbreak 1993
MO E. Coli Outbreak 1989
TCR and SWTR 1989
GA Crypto Outbreak 1987
SDWA Amendments 1986
MA Giardia Outbreak 1985
THM 1979
NPIDWRs 1976
SDWA 1974
Overview
28
History of M-DBP Regulations
200? Future Rules Revised TCR
2005 Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
LT1ESTWR 2002
FBRR 2001
IESWTR and S1DBPR 1998
SDWA Amendments 1996
WI Crypto Outbreak 1993
MO E. Coli Outbreak 1989
TCR and SWTR 1989
GA Crypto Outbreak 1987
SDWA Amendments 1986
MA Giardia Outbreak 1985
THM 1979
NPIDWRs 1976
SDWA 1974
Overview
29
History of M-DBP Regulations
200? Future Rules Revised TCR
2005 Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
LT1ESTWR 2002
1998 Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment
Rule (IESWTR) Stage 1 Disinfectants and
Disinfection Byproducts Rule (S1DBPR)
FBRR 2001
IESWTR and S1DBPR 1998
SDWA Amendments 1996
WI Crypto Outbreak 1993
MO E. Coli Outbreak 1989
TCR and SWTR 1989
GA Crypto Outbreak 1987
SDWA Amendments 1986
MA Giardia Outbreak 1985
THM 1979
NPIDWRs 1976
SDWA 1974
Overview
30
History of M-DBP Regulations
200? Future Rules Revised TCR
2005 Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
LT1ESTWR 2002
FBRR 2001
IESWTR and S1DBPR 1998
SDWA Amendments 1996
WI Crypto Outbreak 1993
MO E. Coli Outbreak 1989
TCR and SWTR 1989
GA Crypto Outbreak 1987
SDWA Amendments 1986
MA Giardia Outbreak 1985
THM 1979
NPIDWRs 1976
SDWA 1974
Overview
31
History of M-DBP Regulations
200? Future Rules Revised TCR
2005 Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
LT1ESTWR 2002
FBRR 2001
IESWTR and S1DBPR 1998
2001 Filter Backwash Recycling Rule (FBRR)
SDWA Amendments 1996
WI Crypto Outbreak 1993
MO E. Coli Outbreak 1989
TCR and SWTR 1989
GA Crypto Outbreak 1987
SDWA Amendments 1986
MA Giardia Outbreak 1985
THM 1979
NPIDWRs 1976
SDWA 1974
Overview
32
History of M-DBP Regulations
200? Future Rules Revised TCR
2005 Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
LT1ESTWR 2002
FBRR 2001
IESWTR and S1DBPR 1998
SDWA Amendments 1996
WI Crypto Outbreak 1993
MO E. Coli Outbreak 1989
TCR and SWTR 1989
GA Crypto Outbreak 1987
SDWA Amendments 1986
MA Giardia Outbreak 1985
THM 1979
NPIDWRs 1976
SDWA 1974
Overview
33
History of M-DBP Regulations
200? Future Rules Revised TCR
2005 Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
LT1ESTWR 2002
FBRR 2001
IESWTR and S1DBPR 1998
2002 Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water
Treatment Rule (LT1ESWTR)
SDWA Amendments 1996
WI Crypto Outbreak 1993
MO E. Coli Outbreak 1989
TCR and SWTR 1989
GA Crypto Outbreak 1987
SDWA Amendments 1986
MA Giardia Outbreak 1985
THM 1979
NPIDWRs 1976
SDWA 1974
Overview
34
History of M-DBP Regulations
200? Future Rules Revised TCR
2005 Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR
LT1ESTWR 2002
FBRR 2001
IESWTR and S1DBPR 1998
SDWA Amendments 1996
WI Crypto Outbreak 1993
MO E. Coli Outbreak 1989
TCR and SWTR 1989
GA Crypto Outbreak 1987
SDWA Amendments 1986
MA Giardia Outbreak 1985
THM 1979
NPIDWRs 1976
SDWA 1974
Overview
35
National Interim Primary Drinking Water
Regulations (NIPDWR)
  • Effective from 1975 to 1986 SDWA Amendments
  • Total Coliform Monitoring and MCL Based on USPHS
    Drinking Water Regulations of 1962
  • Turbidity MCL for Surface Water
  • Recognized Underreporting of Outbreaks

Overview
36
1996 SDWA Amendments
  • No Significant Changes to the Total Coliform Rule
  • Required Promulgation of Microbial/Disinfection
    Byproduct Regulations
  • IESWTR, LT1ESWTR, FBRR, LT2ESWTR
  • Stage 1 and 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection
    Byproducts Rules

Overview
37
6-Year Review Cycle
  • SDWA Requires Review of Existing Regulations
  • The Total Coliform Rule is Under Review
  • Schedule to Be Determined

Overview
38
Types of Filtration
  • Conventional Filtration
  • Direct Filtration
  • Slow Sand Filtration
  • Diatomaceous Earth Filtration
  • Alternative Filtration Technologies

Overview
39
Requirements for Filtered Systems
  • Removal/Inactivation Requirements for Certain
    Pathogens
  • Residual Disinfectant Requirements
  • Turbidity Treatment Techniques
  • Disinfection Profiling and Benchmarking
  • Sanitary Surveys
  • Covered Finished Reservoirs/Water Storage
    Facilities
  • Operator Certification

Overview
40
Requirements for Unfiltered Systems
  • Inactivation Requirements for Certain Pathogens
  • Residual Disinfectant Requirements
  • Filtration Avoidance Criteria
  • Disinfection Profiling and Benchmarking
  • Sanitary Surveys
  • Covered Finished Reservoirs/Water Storage
    Facilities
  • Operator Certification

Overview
41
Questions
Q A
  • Please send your questions comments via the web
    console located on your bottom right.

42
Overview of SWTR, IESWTR, and LT1ESWTR
Requirements
  • Conventional and Direct Filtration Systems
  • Systems using Slow Sand, Diatomaceous Earth or
    Alternative Filtration
  • Unfiltered Systems

43
General Requirements
  • All Subpart H systems must comply with the
    following requirements
  • Removal/inactivation requirements for viruses,
    Giardia, and Cryptosporidium
  • Residual disinfectant monitoring
  • Disinfection profiling and benchmarking
  • Sanitary surveys
  • Covered finished reservoirs/water storage
    facilities
  • Qualified operators

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration
Conventional and Direct Filtration
Unfiltered Systems
44
Regulated Pathogens (Removal/Inactivation
Requirements)
  • All subpart H systems must comply with the
    removal/inactivation requirements established for
    regulated pathogens. The removal/inactivation
    requirements are as follows       

Microbial MCLG Removal/Inactivation Requirements
Viruses 99.99 (4-log)
Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration
Conventional and Direct Filtration
Unfiltered Systems
45
Regulated Pathogens (Removal/Inactivation
Requirements)
  • All subpart H systems must comply with the
    removal/inactivation requirements established for
    regulated pathogens. The removal/inactivation
    requirements are as follows       

Microbial MCLG Removal/Inactivation Requirements
Viruses 99.99 (4-log)
Giardia Lamblia Zero 99.9 (3-log)
Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration
Conventional and Direct Filtration
Unfiltered Systems
46
Regulated Pathogens (Removal/Inactivation
Requirements)
  • All subpart H systems must comply with the
    removal/inactivation requirements established for
    regulated pathogens. The removal/inactivation
    requirements are as follows       

Microbial MCLG Removal/Inactivation Requirements
Viruses 99.99 (4-log)
Giardia Lamblia Zero 99.9 (3-log)
Cryptosporidium Zero 99 (2-log) (removal only)
Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration
Conventional and Direct Filtration
Unfiltered Systems
47
Residual Disinfectant Monitoring Requirements
Population Entrance to Distribution System In Distribution System
All Subpart H Systems Cannot be lt 0.2 mg/L for more than 4 hours1 Detectable in at least 95 of samples in a month for any 2 consecutive months
1 Residual monitored continuously. A state may
allow systems serving 3,300 or fewer persons to
take grab samples from 1-4 times per day,
depending on system size.
Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration
Conventional and Direct Filtration
Unfiltered Systems
48
Residual Disinfectant Reporting Requirements
Report to state due within 10 days of the end of
the following month. Remember to include
When state was notified of events where residual
disinfectant was lt0.2 mg/L
Lowest daily value for each day
A calculation of the percent of distribution
residual samples that were undetectable
The date and duration when residual disinfectant
was lt0.2 mg/L
Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration
Conventional and Direct Filtration
Unfiltered Systems
49
Additional Disinfectant Monitoring Requirements
Frequency In Distribution System
Daily Before or at the first customer Temperature pH (if chlorine is used) Disinfectant contact time(s) at peak hourly flow Residual disinfectant concentration measurement(s) at peak hourly flow used in the inactivation calculation(s)
Unfiltered Systems
50
Additional Disinfectant Reporting Requirements
As soon as possible, but no later than the end of
the next business day. Remember to include
Report to state due within 10 days of the end of
the following month. Remember to include
Daily residual disinfectant concentration(s) and
disinfectant contact time(s) used for calculating
the CT value(s).
Instances where the residual disinfectant level
entering the distribution system was lt 0.2 mg/L
Unfiltered Systems
51
Quiz 1 Disinfectant Residual
  • Example System
  • Takes 3 routine TCR samples
  • Uses Surface Water
  • Has a Conventional Filtration
  • In addition to taking one sample at the entry
    point to the distribution systems, what does this
    system need to do to comply with the SWTRs
    residual disinfectant monitoring requirements?

Conventional and Direct Filtration
52
Quiz 1 Disinfectant Residual
System needs to take
3 disinfectant residual samples at the same time
and place as the TCR sample
40 CFR 141.74 (b)(6)(i)
Conventional and Direct Filtration
53
Quiz 2 Unfiltered System Reporting Requirements
Example Systems Unfiltered, Surface Water system
that serves 12,000 people
  • What does this system need to report in order to
    comply with the SWTRs residual disinfectant
    monitoring requirements?
  • Daily residual disinfectant concentration(s)
    disinfectant contact time(s) used for calculating
    the CT value(s)
  • Lowest daily value for each day
  • The date/duration when residual disinfectant was
    lt0.2 mg/L
  • When state was notified of events where residual
    disinfectant was lt0.2 mg/L
  • A calculation of the percent of distribution
    residual samples that were undetectable
  • All of the above

Unfiltered Systems
54
Quiz 2 Unfiltered System Reporting Requirements
Example Systems Unfiltered, Surface Water system
that serves 12,000 people
  • What does this system need to report in order to
    comply with the SWTRs residual disinfectant
    monitoring requirements?
  • All of the above

Unfiltered Systems
55
Quiz 3 Filtered System Reporting Requirement
Example Systems GWUDI systems that serves 4,500
people that uses slow sand filtration and
measures HPC in lieu of distribution disinfectant
residuals.
  • What does this system need to report in order to
    comply with the SWTRs residual disinfectant
    monitoring requirements?
  • Lowest daily value for each day
  • The date and duration when residual disinfectant
    was lt0.2 mg/L
  • When state was notified of events where residual
    disinfectant was lt0.2 mg/L
  • A calculation of the percent of distribution
    residual samples that were undetectable
  • All of the above

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration
56
Quiz 3 Filtered System Reporting Requirement
Example Systems GWUDI systems that serves 4,500
people that uses slow sand filtration and
measures HPC in lieu of distribution disinfectant
residuals.
  • What does this system need to report in order to
    comply with the SWTRs residual disinfectant
    monitoring requirements?
  • All of the above

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration
57
How long have you worked with the surface water
rules (base your response on the average in the
room)
  • 0-6 Months
  • 7-12 Months
  • 1-2 Years
  • 2-4 Years
  • 4 Years

58
Questions
Q A
  • Please send your questions comments via the web
    console located on your bottom right.

59
Disinfection Profiling and Benchmarking
60
Disinfection Profiling and Benchmarking
  • A Snap-Shot
  • Ensures Microbial Protection
  • 3-Step Process
  • Applicability Determination
  • Profiling
  • Benchmarking and Consultation

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration
Conventional and Direct Filtration
Unfiltered Systems
61
Disinfection Profiling and Benchmarking
40 CFR 141.172 and 141.530
  • Applies to all Subpart H PWSs
  • Profiling requirements vary by system size
  • Disinfection benchmark must be calculated and
    State must be consulted if the system is
    considering
  • Changes to the point of disinfection
  • Changes to the disinfecant(s) used
  • Changes to the disinfection process
  • Any other modification identified by the state.

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration
Conventional and Direct Filtration
Unfiltered Systems
62
Why Develop a Disinfection Profile and Benchmark?
  • A Regulatory Threshold to Be Achieved
  • The Threshold Is Often Exceeded
  • Assess Affects of Treatment Changes Upon Actual
    Inactivation
  • Consider
  • Positive and Negative Impacts
  • Acute and Chronic Health Risks
  • Alternatives
  • Public Health Based Decision

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration
Conventional and Direct Filtration
Unfiltered Systems
63
Why Develop a Disinfection Profile Benchmark?
Lake
1
Potential Chlorination Points
2
4
3
Filters
To Distribution
Flocculation Basins
Sedimentation Basin
Contact Basin
Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration
Conventional and Direct Filtration
Unfiltered Systems
64
(No Transcript)
65
Example Disinfection Profile
66
LT1ESWTR Profiler
  • www.LT1P.com

67
Disinfection Profile and Benchmark
  • Lessons Learned in the Process
  • Alexander Vanegas
  • City of Manassas
  • June 2005

68
EPA Sets Guidelines
  • The purpose of developing the disinfection
    profile and benchmark is to provide a basis for
    the water system and the state primacy agency to
    work together to assure that any changes in
    disinfection practices to meet new disinfection
    byproduct MCLs will not result in a significant
    reduction in the microbial protection provided by
    the system.

69
EPA Sets Guidelines
  • In order to determine if profiling was necessary,
    water utilities were to conduct four quarters of
    "Applicability Monitoring" for TTHMs and HAAs. If
    the TTHM or HAA annual averages from the
    applicability monitoring exceeded 64 ppb or 48
    ppb, respectively, the water system needed to
    prepare a disinfection profile.

70
Crypto Giardia Removal
  • All surface water systems that serve more than
    l0,000 people and are required to filter must
    achieve at least
  • 2 log removal of Cryptosporidium or 99 removal
    based on treatment technique
  • 3 log removal of Giardia lamblia or 99.9
    removal/inactivation based on treatment
    technique.
  • 4 log removal of viruses or 99.99
    removal/inactivation based on treatment
    technique.

71
Timeline of Problems
  • January 2002 - TTHM HAA MCL reduced from 100ppb
    -80ppb respectively to 80-60 ppb.
  • November 2002 - Manganese violation (0.05 mg/L)
  • December 2002 - Exceeding TTHMs MCL and
    difficulty meeting TOC removal
  • December 2002 - Inverted application of Chlorine
    from heavy Pre-CL 2 in Rapid Mix and low
    concentration in clearwell to low Pre-CL 2 in
    Rapid Mix and higher concentration in clearwell.

72
Timeline Action Steps taken to Obviate the
Situation
  • January 2003 - Switched coagulant from Aluminum
    Sulfate to Ferric Chloride to assist in TOC
    removal and reduce TTHMs.
  • October 2003 - Moved CL2 application point from
    rapid mix to pre-filter area after sedimentation
    basins.
  • January 2004 - Switched from Gaseous Chlorine to
    Sodium Hypochlorite

73
Timeline Action Steps taken to Obviate the
Situation
  • September 2004 - Replaced GAC media
  • December 2004 - Lead Copper exceeds limits
    requiring action. (15 ppb)
  • May 2005 - Switched to Ferric Sulfate.

74
January 2003Switched to Ferric Chloride
  • Switched from Alum
  • Common trend in industry
  • Assist with TOC removal and increased NOM removal
  • Implications

75
October 2003Chlorine Application
  • Moved Chlorine Application Point
  • Originally at Rapid Mix prior to Sedimentation
  • New location prior to filters after
    sedimentation.

76
January 2004Switch to NaOCL
  • Sodium hypochlorite, (NaOCl) offers an excellent
    alternative approach to disinfection. The active
    ingredient is the hypochlorite ion OCl, which
    hydrolyzes to form hypochlorous acid (HOCl).

77
January 2004Switch to NaOCL
  • Often called liquid bleach, is considered to be
    the second cheapest disinfectant after bulk
    liquid chlorine gas. Commercially available as a
    12.5 percent solution, it offers most of the
    advantages of chlorine gasas a disinfectant,
    oxidizing agent and residual disinfectant, yet it
    does not have transportation or storage hazards
    to the extent present with chlorine gas.
  • Impetus driven by Vulnerability Assessment
    reduction of potential hazard in area of high
    development.

78
Disinfection Profile 2002
79
Disinfection Profile 2003
80
Disinfection Profile 2005
81
Comparison of Water Quality
  • Prior to Changes
  • 2002
  • TTHMs - 97 ppb RAA
  • HAA5 - 35 ppb RAA
  • TOC removal
  • 41 highest
  • After Changes
  • 2004
  • TTHMs - 55 ppb RAA
  • HAA5 - 30 ppb RAA
  • TOC removal
  • 64 highest

82
Is the person or persons responsible for
implementing the surface water rules attending
this training?
  • Yes
  • No
  • Not Sure.

83
Questions
Q A
  • Please send your questions comments via the web
    console located on your bottom right.

84
Other Requirements
  • Conventional and Direct Filtration Systems
  • Systems using Slow Sand, Diatomaceous Earth or
    Alternative Filtration
  • Unfiltered Systems

85
Other Requirements
  • Sanitary Surveys
  • Community Water Systems
  • Every 3 years
  • Noncommunity Water Systems
  • Every 5 Years
  • Covered Finished Water Reservoirs/Water Storage
    Facilities
  • Certified Operator

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration
Conventional and Direct Filtration
Unfiltered Systems
86
Filter Backwash Recycling Rule. (FBRR)
  • Purpose To improve public health protection by
    assessing and changing, where needed, recycle
    practices for improved contaminant control,
    particularly microbial contaminants.
  • Applies to Subpart H conventional or direct
    filtration systems that
  • Recycle spent filter backwash, thickener
    supernatant, or liquids from dewaterting
    processes

Conventional and Direct Filtration
87
FBRR Requirements
  • Return recycle flows through all unit processes
    at treatment system or alternative location
    approved by the states
  • Collecting and retaining recycle flow information
  • Completing all capital improvements associated
    with relocating recycle return location by June
    8, 2006

Conventional and Direct Filtration
88
PN Rule Requirements (Tier 1)
  • Exceedance of maximum turbidity level
  • Conventional and direct filtration
  • Slow sand, diatomaceous earth, and alternative
    filtration
  • Unfiltered
  • Waterborne disease outbreak

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration
Conventional and Direct Filtration
Unfiltered Systems
89
PN Rule Requirements (Tier 1)

Tier 1 Notify the state within 24 hours of the
violation!
  • For turbidity, State will determine whether
    violation is Tier 1 or Tier 2
  • Notify customers within 24 hours if violation is
    Tier 1
  • Design communication to reach all users
  • Send a copy to the state within 10 days of
    notifying customers

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration
Conventional and Direct Filtration
Unfiltered Systems
90
Violations Requiring Tier 2 PN
  • Turbidity violations
  • Single exceedance As determined by the state
  • 95th percentile exceedance
  • Failure to perform profiling
  • Failure to consult with state prior to changing
    disinfection practices
  • Inactivation violations
  • gt 5 percent undetectable distribution residuals
  • Failure to meet avoidance criteria
  • Failure to recycle to an appropriate location
    (FBRR)
  • Failure to complete capital improvements by
    required schedule (FBRR)

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration
Conventional and Direct Filtration
Unfiltered Systems
91
PN Rule Requirements (Tier 2)

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration
Conventional and Direct Filtration
Unfiltered Systems
92
PN Rule Requirements (Tier 3)
  • All Monitoring and Reporting Violations

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration
Conventional and Direct Filtration
Unfiltered Systems
93
PN Rule Requirements (Tier 3)

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration
Conventional and Direct Filtration
Unfiltered Systems
94
Questions
Q A
  • Please send your questions comments via the web
    console located on your bottom right.

95
Turbidity Requirements
  • Conventional and Direct Filtration Systems
  • Systems using Slow Sand, Diatomaceous Earth or
    Alternative Filtration
  • Unfiltered Systems

96
Turbidity
  • Combined Filter Effluent (CFE)
  • Individual Filter Effluent (IFE)

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration
Conventional and Direct Filtration
97
Conventional and Direct Filtration Systems
Conventional and Direct Filtration
98
CFE Requirements
Monitoring Requirement Monitoring Frequency Measurement
CFE 95 Value At least every 4 hours lt 0.3 NTU
Conventional and Direct Filtration
99
CFE Requirements
Monitoring Requirement Monitoring Frequency Measurement
CFE 95 Value At least every 4 hours lt 0.3 NTU
CFE Maximum Value At least every 4 hours 1 NTU
Conventional and Direct Filtration
100
CFE Reporting
Report to state due within 10 days of the end of
the following month. Remember to include
Total number of CFE measurements
Date and Value of any CFE measurement that
exceeded 1 NTU
Percentage of CFE measurements lt 95th limit
Conventional and Direct Filtration
101
CFE Exceedance Reporting(Systems serving at
least 10,000 people)
Report to state as soon as possible, but no later
than the end of the next business day
Exceedance of 1 NTU
Conventional and Direct Filtration
102
IFE Monitoring Requirements (Systems serving at
least 10,000 people)
  • IFE must be monitored continuously every 15
    minutes

Conventional and Direct Filtration
103
IFE Follow-up Steps (Systems serving at least
10,000 people)
Condition Action
1 2 consecutive measurements gt0.5 NTU taken 15 minutes apart at the end of the first 4 hours of continuous filter operation after backwash/offline Produce filter profile within 7 days (if cause is not known)
2 2 consecutive measurements gt1.0 NTU taken 15 minutes apart Produce filter profile within 7 days (if cause is not known)
3 2 consecutive measurements gt1.0 NTU taken 15 minutes apart at the same filter for 3 months in a row Conduct a filter self-assessment within 14 days
4 2 consecutive measurements gt2.0 NTU taken 15 minutes apart at the same filter for 2 months in a row Arrange for a CPE within 30 days and submit report within 90 days
Conventional and Direct Filtration
104
IFE Reporting Conditions 1, 2, and 3
Report to state due within 10 days of the end of
the following month. Remember to include
Cause (if known) or report profile was produced
Date
Filter Number
Turbidity Value
Conventional and Direct Filtration
105
IFE Reporting Condition 4
Report to state due within 10 days of the end of
the following month. Remember to include
Schedule conduct CPE. Report to state due
within 90 days after exceedance
Filter Number
Date
Turbidity Value
Submit CPE Report
Conventional and Direct Filtration
106
IFE Monitoring Requirements (Systems serving
fewer than 10,000 people)
  • IFE must be monitored continuously every 15
    minutes

Conventional and Direct Filtration
107
IFE Follow-up Steps (Systems serving fewer than
10,000 people)
Condition Action
1 2 consecutive measurements gt1.0 NTU taken 15 minutes apart Reporting only
2 2 consecutive measurements gt1.0 NTU taken 15 minutes apart at the same filter for 3 months in a row Conduct a filter self-assessment within 14 days
3 2 consecutive measurements gt2.0 NTU taken 15 minutes apart at the same filter for 2 months in a row Arrange for a CPE within 60 days and submit report within 120 days
Exception if a CPE was done in the last 12
months
Conventional and Direct Filtration
108
IFE Reporting Condition 1
Report to state due within 10 days of the end of
the following month. Remember to include
Date
Filter Number
Cause (if known)
Turbidity Value
Conventional and Direct Filtration
109
IFE Reporting Condition 2
Report to state due within 10 days of the end of
the following month (or within 14 days of filter
self-assessment being triggered if triggered in
the last 4 days of the month). Conduct filter
self-assessment. Report
Date the filter self-assessment was triggered
Date the filter self-assessment was completed
Conventional and Direct Filtration
110
IFE Reporting Condition 3
Report to State due within 10 days of the end of
the following month. Schedule Conduct CPE.
Remember to include
CPE report to State due within 120 days after
exceedance
Date CPE was triggered
Submit CPE Report
Conventional and Direct Filtration
111
Case Studies Great View
  • Filtered Surface Water System, Serving 15,000
    People, Using Direct Filtration
  • Where, when, how many CFE samples should this
    system take?
  • What is the limit for the CFE 95th value?
  • What is the system required to report to the
    state within 10 days?
  • Where how many IFE samples should this system
    take?
  • Two consecutive IFE measurements are gt1.0 NTU
    What is the system required to do?

Case Study
112
Where, when, how many CFE samples should this
system take?
  • One per year at the source
  • Five samples per month in the distribution system
  • At least one sample every 4 hours from the
    combined filter effluent

113
Answer
Direct Filtration System, serving 15,000
  • Where, when, how many CFE samples should this
    system take?
  • At least one sample every 4 hours from the
    combined filter effluent

Case Study
114
What is the limit for the CFE 95th value?
  • 1.2 mg/L
  • 1.0 NTU
  • lt 0.3 NTU
  • None of the above

115
Answer
Direct Filtration System, serving 15,000
  • What is the limit for the CFE 95th value?
  • lt 0.3 NTU

Case Study
116
What is the system required to report to the
state within 10 days?
  • Percentage of CFE measurements lt 95th limit
  • Date and value of any CFE measurement that
    exceeded 1 NTU
  • Total number of CFE measurements
  • All of the above

117
Answer
Direct Filtration System, serving 15,000
  • What is the system required to report to the
    state within 10 days?
  • All of the above

Case Study
118
Where how many IFE samples should this system
take?
  • 1 sample at the entry point to the distribution
    system
  • 2 samples in the source water
  • Continuously monitor every 15 minutes from the
    individual filter effluent
  • At least every 4 hours at the entry point to the
    distribution system

119
Answer
Direct Filtration System, serving 15,000
  • Where how many IFE samples should this system
    take?
  • Continuously monitor every 15 minutes from the
    individual filter effluent

Case Study
120
Two consecutive IFE measurements are gt1.0 NTU.
What is the system required to do?
  • If the cause cannot be determined, produce a
    filter profile within 7 days
  • Report filter number, turbidity value(s) and date
    by the 10th of the following month
  • Report the cause, or report that a filter profile
    has been completed, by the 10th of the following
    month,
  • All of the above

121
Answer
Direct Filtration System, serving 15,000
  • Two consecutive measurements are gt1.0 NTU. What
    is the system required to do?
  • All of the above.

Case Study
122
Questions
Q A
  • Please send your questions comments via the web
    console located on your bottom right.

123
Systems using Slow Sand, Diatomaceous Earth or
Alternative Filtration
Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration
124
CFE Requirements
Monitoring Requirement Monitoring Frequency Measurement
CFE 95 Value At least every 4 hours lt 1 NTU
Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration
125
CFE Requirements
Monitoring Requirement Monitoring Frequency Measurement
CFE 95 Value At least every 4 hours lt 1 NTU
CFE Maximum Value At least every 4 hours 5 NTU
Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration
126
CFE Reporting
Report to state due within 10 days of the end of
the following month. Remember to include
Total number of monthly measurements
Date and value exceeding 5 NTU for slow sand and
diatomaceous earth filtration or maximum level
set by the state for alternative filtration
Number and percent of monthly measurements less
then or equal to designated 95th percentile
turbidity limits
Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration
127
CFE Exceedance Reporting
Report to state as soon as possible, but no later
than the end of the next business day
Exceedance of 5.0 NTU for slow sand and
diatomaceous earth filtration or maximum level
set by the state for alternative filtration
Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration
128
Case Studies Plain Valley
  • Filtered GWUDI System, Serving 300 People, Using
    Slow Sand Filtration
  • What is the reduced monitoring frequency that the
    state can set for this system?
  • What is the maximum CFE limit?
  • What is the system required to report to the
    state within 10 days?
  • What are the removal/inactivation requirements
    for Viruses, Giardia Lamblia, and Cryptosporidium
    for this system?
  • How many IFE samples should this system take?

Case Study
129
What is the reduced monitoring frequency that the
state can set for this system?
  • At least every 8 hours
  • One sample per day
  • Continuous monitoring every 2 hours
  • Four samples per day

130
Answer
GWUDI System, serving 300 using slow sand
filtration
  • What is the reduced monitoring frequency that the
    state can set for this system?
  • One sample per day

Case Study
131
What is the maximum CFE limit?
  • lt 1 NTU
  • 5 NTU
  • lt 0.3 NTU
  • None of the above

132
Answer
GWUDI System, serving 300 using slow sand
filtration
  • What is the maximum CFE limit?
  • 5 NTU

Case Study
133
What is the system required to report to the
state within 10 days?
  • Total number of monthly measurements
  • Number and percent less than or equal to
    designated 95 turbidity limits
  • Date and value exceeding 5 NTU
  • All of the above

134
Answer
GWUDI System, serving 300 using slow sand
filtration
  • What is the system required to report to the
    state within 10 days?
  • All of the above

Case Study
135
What are the removal/inactivation requirements
for Viruses, Giardia Lamblia, and Cryptosporidium
for this system?
  • Viruses - 4-log removal/inactivation, Giardia
    Lamblia - 3-log removal/inactivation,
    Cryptosporidium - 2-log removal
  • Viruses - 2-log removal/inactivation, Giardia
    Lamblia - 2-log removal/inactivation,
    Cryptosporidium - 3-log removal
  • Viruses - 3-log removal/inactivation, Giardia
    Lamblia - 4-log removal/inactivation,
    Cryptosporidium - 4-log removal

136
Answer
GWUDI System, serving 300 using slow sand
filtration
  • What are the removal/inactivation requirements
    for Viruses, Giardia Lamblia, and Cryptosporidium
    for this system?
  • Viruses - 4-log removal/inactivation, Giardia
    Lamblia - 3-log removal/inactivation,
    Cryptosporidium - 2-log removal

Case Study
137
How many IFE samples should this system take?
  • At least every 4 hours
  • Continuous monitoring every 15 minutes
  • Not required
  • Once per day

138
Answer
GWUDI System, serving 300 using slow sand
filtration
  • How many IFE samples should this system take?
  • Not required.

Case Study
139
Unfiltered Systems
Unfiltered Systems
140
Filtration Avoidance Criteria
  • Source Water Conditions
  • Turbidity
  • Microbial quality
  • Inactivation and Disinfectant Residual
  • Watershed Control and Inspection

Unfiltered Systems
141
Source Water Conditions (Turbidity)
Requirement Frequency Measurement
Source Water Samples At least every 4 hours lt 5 NTU on two consecutive days
Unfiltered Systems
142
Source Water Conditions (Microbial Quality)
Requirement Frequency Measurement
Fecal coliform 1 5 samples per week depending on system size and every day the turbidity of the source water exceeds 1 NTU lt 20/100 mL
And/Or
Total coliform 1 5 samples per week depending on system size and every day the turbidity of the source water exceeds 1 NTU lt 100/100 mL
Unfiltered Systems
143
Reporting Requirements
Report to state within 24 hours.
Turbidity exceedances of 5 NTU
Waterborne disease outbreaks
Unfiltered Systems
144
Upcoming Regulations
  • Expected final in December 2005
  • Stage 2 DBPR
  • LT2ESWTR

Additional Resources
145
LT2ESWTR Preview
  • Objective Risk-based targeting approach to
    reduce exposure to Cryptosporidium in public
    water systems.
  • Target filtered systems with high source water
    Cryptosporidium levels where 99 (2-log) removal
    is not sufficient treatment
  • Target all unfiltered systems, which currently
    provide no treatment
  • Components of LT2ESWTR
  • Filtered systems assigned to different risk
    bins based on results of source water
    Cryptosporidium monitoring
  • Additional Cryptosporidium treatment based on bin
    classification
  • Microbial Toolbox of options flexibility in
    meeting additional treatment requirements

146
LT2ESWTR Preview
  • Additional LT2ESWTR requirements
  • Specific requirements for uncovered finished
    water reservoirs and unfiltered systems.
  • Second round of monitoring 6 years following
    initial bin assignment.
  • Disinfection profiling and benchmarking.

147
Evaluation Form
  • Available on the web at
  • http//yosemite.epa.gov/ogwdw/ogwdwsurvey.nsf/surv
    eyhome?openform
  • Enter code survey07
  • Please email webcastinfo_at_cadmusgroup.com if you
    have questions

Join us for Data Verification Webcast Training
Wednesday, July 27, 2005, 2 4 PM
148
Questions?
Q A
  • Please send your questions comments via the web
    console located on your bottom right.

149
Additional Resources
150
Webcast Materials
  • Drinking Water Academy Web site
    www.epa.gov/safewater/dwa.html
  • Webcast Presentation Slides
  • Written QA from Webcast
  • Will Be Emailed To All Registered Participants

Additional Resources
151
Additional Resources
  • Quick Reference Guides
  • IESWTR (EPA 816-F-01-011)
  • LT1ESWTR (EPA 816-F-02-001)
  • FBRR (EPA 816-F-01-019)
  • Technical guidance documents
  • Alternative Disinfectants and Oxidants Guidance
    Manual (EPA 815-R-99-014)
  • Disinfection Profiling and Benchmarking Guidance
    Manual (EPA 815-R-99-013)
  • Enhanced Coagulation and Enhanced Precipitative
    Softening Guidance Manual (EPA 815-R-99-010)

Additional Resources
152
Additional Resources
  • Technical guidance documents (continued)
  • Guidance Manual for Compliance with the Interim
    Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule Turbidity
    Provisions (EPA 815-R-99-010)
  • Guidance Manual for Conducting Sanitary Surveys
    of Public Water Systems Surface Water and Ground
    Water Under the Direct Influence (GWUDI) (EPA
    815-R-99-016)
  • M/DBP Simultaneous Compliance Manual
    (EPA-815-R-99-015)
  • Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs Guidance
    Manual (EPA 815-R-99-011)

Additional Resources
153
Additional Resources
  • Technical guidance documents (continued)
  • Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule
    (LT1ESWTR) Implementation Turbidity Provisions -
    Technical Guidance Manual (EPA 816-R-04-007)
  • Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule
    (LT1ESWTR) Disinfection Profiling and
    Benchmarking Technical Guidance Manual (EPA
    816-R-03-004)
  • Filter Backwash Recycling Rule Technical Guidance
    Manual (EPA 816-R-02-014)
  • Technical Fact Sheet Final Filter Backwash
    Recycling Rule (EPA 815-F-01-001)

Additional Resources
154
Additional Resources
  • Implementation guidance documents
  • IESWTR Final Implementation Guidance (EPA
    816-R-01-011)
  • LT1 Final Implementation Guidance (EPA
    816-R-04-008)
  • FBRR Final Implementation Guidance (EPA
    816-R-04-006)
  • IESWTR Plain English Guidance (EPA 816-R-01-014)
  • Profiling and Benchmarking Fact Sheet (EPA
    816-F-98-017b)
  • IESWTR Fact Sheet (EPA 816-F-01-013)

Additional Resources
155
EPA Resources Available
  • All documents available through
  • EPAs Web site
  • http//www.epa.gov/safewater/
  • OR
  • By calling the Safe Drinking Water Hotline
  • 1-800-426-4791

Additional Resources
156
For More Questions
  • Send Your States SWTRs Questions or Situations
    to
  • MDBP_OGWDW_at_epa.gov
  • SWTRs Questions Call your EPA Regional Office
    or Ed Moriarty, US EPA HQ 202-564-3864

Additional Resources
157
Next Webcast Data Verifications
  • July 27, 2005, 2 4 PM (EST)
  • For State Staff Only
  • Overview of the EPA Headquarters-sponsored DV
    process
  • Example of process using TCR and Stage 1 DBPR as
    examples
  • Send your DV questions via email to
    webcastinfo_at_cadmusgroup.com

Additional Resources
158
Webcast Series
  • See Handout or DWA Calendar for Upcoming 2005
    Webcasts
  • http//www.epa.gov/safewater/dwa/calendar.html
  • Future Webcasts will
  • Cover a Variety of Subjects and Rules
  • Be Held Last Wednesday of the Month from 2-4 PM
    (Eastern Time)
  • Have the Same Registration Process as for SWTRs
  • Will Open for Registration Six Weeks Prior to
    Each Webcast

Additional Resources
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