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Title: C 24: New Worlds: The Americas and Oceania


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C 24 New Worlds The Americas and Oceania
Hispaniola (Haiti-Dominican Republic Indigenous
Taino people (4 million 1492 (1000s
by 1540s) Encomienda system? Gold, some silver
NOT silks and spices Taino populations gone by
mid 16th C Culture preserved through language
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  • fire consuming the temple of Huitzilopochtli
  • the appearance of streaking fire
  • across the sky,
  • the boiling, and later flooding, of a lake
    nearby Tenochtitlan,
  • a woman weeping in the middle of night
  • Fishermen discovered a bird that wore a strange
    mirror in the crown of its head. Montezuma looked
    into the mirror and saw a distant plain, with
    people making war against each other and riding
    on the backs of animals resembling deer.
  • and the sightings of strange monsters having two
    heads and only one body throughout the city.
  • God Quetzalcoatl (bearded, fair skinned Toltec
    god) was to return from the East
  • The emperor Montezuma was said to have consulted
    fortune tellers to determine the causes of these
    omens but they were unable to provide an exact
    explanation until after the arrival of the
    Spaniards

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Spanish arrive
Messengers killed
Tlaxcala
Hernan Cortes Montezuma II
Malinche interprets (Maya and Nahuatl)
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1520 Death of Montezuma II
June 1520 Fall of the Aztec Empire 600 Spanish
Conquistadors killed 100-200,000 Aztecs killed
battle of Tenochtitlan
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December 1520 70 day smallpox epidemic
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Florentine Codex 1547-1558
Bernardino de Sahagun Father of modern
enthography
Bartolome de las Casas Wrote about abuse of
native populations Initially suggested imported
Africans for labor
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Bishop Diego de Landa Relación de las Cosas de
Yucatán 1566
During a ceremony on July 12, 1562, a disputed
number of Maya codices (or books Landa admits
to 27, other sources claim "99 times as many")
and approximately 5,000 Maya cult images were
burned. The actions of Landa passed into the
Black Legend of the Spanish in the Americas.
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Francisco Pizarro and Atahualpa The Fall of the
Inca Empire 1532-1533
Pizarro had 180 soldiers 60 reinforcements to
conquer an empire of 11 million Atahualpa and
Huascar Inca army thousands (Submit and Live,
Resist and Die) Battle of Cajamarca 1532
Francisco Pizarro and Atahualpa, in 1532, drawing
by Felipe Guamán Poma de Ayala, c. 1600.
1572 Spaniards executing Tupac Amaru Last Inca
emperor
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Felipe Guamán Poma de Ayala Guaman Poma's great
work was the (The First New Chronicle and Good
Government), a 1,189-page document.. His book
remains the longest sustained critique of Spanish
colonial rule produced by an indigenous subject
in the entire colonial period. Written between
1600 and 1615 and addressed to King Philip II of
Spain, the Corónica outlines the injustices of
colonial rule and argues that the Spanish were
foreign settlers in Peru. The king never received
the document.
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Europeans in the Americas?
Portuguese and indigenous peoples?
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Similarities and Differences?
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Compare the Spanish and Portuguese systems of
social hierarchy established in colonial
America.
What evidence would you use to answer this
question?
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Compare the Spanish and Portuguese systems of
social hierarchy established in colonial
America.

Differences S P Peninsulares Pensinsular
es Creoles (Crillos) MESTIZOS MESTIZOS Mu
lattos RIGID Hierarchy Zambos Peninsulares
owned all -More male dominated the land and
power 85 of migrant population was
male - more African slaves (1518 first
slaves imported to New Word- to
Brazil -Portuguese planters and
owners of sugar mills were
a privileged class - acted like the
landed nobility - as long as they
contributed to royal revenues, they were
left alone
Similarities
  • - People of varied ancestry lived together
    under European rule
  • Mixed race performed much of the manual labor
  • Members of native European countries were the
    pinnacle of the social ladder
  • Mixed races below on the social hierarchy
  • Slaves at the bottom

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The Colonial Class System
Born in America/ Iberian parents
Peninsulares
Creoles
Social Organization Similar or Different from
other areas?
Mulattos
Mestizos
African Spanish/ Portugese
Spanish Natives
Zambos?
Native Indians
Black Slaves
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Miguel Cabrera 18th century Zapotec artist
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Compare the Spanish and Portuguese systems of
colonial administration established in colonial
America.
What evidence would you use to answer this
question?
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Compare the Spanish and Portuguese systems of
colonial administration established in colonial
America.

Differences S - initially ruled by
conquistadores - semi-private regimes that
gave way to the Spanish crown -administrative
centers in Mexico and Peru governed by
viceroys - viceroys were reviewed by
audencias haciendas encomienda system
eventually replaced by the repartimiento
system quinto Spanish crown claimed 1/5 of
all silver produced
  • P
  • Sugar plantations
  • Portuguese king granted large territories to
    nobles
  • Expected nobles to develop their holdings
  • Dispatched a governor to oversee affairs and
    enforce
  • Imperial policy
  • Similarities
  • Imperial rule/ royal backing and oversight
  • European style society in the cities
  • Both developed colonies for economic gain
  • Tried to gain control of as much land and
    territory as possible
  • Tried to make sure officials remained loyal to
    their respective governments
  • - generally saw this land as a place to exploit
    rather than as a place to settle

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A Hacienda in Chile
Mexico City and Lima?
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Potosi
Quinto? Mita service?
Zacatecas One of the most productive of its
silver mines, the Alvarado, has records which
show a production of nearly 800,000,000 in
silver between 1548 and 1867.
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Colonial government in North America Private
investors VS Royal backing
European Empires and Colonies In the Americas,
1700
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North American Populations
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Export of Tobacco from Virginia
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Compare the nature of the contact between the
indigenous peoples and the Spanish, French and
English in colonial America.
What evidence would you use to answer this
question?
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Compare the nature of the contact between the
indigenous peoples and the Spanish, French and
English in colonial America.
S -forced labor so half hearted attempt
to rebel/ little option available to them -
mestizo populations develop because initially
Spanish men settled in Americas by
themselves Differences - some attempt to use
Spanish law to address poor treatment Fr
(more success w/ CONVERSION) - initially French
male traders and fur trappers - Meti
populations develop (FR and Native America) -
mot as oppressive/ Fr dont force religion or
government on natives - Native Americans used
the Fr and English against one another to
maximize profit E - treaties/ not
great. English tended to settled in North
America as families- FARMS conflicted w
indigenous migrations/ hunting led to conflict/
bitterness/ resentment/ HATED interracial
marriages/ didnt care about religious
conversion

Similarities In all cases, Europeans
met Disorganized groups of indigenous peoples
(unlike Spanish Latin America) All were
seeking trading relationships. (fur, fish)-
trade routes All eventually came to dominate
the indigenous populations
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1531 Latin America/ Virgin of Guadalupe yes!
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Spanish fort in Florida
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Social Development and Transformation of social structures                            
Political State-building, expansion and conflict                          
Interaction Between humans and the environment                    
Spanish introduced smallpox, reduced native pop
by 90 ( 4 million to 2000)
imposed strict system of social hierarchy based
on race (peninsulares, creoles,
mestizos, mulattos, zambos)/ harsh treatment of
natives encomienda system
repartimiento system, mita service)/ established
capitals in European style
Mexico City (New Spain), Lima (New
Castile)./early settlers mostly single
men Portuguese no forced labor for natives,
imported African slaves for sugar mills, similar
social hierarchy to the
Spanish/ early settlers mostly single men social
classes created from offspring
of Europeans and Africans (mulattos) and natives
and Africans (zambos) (BOTH
social systems based on race) French mostly
single men come over to Americas enter into
relationship with native women
metis English families come over- less
interaction with natives
S P I C E
90 of native pop Lost in Latin Am North Am
mostly displacement
Spanish/ Portuguese viceroyalties, audencias
check the power of the viceroys, encomineda
system serves as mechanism for control Brazil
given to nobles by the king Iberian royal crowns
controlled the colonies to a greater degree than
the British or
French British/ French more independent, backed
by support of some private investors as
well as the crown under a
mercantilist model
Latin America Plantations/ haciendas/ mining/
gold and silver / sugar/ introduction of
smallpox and huge population loss North
America originally intend to live off the land
and import goods/ later become settled
agriculturalists- learn from natives New
England refine sugarcane into molasses for
export French exploit fur resources
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Spanish/ Portuguese intentionally do not
encourage cultural exchange or diffusion, tried
to eliminate native beliefs and replace with
Roman Catholicism. Missionaries present early
on Bartolomeu de las Casas, Bishop Diego de
Landa- Virgin of Guadalupe represents support
for Christianity among natives English/ French
neither had much interest in converting natives
to Christianity more cultural diffusion with the
French/ English resisted mixed relationships
the most / Africans in French colonies
voodoo Native resistance try to retain cultural
identity but largely unsuccessful- some revolts
in North America/ African slaves attempted revolt
but not successful Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala
native Incan who protested to the king to no
avail Tupac Amaru rebellion (Inca) 1572 led a
rebel state, last Inca ruler, executed by the
Spanish
Culture Development and interaction of cultures                          
Economic Creation, expansion and interaction of economic systems                        
Mostly Mexico Not Peru
S P I C E
Spanish/ Portuguese first looked for finished
products/ spices/ gold/ finding none set up
plantation economies (mostly sugar
cane) Spanish silver mines (Zacatecas, Mexico/
Potosi), Peru/ Manilla galleons EMCOMIENDA/
REPARTIMIENTO/ FREE LABOR qunito tax Brazil
engenhos English mercantile system/ Atlantic
Slave trade/ sugar molasses and rum indentured
servants as labor pool did not enslave the
natives cash crops cotton, tobacco, southern
plantations French in North America fur
trade, timber, fish in
Caribbean colonies horrible plantation
conditions, sugarcane
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Vasco da Gama Adam Smith Alfonso d
Albuquerque Mercantilism Ferdinand and
Isabel Spanish Inquisition Christopher
Columbus Copernicus Taino John
Locke Hispaniola Thirty Years
War Motivations for exploration? Peace of
Westphalia Columbian Exchange Balance of
Power Seven Years War Hernan Cortes Manila
Galleons Francisco Pizarro James
Cook Atahualpa/Huascar Martin
Luther viceroys Protestant Reformation aude
ncias John Calvin quinto Henry
VIII Potosi Council of Trent
peninsluares/mestizos/crillos Louis
XIV mulattos/ zambos English East India
Company North America royal backing United
East India Company (VOC) encomiendas Indulgences
mita Divine Right of Kings indentured
servitude
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Compare the forced labor systems utilized by the
Spanish, Portuguese and the English in colonial
America.

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Social Development and Transformation of social structures                            
Political State-building, expansion and conflict                          
Interaction Between humans and the environment                    
S P I C E
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1572
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Culture Development and interaction of cultures                          
Economic Creation, expansion and interaction of economic systems                        
S P I C E
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Post- 15th Century Trade Routes?
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1992 Columbus Quincentenary Columbus as Hero or
Villain?
POV?
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