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World War II:


World War II: Canada s Role – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War II:

World War II
  • Canadas Role

Recap The War Begins
  • When did WWII break out?
  • What was Hitlers last action before Britain and
    France declared war?
  • What tactic did Hitler use? Why was it effective?

Enter Canada
  • How did Canadas entry to WWII differ than her
    entry to WWI?
  • What new law allowed Canada to make her own
  • Prime Minister Mackenzie King was prepared to
    send roughly 40 000 troops and anticipated a role
    as the main supplier of food and war materials
    for Britain

The House of Commons on September 7, 1939, the
first day of the special session in which
Canada's Parliament decided to declare war on
Germany. Canada declared war on Sept. 10, 1939
Phoney War. Then War!
  • Sept. 1939 May 1940- called phoney war due
    to lack of any military operation or attack by
    either side.
  • THEN in 1940, Hitlers modern army overran
    Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Luxembourg and the
    Netherlands. Soon, Hitler turned his attention to

The Miracle of Dunkirk
  • Thousands of British troops raced across the
    English Channel to defend France. A contingent of
    Canadian soldiers remained in Britain to defend
    against the expected German invasion.
  • Despite Britain's valiant effort, the Germans
    advanced rapidly into France leaving both British
    and French troops trapped.

  • In May, 1940, British troops had to be evacuated
    from the seaport town of Dunkirk on the French
  • 300 000soldiers were rescued by boats of all
    sizes- in addition to the British destroyers, a
    makeshift fleet of sightseeing boats, river
    ferries, fishing boats and privately owned crafts
    sailed across the British Channel to return the
    stranded troops safely back to Britain.
  • Despite the miracle it was a terrible defeat,
    much of the heavy British war equipment had to be
    abandoned and France fell in six weeks.

  • We Shall Fight on Beaches Churchill, June 4th
  • Even though large tracts of Europe and many old
    and famous States have fallen or may fall into
    the grip of the Gestapo and all the odious
    apparatus of Nazi rule, we shall not flag or
    fail. We shall go on to the end, we shall fight
    in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans,
    we shall fight with growing confidence and
    growing strength in the air, we shall defend our
    Island, whatever the cost may be, we

  • shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the
    landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and
    in the streets, we shall fight in the hills we
    shall never surrender, and even if this Island or
    a large part of it were subjugated and starving,
    then our Empire beyond the seas, armed and
    guarded by the British Fleet, would carry on the
    struggle, until, in God's good time, the New
    World, with all its power and might, steps forth
    to the rescue and the liberation of the old.

Movie Clip Atonement
  • http//
  • Churchill Speech
  • http//

How would Hitlers successes in Europe change
Canadas role in war?
  • Canadas role in WWII evolved to the centre
    stage 1. convoys became a vital lifeline to the
    survival of Britain
  • 2. more Canadian troops sent to Britain
  • 3. Canadian increased wartime industries such
    as food, guns, munitions, supplies and armed

The Russian Front
  • On August 23rd, 1939, Stalin and Hitler signed a
    Non-Aggression Pact which vowed not to
    interfere in each others business
  • On June 22nd, 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet
  • Having purged his military of many of its best
    officers, Stalin and the Soviets were not ready
    for war

The Eastern Front
  • Operation Barbarossa began on June 22nd, 1941
  • The early days saw the Germans drive into the
    Soviet Union almost reaching Moscow by October
  • The German army besieged Leningrad for what was
    to become a two year struggle ending in the death
    of more than one million civilians

When the severe Russian winter arrived the Nazi
offensive broke down and the German attack was
The Tide Turns
  • The Nazis needed supplies and resources to
    continue the war so victory in the Soviet Union
    was essential
  • From Sept. 14th, 1942 Feb. 2nd, 1943 the
    Germans and Russians fought for the strategic
    city of Stalingrad on the Volga River
  • Hitler and the Nazis lost the battle 500 000
    German and other troops were killed or taken

By the Autumn of 1943 the Germany army of 2.5
million soldiers faced an army of 5.5 million
Soviet soldiers
Clips Enemy at the Gates
  • Chapter 1 watch first 20 minutes

What was the situation in 1944?
  • The Russians have defeated the Germans and are
    advancing in the East
  • The Allies are victorious in Africa and launch an
    assault on mainland Italy through Sicily

Italian Campaign
  • The Campaign of Italy was designed to take the
    pressure off their Russian Allies and pull German
    troops out of north-western Europe readying the
    area for Operation Overlord
  • 9th September, 1943 the attack began on Italy
  • The Canadians were forced to fight for every
    metre of the mountainous terrain as the Germans
    refused to give it up

Italy Surrenders
  • On the 8th of September, 1943, the Italian
    Government surrenders
  • When Italy formally surrendered on September 8th,
    the Italians separated into two camps, pro-Allied
    and pro-German factions.
  • By September 26 the Allies had built a force of
    189,000 men and 30,000 vehicles.
  • Following the Italian surrender, the German Army
    took control of the defence of Germany

  • Ortona is an ancient city that consists of narrow
    streets and connected houses
  • Much of Ortona was reduced to rubble, making it
    difficult for the Canadians to use tanks
  • The Germans barricaded themselves in houses and
    mined the streets
  • The fighting was house-to-house. The Canadians
    blasted their way through walls to get from
    building to building called mouseholing
  • The battle continued over Christmas Day, 1943 but
    three days later the Germans withdrew.

(No Transcript)
The Liberation of Rome
  • It took four major offensives between January and
    May 1944 before the Allies including British, US,
    French, Polish, and Canadian Corps broke through
  • Rome was declared an open city by the German army
    and the Allies took possession on June 4th.

The Move on to France
  • Having the Germans occupied in Italy allowed the
    allies to move forward with their plan to open up
    the long awaited western front in Europe

The Plan
  • Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt agreed
    it was time to open up a new front in the West
    through the beaches of France
  • The obvious choice for a landing area was the Pas
    de Calais so the Allies decided to attack in
    Normandy instead but believed they had to deceive
    the Germans they intended to attack elsewhere

Normandy It Is!
  • Normandy is a peninsula on the French Coast
  • It was chosen because the Germans expected the
    attack to be on the Pas de Calais

The Criteria Lessons learned from Dieppe (pg.
235 in Textbook)
  1. The enemy must remain ignorant of the proposed
    landing site
  2. The enemy must be prevented from bringing up
    reinforcements quickly once the allies landed
  3. Complete Allied air and naval superiority in the
    English Channel
  4. Local defences must largely be destroyed by air
    and sea bombardment

Operation Overlord
  • There would be five sectors that would be
  • Utah American
  • Omaha American
  • Gold British
  • Juno Canadian
  • Sword - British

Hardships The Atlantic Wall
  • The Atlantic Wall was an extensive system of
    coastal fortifications built by the Germans
    between 1942 and 1944
  • Built along the western coast of Europe to defend
    against an anticipated Anglo-American led Allied
    invasion of the continent from Great Britain.

  • Minefields and antitank obstacles were planted on
    the beaches and underwater obstacles and mines
    were planted in the waters just off shore to
    destroy incoming craft. By the time of the
    invasion, the Germans had laid almost 6 million
    mines in France.

The Attack June 6th, 1944
The Time Has Come
  • On the evening of June 5th paratroopers dropped
    in to secure bridges for the allied advance
  • Heavy bombers dropped their payloads on what was
    supposed to be the beach defences

In the early morning the largest armada of ships
left Britain for the French coast
The Canadians on D-Day
  • Of the nearly 150,000 Allied troops who landed or
    parachuted into the invasion area, 14,000 were
  • The Royal Canadian Navy contributed 110 ships and
    10,000 sailors in support of the landings while
    the R.C.A.F. had helped prepare the invasion by
    bombing targets inland
  • Canadians suffered 1074 casualties, including 359

Reasons for Success D-Day
  1. Element of surprise (date, location)
  2. Attack at low tide / first light
  3. Massive air and naval support (paratroopers)
  4. Dividing of beaches (different objectives based
    on geography, location, German defences)
  5. Breaking of German defences with Allied tanks
    (pincers) and troops encircling Nazis

Movie Clips
  • Saving Private Ryan Chapter 1 (first 30

The Liberation of Northwest Europe
  • September 1944 the British captured the Belgian
    port of Antwerp (docking port for supplies)
  • Canadians given the task of securing the Scheldt
    Estuary (70-kilometre long Scheldt River estuary
    linking Antwerp to the sea)
  • After 5 weeks of difficult fighting, the 1st
    Canadian Army with support from other countries
    secured the Schedlt Estuary

  • By Nov. 8, 1944- Allies had cleared the ports but
    at a cost of 12 873 Allies casualties, half of
    them missing

The Battle of the Bulge
  • The Ardennes Offensive known to the general
    public as the Battle of the Bulge, started on
    December 16, 1944
  • Three powerful German armies plunged into the
    semi-mountainous, heavily forested Ardennes
    region of eastern Belgium and northern
  • Their goal was to reach the sea, trap four allied
    armies, and impel a negotiated peace on the
    Western front.
  • Allied forces fought Germans
  • German losses were critical- reserves gone,
    Luftwaffe had been broken and German army pushed
    back on two fronts (east and west) gt Germany now

The Final Days
  • In April 1945, the battle is coming to a close.
  • On the 30th April, Hitler commits suicide
    together with his mistress Eva Braun hours after
    they were married.
  • Hitler gave strict orders for his body to be
    burned, so that his enemies wouldn't do what they
    had done to Mussolini, who was publicly displayed
    hanging upside down.

The Soviets Arrive Berlin Falls
  • By 2 May, the Reichstag, the old German
    parliament falls and Berlin surrenders to
    Marshall Zukhov, who receives the honour of being
    the conqueror of Berlin.
  • The battle for Berlin cost the Soviets over
    70,000 dead. Many of them died because of the
    haste with which the campaign was conducted.

  • The major Allied ground offensive from the west
    against German territory began on 8 February 1945
  • In April, Canadian troops liberated most of the
  • The Germans formally surrendered on 8 May 1945,
    known as Victory-in-Europe, or V-E Day

Why was the US Fighting Japan?
  • September 1940. The U.S. placed an embargo on
    Japan by prohibiting exports of steel, scrap
    iron, and aviation fuel to Japan, due to Japan's
    takeover of northern French Indochina.
  • June 1941 through the end of July 1941. Japan
    occupied southern Indochina. Two days later, the
    U.S., Britain, and the Netherlands froze Japanese
  • The U.S. wanted to stop Japanese expansion but
    the American people were not willing to go to war
    to stop it.

Pearl Harbor
  • Prior to December 1941, Japan pursued two
    simultaneous courses try to get the oil embargo
    lifted on terms that would still let them take
    the territory they wanted, and to prepare for
  • Their greatest concern was the the U.S. Pacific
    Fleet, based in Pearl Harbor so the Japanese navy
    planned to cripple the Pacific Fleet by a
    surprise attack.
  • The U.S. had broken the Japanese diplomatic code
    and knew an attack was imminent. A warning had
    been sent from Washington, but it arrived too

The Attack!
  • On December 7th 1941 the first wave of Japanese
    airplanes left 6 aircraft carriers and struck
    Pearl Harbor a few minutes before 8 AM local
  • Over the course of two hours, they killed or
    wounded over 3,500 Americans and sank or badly
    damaged 18 ships - including all 8 battleships of
    the Pacific Fleet
  • At least 1,177 lives were lost when the
    Battleship U.S.S. Arizona exploded and
    subsequently sank.
  • Both USA and Canada formally declared war on
    Japan following attack on Pearl Harbour

Movie Clips
  • Pearl Harbor Chapter 20

War in the Pacific
  • Now that Germany had unconditionally surrendered
    (VE Day), the Allies could now put all effort to
    fighting Japan in the Pacific
  • Memories of Pearl Harbour still resonated with
    Americans who wanted revenge
  • After Pearl Harbour, both USA and Canada interned
    Japanese- Americans and Japanese Canadians

Was the United States Justified in Dropping the
Atomic Bomb?
  • Following FDRs death, Harry Truman becomes
    President of the United States
  • Truman decided to use the bomb on Japan--- why?
  • What do you think? Justified or Unjustified?

Pros and Cons to Dropping the Bomb
  • Strategic and conventional bombing part of WWII
  • Japan refused to unconditionally surrender to
  • The alternative to using the atomic bomb
    (bombardments / blockade) would have had
    devastating effects on the Japanese population
    and would have prolonged the war and their
    suffering (starvation).
  • The Japanese military were preparing a desperate
    defense of their homeland that would inevitably
    produce high casualties on both sides (estimated
    500 000 Allied soldiers)
  • Unethical and immoral- new weapon with harsh
    effects (radiation poisoning). William D. Leahy,
    Chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff stated
    My own feeling is that in being the first to use
    it, we had adopted an ethical standard common to
    barbarians of the Dark Ages. I was not taught to
    make war in that fashion, and wars cannot be won
    by destroying women and children.
  • High civilian death toll (150 000)
  • By 1945, Japan was crippled as a result of the
    Allied blockade and bombings and neared collapse
    surrender was immiment
  • Americans wanted to show USSR they had atomic
    bombs ushered in the Cold War

Hiroshima and Nagasaki
  • United States decided to use atomic bomb on
  • Cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki chosen because
    of its military and industrial significance and
    concentrated population (maximize the damage)
  • These are the only attacks with nuclear weapons
    in the history of warfare

Fat Man and Little Boy
  • On August 6th, 1945 a lone B-29 Superfortress
    called the Enola Gay by its crew took off and
    headed for Hiroshima
  • At 815am the atomic bomb nicknamed Little Boy
    was dropped on Hiroshima
  • Within seconds two thirds of the city was
    flattened and thousands were dead
  • On August 11, a bomb called Fat Man was dropped
    on Nagasaki at 1102 am
  • At noon, August 15th, 1945 Emperor Hirohito
    spoke directly to his people to tell them Japan
    had surrendered

Atomic Bomb Clip
  • http//
  • http//

  • The bombs killed as many as 140,000 people in
    Hiroshima and 80,000 in Nagasaki by the end of
    1945,with roughly half of those deaths occurring
    on the days of the bombings.
  • Amongst these, 1520 died from injuries or the
    combined effects of flash burns, trauma, and
    radiation burns, compounded by illness,
    malnutrition and radiation sickness
  • Since then, more have died from leukemia or
    cancer attributed to exposure to radiation
    released by the bombs. In both cities, most of
    the dead were civilians.

Why Did the Allies Win?
  • Complete material superiority weapons etc.
  • More soldiers
  • Better Strategy
  • Technology
  • Morale
  • Material and financial Wealth