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Human Anatomy

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Human Anatomy Skeletal System – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Anatomy


1
Human Anatomy
  • Skeletal System

2
Functions
  • Support body structure and shape
  • Protection for vital organs (brain, heart, etc.)
  • Movement for attached skeletal muscles
  • Tendons attach muscle to bone
  • Ligaments attach bone to bone
  • Mineral storage calcium and phosphorus
  • Blood cell formation - hematopoiesis

3
Types of Bone
4
Compact Bone
  • Very dense, stress bearing
  • Haversian systems basic unit
  • of compact bone
  • Lamellae concentric cylinder
  • shaped calcified structure
  • Lacunae small spaces
    containing tissue fluid
  • Osteocytes facilitate exchange
    of calcium between blood and bone
  • Canaliculi canals connecting the lacunae
    together and to the haversian canal which carries
    nutrients and wastes to and from the osteocytes

5
Cancellous Bone
  • Light, spongy
  • Found at ends of long bones, ribs, sternum, hips,
    vertebrae, cranium
  • No haversian systems
  • Web-like arrangement
  • Highly vascular

6
  • Classification of Bones

7
Long bones
  • Found in the extremities
  • Act as levers
  • Includes
  • Epiphysis
  • End of long bones
  • Covered with hyaline cartilage for articulation
  • Filled with cancellous bone
  • Diaphysis
  • Shaft
  • Covered with periosteum
  • Medullary canal
  • Compact bone
  • Examples femur, tibia, fibula, humerus,
  • radius, clavicle, metacarpals, phalanges

8
Short Bones
  • Cube shaped
  • Allows flexible movement
  • Cancellous bone covered by compact bone
  • Examples
  • Carpals
  • Tarsals
  •  

9
Flat Bones
  • Protect vital organs and provide broad surface
    area for muscle attachment
  • Examples
  • Cranial bones
  • Scapula
  • Sternum
  • Ribs

10
Irregular Bones
  • Peculiarly shaped to provide support and
    protection, yet allow flexibility
  • Examples
  • Vertebrae
  • Ear
  • Hyoid
  • Mandible

11
Sesamoid Bones
  • Extra bones found in certain tendons
  • Example
  • Patella
  •  

12
Composition
  • Collagen chief organic constituent (protein)
  • Inorganic calcium salts (Vitamin D essential for
    absorption of minerals i.e. calcium)
  • Deposition favored by
  • a. Estrogen, testosterone
  • b. Alkaline phosphatase
  • c. Thyrocalcitonin
  • d. Mechanical stress i.e. traction
  • Withdrawal favored by
  • a. Alkaline phosphatase
  • b. Parathormone
  • c. Inactivity

13
Composition
  • Cells
  • Osteoblasts bone building, bone repairing cells
    in the periosteum
  • Osteocytes mature bone cells within the bone
    matrix
  • Osteoclast causes reabsorption of bone
  • Periosteum
  • 1. Dense, fibrous membrane covering bone
  • 2. Contains blood vessels
  • 3. Essential for bone cell survival and bone
    formation
  •  

14
Cells that Aid in Bone Formation
Builds new bone
Osteoblast
Mature bone cell
Osteocyte
Osteoclast
Eats bone
15
Bone Formation
  • Initially collagen fibers secreted by fibroblasts
  • Cartilage deposited between fibers
  • Skeleton fully formed by 2nd month of fetal
    development (all cartilage)
  • After 8th week of fetal development ossification
    (mineral matter deposited and replaces cartilage)
    begins
  • Childhood and adolescence
  • ossification exceeds bone loss
  • Early adulthood thru middle age
  • ossification equals bone loss
  • After age 35
  • bone loss exceed ossification

16
275 bones12 weeks (6-9 inches long)
Fetal Skeleton
17
Anatomy of Long Bone
  • Diaphysis
  • Shaft
  • Composed of compact bone
  • Epiphysis
  • Ends of bone composed mostly
  • of spongy bone
  • Periosteum
  • outside covering of diaphysis
  • Endosteum
  • Lines medullary cavity
  • Arteries
  • Articular cartilage
  • Medullary cavity
  • Cavity inside the shaft
  • Contains yellow marrow (mostly fat) in adults

18
Bone Marrow
  • Red bone marrow
  • Found in vertebrae, ribs, sternum, cranium, ends
    of humerus and femur
  • Produces
  • Erythrocytes red blood cells
  • Plateletes - thrombocytes clotting cells
  • Some leukocytes white blood cells
  • Yellow bone marrow
  • Found in medullary cavity of long bones
  • Fat storage

19
Bone Marrow
  • Yellow marrow
  • Medullary cavity of long bones
  • Fat storage
  • Red marrow
  • Hematopoietic tissue
  • In all cancellous bone in children
  • In adults cancellous bone of vertebrae, hips,
    sternum, ribs, cranial bones, proximal ends of
    femur and humerus
  • Forms RBCs, platelets, some WBCs, and destroys
    old RBCs and some foreign materials

20
Divisions of the Skeletal System
21
Axial Skeleton
  • Forms the longitudinal axis of the body
  • Divided into three parts then subdivided
  • Skull
  • Cranium
  • Ear bones
  • Face
  • Vertebral Column
  • Thorax
  • Ribs
  • Sternum
  • Hyoid bone

22
Ribs Fixed, False and Floating
23
Appendicular Skeleton
  • Composed of 126 bones
  • Includes bones of the
  • Limbs (appendages)
  • Pectoral (shoulder) girdle
  • Pelvic (hip) girdle

24
Man VS Woman
  • Difference
  • Men bigger and pelvic inlet shaped like a funnel
  • Woman smaller and pelvic inlet shaped like a
    basin to cradle the baby and the outlet is much
    wider

25
Joints
26
Classification
  • Synarthrotic immovable - cranium
  • Amphiarthrotic limited movement i.e. pubic
    symphysis, vertebral joints, sacroiliac joint
  • Diarthrotic freely movable
  • Gliding bones of the wrist
  • Pivot between radius and ulna
  • Ball and socket hip
  • Hinge elbow

27
Immovable Joints Synarthrosis
28
Slightly Movable Joint Ampharthrosis
29
Freely Movable Diarthrosis
30
Synovial Joint Movement
Extension
Rotation
Flexion
Adduction
Abduction
31
Diseases / Disorders
  • Arthritis
  • Bunions
  • Bursitis
  • Dislocation
  • Simple
  • Compound
  • Greenstick
  • Comminunted

32
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