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History of Modern American Science and Technology Session 4


Title: In Sputnik s Shadow: American Scientists, Eisenhower, and the Negotiations over Its Meaning Author: Zuoyue Wang Last modified by: ZW Created Date – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History of Modern American Science and Technology Session 4

History of Modern American Science and
Technology Session 4
  • How to Write a Paper in English

Revising Sentences
  • As a student in science, I am pleasant to see
    science and technology get so much attention.

  • Why did Groves push scientists so hard?
  • He felt that it was his duty, but also success
    would help his career
  • Why did the US drop the second bomb?
  • The idea was to drop two quickly so to create the
    impression that the US had many more. In fact
    the third one was about two weeks ago and many
    felt that the US should have waited longer.

Paper Topics
  • Changes in Americans Science Optimism
  • Changes in American Attitudes toward Science and
  • Pick two or three different periods Great
    Depression, 1945, 2009?
  • Apollo Project
  • Landing on the Moon How Americans Reacted to
    Apollo Project

  • Lawrence and the Atomic Bomb
  • www.aip.org/history
  • Should We Be More Optimistic Than Rachel
  • How scientists viewed Carson in the 1960s and
  • http//www.tianyabook.com/zhexue/silent/index.html

  • Obamas new attitude on science
  • Obamas views on science from the beginning of
    his election campaign to now
  • Chinese American physicist C. S. Wu
  • What Were Brought Up by Genetic Engineering and
    Stem Cell?

Citation Style by Zuoyue Wang based on
Turabian Note Footnote style is different from
that of bibliography.  
A. Footnotes
  • Books
  • 1Anthony Brundage, Going to the Sources A Guide
    to Historical Research and Writing (Wheeling, IL
    Harlan Davidson, 1997), 56. If the city of
    publication is well-known, such as New York, you
    do not need to give the name of the state. 
  • 2Brundage, Going to the Sources, 58. Use last
    name and abbreviated title for subsequent
    citations this rule applies to articles too.
  • Articles in a scholarly journal
  • Zuoyue Wang, Responding to Silent Spring
    Scientists, Popular Science Communication, and
    Environmental Policy in the Kennedy Years,
    Science Communication 19, no. 4 (December 1997)

  • Articles in a scholarly journal accessed from an
    online database
  • Peter Neushul and Zuoyue Wang, Between the Devil
    and the Deep Sea C. K. Tseng, Mariculture, and
    the Politics of Science in Modern China, Isis
    91, no. 1 (March 2000) 59-88, accessed on JStor
    online database in April 2004.
  • Articles in an edited book
  • William Kirby, Engineering China Birth of the
    Developmental State, 1928-1937, in Becoming
    Chinese Passages to Modernity and Beyond, ed.
    Wen-Hsin Yeh (Berkeley and Los Angeles
    University of California Press, 2000), 140.
  • Oral history interview
  • Interview with Chang-lin Tien by Zuoyue Wang,
    March 19, 1999, Berkeley, CA.
  • Newspaper and popular magazine articles or
    letters to the editor
  • Ralph Vartabedian, U.S. Funnels Billions to
    Science to Defend Against Terrorism, Los Angeles
    Times, March 7, 2004, A1.
  • Robert Parker, Clooneys Juvenilia, letter to
    the editor, The Record (Bergen County, NJ),
    October 9, 2005, O.03. If accessed on the web,
    see above
  • Website
  • Anon. to J. Edgar Hoover on Albert Einstein,
    April 21, 1953, available from FBI Freedom of
    Information Act Reading Room, Albert Einstein,
    Part 7, http//foia.fbi.gov/einstein/einstein7a.pd
    f, accessed in October 2003.

B. Bibliography
  • Brundage, Anthony.  Going to the Sources A Guide
    to Historical Research and Writing.  Wheeling,
    IL Harlan Davidson, 1997. (Ctrl t in Word
    for hanging indent.)
  • Kirby, William.  Engineering China Birth of the
    Developmental State, 1928-1937.  In Becoming
    Chinese Passages to Modernity and Beyond, ed.
    Wen-Hsin Yeh, 137-160.  Berkeley and Los Angeles
    University of California Press, 2000.
  • Vartabedian, Ralph. U.S. Funnels Billions to
    Science to Defend Against Terrorism. Los Angeles
    Times, March 7, 2004, A1.
  • Wang, Zuoyue.  Responding to Silent Spring
    Scientists, Popular Science Communication, and
    Environmental Policy in the Kennedy Years.
    Science Communication 19, no. 4 (December 1997)
    141-163.  Notice that there is a period after
    the article title and that here you give the
    inclusive page numbers of the article.

Checklist of Tips on Writing History Papers
  • 1. Place a period or comma before, not after, the
    closing quotation mark but keep footnote no.
    outside of the quote
  • Wrong  This is the wrong way to place the
    closing quotation mark and the period or comma
    1.  Right     This is the right way.1
  • 2. Page Numbers Be sure to insert page numbers
    for every page of your paper, except for p. 1 if
    you use cover sheet.
  • 3. Make sure that you distinguish between these
  • knew vs. new    know vs. now    there vs.
    their    where vs. were
  • its (Its a great paper.) vs. its (Its page
    numbers are missing.)
  • to (To write is to re-write.) vs. too (You can
    never have too many revisions.)
  • 4. Make sure that you italicize book or
    journal/magazine titles (Time) put article
    titles in quotes.

  • 5. Use subsection headings (bold, centered) if
    the paper is five pages or longer.
  • 6. History students generally should learn to use
    footnotes.  But in some cases you can use in-text
    citations, for example, in exam essays.  Use the
    following style for in-text citations in
    combination with a bibliography There is, quite
    simply, no such thing as a definitive treatment
    of any topic. (Brundage, 55)
  • 7. Plagiarism Avoid copying other authors words
    or ideas without citations avoid long quotes.
  • 8. In general, use quotes from your primary
    sources but paraphrase ideas from secondary
    sources and provide corresponding citations. 
    Its often desirable to have a paragraph or more
    of historiographical discussion (what arguments
    other scholars have made on your topic) and how
    your own thesis statement agrees or disagrees
    with the existing views within the first page or
    two of the paper.

  • 9. Follow a chronological order in your
    narrative its easier for you to handle and for
    the reader to follow.
  • 10. Try to write a topical sentence at the
    beginning of each paragraph and make sure that
    they flow well from one to the other.
  • 11. For most history papers you should be able to
    use both primary sources (published or
    unpublished correspondence, government records,
    newspaper and magazine articles, oral history
    interviews) and secondary works by other
    scholars.  The JStor database and
    www.historycooperative.org are perhaps the best
    sources to find scholarly articles on history
    topics.  Avoid using only one source for long
    sections of your paper.

  • 12. How to write essay exams Be sure to address
    all aspects of the examination question.  You can
    usually give a direct answer to the question in
    the first paragraph or two, then develop your
    argument in the body of the essay by providing
    examples, quotations, or other types of evidence
    for each period or for each group of people you
    cover.  Be sure to relate all your specific
    pieces of evidence to your main argument as
    articulated in the first paragraph.  You should
    then briefly summarize your argument in the last
    paragraph and can usually conclude the essay by
    offering some personal reflections on what you
    have learned and whats been most striking to you
    in studying this topic.
  • 13. If you have any questions regarding the
    writing process, discuss them with your

The Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster
1986 Melissa Mizukami History 408 Fall 2005
  • I've always had great faith in and respect for
    our space program. And what happened today does
    nothing to diminish it. We don't hide our space
    program. We don't keep secrets and cover things
    up. We do it all up front and in public. That's
    the way freedom is, and we wouldn't change it for
    a minute. We'll continue our quest in space.
    There will be more shuttle flights and more
    shuttle crews and, yes, more volunteers, more
    civilians, more teachers in space. Nothing ends
    here our hopes and our journeys continue.1
    That poignant excerpt was from President Ronald
    Reagans address on the sudden and tragic loss of
    the space shuttle Challenger. The day was January
    28, 1986 and the explosion killed all seven
    astronauts aboard. The event horrified America
    and the loss shook NASAs manned space program to
    its core. Not only would the storied space agency
    have to mourn the loss of good friends, but they
    would have to prepare themselves to answer some
    very serious questions. How did things go so
    terribly wrong? Though this question was on the
    forefront another question loomed large. Would
    the American public continue to support NASA
    after Challenger?

2nd paragraph
  • Though Americans were initially distraught and
    shocked by the shuttle accident, a majority
    expressed the sentiment President Reagan did in
    his Challenger address the hopes and journeys of
    Americas space program must go on. Despite
    having witnessed the explosion of Challenger and
    the ensuing deaths of seven astronauts, the
    American public continued to strongly support the
    space program. To expand on this sentiment I will
    first discuss the history of the space shuttle,
    and the pre-flight and flight day activities that
    led to the accident. Next I will talk about the
    desire the families of the Challenger crew felt
    to press forward in space exploration and why
    they believed so strongly to do so. Then Ill
    discuss the major support Americans expressed for
    the continuation of the space program after
    Challenger and what their reasons were behind it.
    Subsequently I will talk about the steps that
    were taken to find the cause of the explosion,
    what was done to eradicate further disaster and
    the public opinion of NASAs manned space program
    today. And lastly I will discuss how the
    Challenger accident relates to the history of
    American technology in terms of how it
    contradicts the view that accidents like these
    are a major detriment in Americans enthusiasm
    for technology.

3rd paragraph
  • The Space Shuttle concept was first envisioned in
    the 1960s during the height of the Apollo
    spacecraft, to be used after the Apollo program
    was retired. The configuration of the final
    product was made in March 1972.2 The new
    shuttle included the Orbiter, an expendable
    external fuel tank which carried liquid
    propellants for the Orbiters engines and two
    Solid Rocket Boosters which were recoverable.3
    The shuttle would be reusable, unlike the Apollo
    spacecraft which was discarded after every
    flight, and would be used for transporting cargo
    into space.4 From the beginning the shuttle
    program flew perfectly, and missions to low-earth
    orbit became routine. Astronauts Francis R.
    Scobee, Michael J. Smith, Judith A. Resnik,
    Ellison Onizuka, Ronald E. McNair, Gregory
    Jarvis, and teacher S. Christa McAuliffe were
    assigned to mission STS 51-L. 51-Ls mission
    objectives centered on the deployment of a
    tracking data relay satellite and a Halleys
    Comet experiment.5 The night before launch
    temperatures were unusually cold and engineers
    expressed concern regarding the cold weather
    effects on the boosters of the shuttle. The
    launch temperature was outside their operation
    specifications and the cold weather could pose a
    safety hazard to the joint rotation and o-ring
    seating of the shuttle.6 Despite discussing the
    risks involved, management decided the engineers
    data was inconclusive and approved the launch. On
    launch day the mid morning weather at Cape
    Canaveral was the coldest on which NASA had ever
    attempted to launch a manned spacecraft.7 The
    seven astronauts boarded the shuttle in the early
    Florida morning and at 1138 am the shuttle began
    its ascent.8 The space shuttle reached an
    altitude of 50,800 feet and was 7 nautical miles
    down range from the launch site when a brilliant
    glow was seen on one side of the external fuel
    tank.9 Within seconds it grew into a gigantic
    fireball and without warning exploded in the
    mid-morning sky breaking into pieces and falling
    to the ocean. Screams of horror rose from
    thousands of watchers. Families of the crew
    looked at the scene in disbelief, unable at first
    to comprehend what they were seeing.10 Within
    73 seconds of liftoff the space shuttle
    Challenger, and its seven crew members, were
  • Though their lives were forever changed the day
    Challenger exploded, the families of the shuttle
    crew expressed a strong desire that space
    exploration carry on. But having experienced such
    deep personal loss what were the reasons behind
    their hopes of continuing the space program?
    "Space flight serves as an outlet for our human
    need to learn and expand," the families wrote in
    a statement. "What's out there will make our
    lives better on earth and help satisfy mankind's
    natural curiosity to explore and push the borders
    of the known universe.11 The families saw the
    inherent need for people to explore freely and
    without walls or barriers. They knew this because
    they saw it within the seven astronauts they
    loved and cared so much about. June Scobee
    Rodgers, wife of the late Dick Scobee, said you
    can't pick up a cell phone and talk without
    thinking about space exploration benefiting us,
    or an MRI at a hospital or new opportunity for
    energy. It's all derived from space
    exploration.12 The families were aware of the
    strength behind Americas technology and NASA.
    But the families didnt just feel space
    exploration should go on because of the human
    need to learn and expand. They also supported the
    space program because it symbolized the legacy of
    the seven crew members. The Challenger families
    stated So that their lives were not lost in
    vain, we must rededicate ourselves to the
    exploration of space and to keep the dream
    alive."13 They did this by opening a center for
    children to be educated on space exploration. The
    Challenger Center, which originated in Houston,
    Texas and has since grown to 30 centers all over
    the country, was intended to keep the memory of
    the seven astronauts alive and provide a lasting
    legacy by encouraging young children to study
    math and science and one day explore space the
    way their loved ones did.14 When the next
    shuttle mission, following Challenger, was ready
    to launch the families issued a statement saying
    The Challenger mission will continue so long as
    our nation explores new horizons and passes on
    the knowledge gained to our children.15

  • Lastly, the families of the Challenger crew
    supported the continuation of the manned space
    program because they knew the wishes of their
    loved ones would be that space exploration
    continues.16 In a statement issued on the one
    year anniversary of Challenger the families of
    the crew reflected, saying If they were alive
    and could speak to all Americans, we believe the
    Challenger crew would say this Do not fear risk.
    All exploration, all growth is a calculated risk.
    Without frontiers, civilizations stagnate.
    Without challenge, people cannot reach their
    highest selves.17 They believed the crew did
    not risk their lives for aimless adventure, but
    rather to pay tribute to the nation that gave
    them opportunity in which space exploration was
    an extension of.18 Grace Corrigan, the mother
    of teacher astronaut Christa McAuliffe did not
    want that enthusiasm to die. She said the
    astronauts knew of the risks involved in
    spaceflight but also knew of the good it did to
    mankind to explore and discover new things. If
    we didn't continue, they would have died in
    vain."19 Though the grief and pain of the
    Challenger families remained deep they stayed
    loyal to space exploration because it was space
    exploration that symbolized the hopes and dreams
    of those who perished.   

  • Despite the horror and anguish felt on the day
    Challenger took its final flight, the American
    public stayed strong to the concept of space
    exploration. According to an article by Karlyn
    Bowman of the American Enterprise on Public
    Policy Research website 80 percent of Americans
    felt the shuttle program should continue
    post-accident.20 Of the teachers who applied
    for NASA's Teacher in Space program, only a
    modicum withdrew their applications after the
    accident, while hundreds more added their names
    to the list.21 Americans supported space
    exploration because they felt the need for man to
    discover science and introduce new cures and
    inventions to the American psyche. Pat Smith who
    was nominated to be part of the Teacher in
    Space program believed that humans have such a
    distinct need to discover. She believed that the
    human spirit strives to improve the lives of
    others as well as discovering new medicines and
    technology such as the pacemaker and fire suits
    which were both derived from space. 22 Every
    day, in a variety of ways, American lives are
    touched by space technology. According to the
    Ottawa Sun since 1976, about 1,400 documented
    NASA inventions have benefited U.S. industry,
    improved the quality of life and created jobs for
    Americans.23 House Science Committee Chairman
    James Sensenbrenner voted for the International
    Space Station since 1984 because he supported the
    human exploration of space and wanted scientists
    to have the new research opportunities it

  • To many Americans, the Apollo program helped
    change the way of life in America, especially in
    health care. Some of the inventions contributed
    by the Apollo program include a kidney dialysis
    machine that was developed as a result of a NASA
    chemical process that could remove toxic waste
    from used dialysis fluid.25 Another NASA
    contribution was a medical CAT scanner that
    searches the human body for tumors or other
    abnormalities.26 Many Americans saw these
    medical inventions and their improvements in
    society as a reason for their support towards the
    continuation of the space program. Another reason
    Americans embraced the idea of continuing the
    space program was the same reason the families of
    the crew wanted to continue on humanities inner
    need to explore. Astronaut Dr. William Thornton
    who flew on Challenger in 1983 and 1985 believed
    strongly in discovering new horizons. "The real
    reason for going into space is to expand our
    knowledge. There is something in man that will
    keep him going over the next hill, and space is
    the next big hill." "I don't know what we are
    going to find, but neither did the explorers who
    launched off in their boats centuries ago.''27
    To this day the horrific vision of Challenger
    exploding in the mid-morning air is vivid to many
    Americans, but it represented how vital space
    exploration is to mankind.

  • After an extensive investigation the cause of
    Challengers explosion was the failure of an
    O-ring seal in the solid-fuel rocket on the
    shuttles right side.28 The faulty design of
    the seal coupled with the unusually cold weather,
    let hot gases leak through the joint.29 The
    space shuttle program was grounded until after
    the Space Shuttle Challenger Commissions
    investigation. NASA management implemented
    stricter regulations in terms of safety and
    quality control and shuttle designers made
    several modifications.30 Shuttle missions
    resumed on September 28, 1988, with the flight of
    the shuttle Discovery and all remained safe until
    February 1, 2003 when the space shuttle Columbia
    broke up during re-entry.31 Although the loss
    brought back memories of Challenger, Americans
    support for the space program remained high and
    does remain high today.32 Their reasons
    continue to be the desire for human exploration
    and reaching unknown horizons.33 

  • Despite the pain and tragedy of losing 7
    astronauts the Challenger explosion did not cause
    a detriment in Americans enthusiasm for
    technology. History has proven that the
    exploration of the unknown poses a risk, but it
    has also shown that those risks have created some
    of the most technologically advanced systems in
    the world.34 They have created jobs, new
    industries, and a new way of life.35 Mark
    Byrnes of Politics and Space Image Making by NASA
    says that NASA bolsters American national pride,
    national prestige, national strength (both
    military and economic) and peaceful international
    relations.36 Though there were dissenting
    opinions on the continuation of the space program
    the majority really just felt that the space
    program needed a new resolve towards safety. One
    of the major reasons that the public gained a
    strong technological enthusiasm toward the space
    program and space exploration after Challenger
    was the investment NASA made in dedicating
    themselves to be safer. People began to be more
    enthused about the shuttle program when they saw
    the amount of work and effort that was put into
    making the shuttle safer.37 After seeing
    Challenger explode the culture of America
    changed, not because it feared for the safety of
    those who embraced exploration, but because
    continuing on despite the risks inevitably
    defined heroism and changed humanity.38   

  • President Reagan believed deeply in continuing on
    the exploration of space, the families of the
    Challenger crew believed deeply in continuing on
    and Americans believed deeply in continuing on.
    They all saw the benefits associated with the
    exploration of space, and in a larger sense the
    exploration of the unknown. They believed so
    strongly in the space program because they saw
    mans innate need to discover new horizons as
    well as the scientific advancement it provided to
    humanity. Also it became the legacy of the brave
    Challenger 7, who themselves would never have
    wanted the dedication of exploration to have
    stopped after their untimely deaths. Human
    exploration is a risk, it always has been and it
    always will be. It is a sentiment President
    Reagan deeply conveyed to the children of
    America. I know it is hard to understand, but
    sometimes, painful things like this happen. It's
    all part of the process of exploration and
    discovery. It's all part of taking a chance and
    expanding man's horizons. The future doesn't
    belong to the fainthearted it belongs to the
    brave. The Challenger crew was pulling us into
    the future, and we'll continue to follow

  • Borentstein, Seth. Families Fulfilling Vision of
    Challenger Astronauts Creates Living Memorials,
    The Record (Bergen County, N.J.), Jan 28, 1996,
    A11. http//0-proquest.umi.com.opac.library.csupom
  • Bredeson, Carmen. The Challenger Disaster Tragic
    Space Flight. New Jersey Enslow Publishers,
    Inc., 1999.
  • Broken Arrow School District, Columbia Shuttle
    Tragedy Hits Close to Home for BAPS Teachers,
    available from http//www.ba.k12.ok.us/NewBAPage/c
    olumbia.html, accessed on November 10, 2005.
  • Brown, Karlyn.  Ashcroft's Positive Rating Down
    17 Points since December 2001, available at
    American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy
    Research website http//www.aei.org/publications/p
    ubID.19114,filter.all/pub_detail.asp, accessed on
    November 17, 2005.
  • Byrnes, Mark. Politics and Space Image Making by
    NASA. Westport, CT Praeger, 1994.
  • Challenger Explosion Left Nation Gasping in
    Disbelief, Houston Chronicle, July 30, 2001,
    available from http//www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl
    /first100/968621.html,  accessed October 8, 2006.
  • CNN, Challenger Widow Rejuvenated with Space
    Exploration, January 28, 2004, available from
    scobee.rodgers/ accessed on November 12, 2005.
  • Greene, Nick. NASA Inventions Benefiting Our
    Daily Lives, March 8, 2005, available from
    accessed November 15, 2005.
  • Letter to America by Challenger families, January
    28, 1987, from Challenger Center
    accessed on November 20, 2005.

  • Lewis, Richard S. Challenger The Final Voyage.
    New York Columbia University Press, 1988.
  • McConnell, Malcolm. Challenger A Major
    Malfunction. Garden City, NY Doubleday, 1987.
  • Most Support Space Program, Poll Shows, USA
    Today, February 2, 2003, available from
    ttle-poll_x.htm, accessed on November 15, 2005.
  • NASA, Space Shuttle Basics, February 15, 2005,
    available from http//spaceflight1.nasa.gov/shuttl
    e/reference/basics/ accessed on November 14,
  • NASA Spin-offsApollo Inventions, available
    from http//space.about.com/od/toolsequipment/ss/a
    pollospinoffs.htm, accessed on November 17, 2005.
  • Reagan, Ronald. Address to the Nation on the
    Explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger,
    January 28, 1986, available from The American
    Presidency Project, http//www.presidency.ucsb.edu
    accessed on November 15, 2005.
  • Saltzman, Jonathan. McAuliffes Mother Urges
    Exploration, Boston Globe, February 6, 2003,
    l, accessed on November 17, 2005.
  • Sensebrenner, James. Remarks before the
    Electronics Industries Association, July 15,
    1998,  available from House of Representatives
    site http//www.house.gov/science/pressrel/105-220
    .htm, accessed on November 17, 2005.
  • Stafford, Ned. Lets Clean House, Omaha
    World-Herald (Omaha, Nebraska), April 24, 1987,
    1. http//0-proquest.umi.com.opac.library.csupomon
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