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INTRODUCTION%20Nutrigenomics%20%20Dr.%20Muhamad%20Firdaus

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Title: Introduction Genomics, proteomics, metabolomics Author: inforend Last modified by: portege1610 Created Date: 10/31/2005 3:35:26 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: INTRODUCTION%20Nutrigenomics%20%20Dr.%20Muhamad%20Firdaus


1
INTRODUCTION Nutrigenomics Dr. Muhamad Firdaus
2
Nutrigenomics The study of how naturally
occurring chemicals in foods alter molecular
expression of genetic information in each
individual. When a gene is activated or
expressed, a protein is produced
3
Gene expression patterns produce a phenotype,
which represents the physical characteristics
or observable traits of an organism, e.g.,
hair color, weight, or presence or absence
of disease Genes alone do not necessary produce
phenotypic traits Phenotypic expression is
influenced by nutrition
4
Nutrition-Gene Interaction 1. Direct
interactions Nutrients, sometimes after
interacting with a receptor, behave as
transcription factors that can bind to DNA and
acutely induce gene expression 2. Epigenetic
interactions Nutrients can alter the structure
of DNA so that gene expression is chronically
altered 3. Genetic variation Common genetic
variations such as single-nucleotide
polymorphisms (SNPs) can alter the expression or
functionality of genes
5
BIOLOGICAL NETWORKS
Intracellular regulations Cell-cell
comuniacations Organ networks/homeostasis
6
MAIN HEALTH-RELATED CHALLENGES
  • Cardiovascular
  • Cancer
  • Diabetes-obesity
  • Undernutrition/malnutrition
  • Infectious diseases
  • Allergies
  • Ageing process

7
BIOACTIVE FOOD COMPONENTS CAN MODIFY
TRANSCRIPTION, TRANSLATION AND METABOLISM
8
EFFECTS OF SELENIUM ON CERTAIN GENES
Cancer Res, 2002
9
BIOACTIVE FOOD COMPONENTS GENETIC, EPIGENETIC
AND PROTEOMIC EFFECTS
Milner J Nutr 2004
10
(No Transcript)
11
PARTIAL LIST OF BIOACTIVE FOOD COMPONENTS WITH
POSSIBLE EFFECTS ON CANCER
12
INTER-RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIOACTIVE FOOD
COMPONENTS AND EVENTS INVOLVED IN THE CANCER
PROCESS
13
FATE AND ACTIVITIES OF NUTRIENTS IN THE CELL
  • may act directly as ligands for transcription
    factor receptors
  • (pathway A)

Kaput J, Physiol Genomics 2004
14
FATE AND ACTIVITIES OF NUTRIENTS IN THE CELL
  • may be metabolized by metabolic pathways
  • ?
  • altering concentrations of substrates /
    intermediates (pathway B)

Kaput J, Physiol Genomics 2004
15
FATE AND ACTIVITIES OF NUTRIENTS IN THE CELL
  • May be involved in gene regulation
  • or cell-signaling (pathway C)

Kaput J, Physiol Genomics 2004
16
NUCLEAR RECEPTORS, DIETARY LIGANDS
Kaput J, Physiol Genomics 2004
17
MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCY - DNA DAMAGE WITH
HEALTH EFFECTS
From Kaput J Physiol Genomics 2004 Ref 2
Ames, Toxicol Lett 1998
18
NUTRIGENOMICS AND NUTRIGENETICS TWO SIDES OF A
COIN
  • For personalized nutrition
  • effects of diet on body-metabolism
  • influence of genotype on nutritionally related
    diseases
  • must be considered

Mutch, FASEB 2005
19
Elliot, BMJ 2002
20
NUTRITIONAL CONSEQUENCES OF CELLULAR PROCESS
WITH GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS
21
NUTRITIONAL GENOMICS AND BIOMARKER DISCOVERY THE
STEPS INVOLVED IN GENE EXPRESSION
22
NUTRITIONAL GENOMICS AND BIOMARKER
DISCOVERY DIET (NUTRIENTS) CAN MODULATE THESE
PROCESSES FROM CELL TO POPULATION
23
NUTRITIONAL GENOMICS AND BIOMARKER
DISCOVERY FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS TECHNIQUES CAN
ANALYZE EACH STAGE, WITH APPROPRIATE BIOMARKERS
24
Assesment of nutrient requirements by omics-
based analyses
Joung J.Nutr 2001, Oliver Nature 2000, Go J.
Nutr 2003
25
Stover Physiol Genomics 2004
26
(No Transcript)
27
LC-PUFA LONG CHAIN POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS
  • A typical example of complex, bioactive
    molecules in nutrigenomics

28
Epidemiological studies on LC-PUFA Consumption
of LC-PUFA beneficially affect physiological
processes such as - growth, neurological
development, - lean and fat mass accretion, -
reproduction, - Innate and acquired immunity,
- infectious pathologies of viruses, -
bacteria and parasites - the incidence and
severity of virtually all chronic - and
degenerative diseases cancer,
atherosclerosis, stroke, arthritis, diabetes,
osteoporosis, and neurodegenerative,
inflammatory and skin diseases
LC-PUFA Long chain polyunsaturated fatty
acids Mutch, FASEB J 2005
29
According to microarray studies LC-PUFA can
mediate the functions of several
transcription factors, cell-cycle
regulatory genes, RNA transcription
processes, prostaglandin synthesis,
inducible nitric oxide synthase and
related proinflammatory genes
MODERN NUTRIGENOMIC TECHNOLOGIES BIOINFORMATICS
CAN TO REVEAL THE COMPLEXITY OF LC-PUFA SIGNALING
30
BIOLOGICAL NETWORK TRIGGERED AFTER THE
CONSUMPTION OF LC-PUFA
  • LC-PUFA actions are mediated by
  • transcription factors, such as PPAR and SREBP.
  • Highlighted in blue
  • are known functional and /or physical
    interactions between
  • PPAR- and other genes

Mutch, FASEB 2005
31
Further work small inhibiting RNA technology,
alternate analytical platforms (proteins,
metabolites) etc. can clarify the biological
functions, mediated by dietary lipids.
MODERN NUTRIGENOMIC TECHNOLOGIES BIOINFORMATICS
CAN TO REVEAL THE COMPLEXITY OF LC-PUFA
SIGNALING
32
  • THANK YOU
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