SOCIO-EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – SOCIO-EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6f8fbc-YWRjO



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

SOCIO-EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN

Description:

socio-emotional development in children * ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:62
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 73
Provided by: dM868
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: SOCIO-EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN


1
SOCIO-EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN
2
Socio-emotional Development
  • Social Development
  • Emotional Development

3
Social Development
  • Social Development covers
  • Child relationship with other people
  • Social Skill development
  • Socialization Process

4
Social Development
  • The process of learning the skills and
    attitude of living in a community ? that
    can assist children (people) to live in
    peace. (ability to adapt)
  • Social Development starts immediately as
    soon as a child interact with other people
    around them, i.e.the moment a child is
    born put on mummy tummy/ held by others.
  • Early interaction ? starts the bonding
    process between baby parents ? an
    inportant base for positive social emotional
    development.

5
Social Skills
  • Able to understand other people feelings
  • Ability to meet, mix and communicate with
    others.
  • Ability to share, take turns and obey
    rules
  • Ability to behave in an accepted way (by the
    society).
  • A child also must know (learn) social
    skills Proper table manners, hygiene,
    cleanliness, wearing proper clothes,
    washing hands before eating, comb hair, etc -
  • A child must know how to be independent
    (gradually) and confident to mix with
    others.

6
Social Learning
  • A child learns social skill through
    watching and imitating other people behavior,
    esp parents and carer.
  • According to Albert Bandura (1925), a child
    learns social behavior in 2 ways
  • Watching other people
  • Imitate other people.

7
Social Learning
  • Generally, the characteristics of people that
    a child likes to copy are
  • Friendly, loving caring
  • With authority, good skills or
    charismatic.
  • Able to give them reward (based on their
    behavior)
  • Similarities between them (e.g. Same gender)

8
Socialization process
  • It is a process whre children learn how to
    interact or communicate with other people ?
    according to an accepted way (by society
    culture).
  • Every society have a set of behavior
    (ukuran kelakuan) that is accepted by their
    community
  • Each member must follow the
    values/regulations set by their society ? in
    order to be accepted by their culture and
    community.
  • Aim of the socialization process
  • To assist and guide children (since in
    infancy stage) ? able to make social
    adaptation according to the community
    expectations (when they grow older).

9
Eriksons Theory Of Psychosocial Development
  • Infancy marks the time of the TRUST-VERSUS-MISTRUS
    T STAGE (birth to 18 months) during which infants
    develop a sense of trust or mistrust, largely
    depending on how well their needs are met by
    their caretakers.
  • From around 18 months to 3 years infants enter
    the AUTONOMY-VERSUS-SHAME-AND-DOUBT STAGE during
    which Erikson believed toddlers develop either
    independence and autonomy (if they are allowed
    the freedom to explore) or shame and doubt (if
    they are restricted and overprotected).
  • ? Erikson argues that personality is largely
    shaped by infant's experiences

10
(No Transcript)
11
What is Emotion?
  • From a Greek word "emovere" yang bermaksud
    to go out".
  • Emotion refers to the experience of such
    feelings as fear, joy, surprise or anger.
  • Emotion is a feeling or affect that
    involves the the combination of various
    physiological stimulus/behavior e.g fast heat
    beat smiling/grinning (Santrock1998)
  • Emotions communicate a person's inner condition
    to others ? a response.
  • Emotions guide and regulate behavior

12
What is Emotion?
  • Emotion is.
  • a response or arousal that showed towards a
    particular object, situation, or individual -
    in reaction to a particular stimulus.
  • The emotional responses displayed (feelings)?
    Showed what one is feeling at that time.
  • The presence of emotions involves feelings,
    instinct, physiological responses and stated
    feelings (related behavior).

13
Emotional Development Emotional Arousal
  • Examples of Physiological changes -
  • Due to the blood circulation system
  • Heart beat fast
  • Blood capilaries shrink
  • Blood pressure (skin turn reddish)
  • Hand Leg (felt as if theyve grown larger)
  • Head (felt as if it has grown larger)
  • Breathing - fast short
  • Skin surface shrink (goosebumps / cold sweat)
  • Pupils getting bigger
  • Digestive system

14
Functions of emotions
  • Survival
  • Communication mediator
  • Social moderator
  • Source of motivational behavior
  • Source of sadness and happiness

15
Socio-emotional development in Infant Toddlers
(0-2 yrs old)
16
Role of emotions in childrens
socioemotional development
  • Emotion is very important to children
  • Emotions add happiness/enjoyment to children
    ? a driving force for child behavior and
    action taken.
  • Emotions influence their perceptions and
    behavior towards others and their
    environment.
  • Emotions will determine their action and
    types of adjustment made.

17
An infant emotions can be categorized as
  • Discreet Emotion
  • Self-awareness Discreet Emotion
  • Empathy Discreet Emotion

18
Display of Discreet Emotions Development
  • Discreet emotion ? Emotions that can be
    observed on ones facial expression (mimik
    wajah) e.g. happiness, fear, sad, anger,
    surprise
  • Nonverbal encoding, the nonverbal expression of
    emotions is consistent across the life span.
  • Across every culture, infants show similar facial
    expressions relating to basic emotions.
  • For example basic emotions happy, sad,
    anger, fear ? have three components, i.e
    emotions, physiological changes and
    behavior

19
Display of Discreet Emotions Development
  • Infants can imitate adult facial expressions (but
    not necessarily understand them at first!)
  • These imitative abilities pave the way for future
    nonverbal decoding abilities
  • Infants learn early to encode and decode
    emotions important in helping them express and
    understand emotion

20
Display of Discreet Emotions Development
  • Newborn
  • Newborn emotions is an arousal related to
    comfortable or uncomfortable feelings.
  • Discreet emotions is displayed through body
    gestures or facial expressions (cry when
    hungry)
  • Before 3 months - response towards a
    certain arousal such as uncomfortable feelings?
    hunger/wet
  • 3 mths ? happy/content (smile at parents/ baby
    sitter), sad, angry, surprise/shock)
    penjaga), duka, marah, terkejut, sedih.

21

Discreet Emotions Development Stages
  • 6 mth ? From sad ? develops into fear,
    disgusting, anger.
  • 12 mth ? From like ? develops into happiness
    (towards a certain stimulus) and love.
  • 18 mth
  • From sad ? develop into jealousy,
  • From love ? able to distinguish love
    towards adult/ other children
  • 24 mth
  • From Joy ? develops into happiness
  • Able to state their emotions ? throw things
    when angry.
  • 2-4 yrs
  • Beginning of fear timbul pelbagai perasaan takut

22
Self Awareness Emotion(The Development of
SELF)
  • The roots of SELF-AWARENESS ? i.e. the knowledge
    of self, begin to grow around 12 months.
  • Research/experiments related Self-awareness
  • The mirror and rouge task ?Most infants touch
    their nose to attempt to wipe off the rouge at
    17-24 months.
  • Crying, when presented with complicated tasks,
    also implies consciousness that infants lack
    capability to carry out tasks.

23
Self Awareness Emotion(The Development of
SELF)
  • 18-36 months old
  • Starting to show the following emotions ?
    ashame/shy, proud, jealous, guilty
  • Embarrass guilty ? when scolded especially
    by parents/ carer
  • Feel proud when someone say good things
    about them.
  • Jealousy towards other people.

24
Development of Empathy Emotion
  • Infants see others as compliant agents, beings
    similar to themselves who behave under their own
    power and respond to the infant's requests.
  • Children's capacity to understand
    internationality and causality grow during
    infancy.
  • By age two, infants demonstrate EMPATHY, an
    emotional response that corresponds to the
    feelings of another person.
  • By age two, children can "pretend".

25
Development of Empathy Emotion
  • Children understand and response to the
    empathy emotions
  • Like to share help others ? when they see
    other children are sad.
  • Depend on their intelectual dan language
    development (cognitive)
  • Is supported by their personality and
    social experience.

26
3 Things that can influence a child
emotions
  • No self control
  • Convey their emotions in a hurried manner
    express their emotions without control
  • Not matured
  • No experience, do not understand about
    culture or social values that emphasize on the
    importance of contol pengawalan emosi.
  • Short attention span
  • Their attention can be easily shifted
    to other things which to them are more
    interesting ? within a very short time.

27
Infant Social Emotional Development
  • The infants 1st smiles are relatively
    indiscriminate (smile at anything)
  • By 6-9 weeks babies exhibit the SOCIAL SMILE,
    smiling in reference to other individuals.
  • By 18 months, social smiling is directed more
    toward moms and other caregivers
  • Infants are able to discriminate facial and vocal
    expressions of emotion early in infancy
    (sensitive to the emotional expressions of others
    by end of 2nd year)

28
Feeling what others feel(Social Referencing)
  • Social Referencing (Rujukan Sosial)
  • is the intentional search for information to help
    explain the meaning of uncertain circumstances
    and events (through modeling others, mimicking
    expressions)
  • First occurs in infants at about 8-9 months.
  • Infants make particular use of facial expressions
    in their social referencing.
  • Social referencing is most likely to occur in
    uncertain and ambiguous situations.

29
Helping Toddlers Develop Compliance and
Self-Control
  • Respond with sensitivity and support
  • Give advance notice of change in activities
  • Offer many prompts and reminders
  • Reinforce self-controlled behavior
  • Encourage sustained attention
  • Support language development
  • Increase rules gradually

30
Socio Emotional Development
  • Attachment
  • What is attachment?

31
ATTACHMENT
  • The most important form of social development
    that occurs during infancy is ATTACHMENT, ie.
  • the positive emotional bond that develops between
    a child and a particular individual.
  • The earliest work on humans was carried out by
    John Bowlby (Attachment theory) who suggested
    that attachment had a biological basis.

32
Attachment
  • According to Bowlby (1969), attachment is a
    strong emotional bonding (loving relationship)
    between individual with another person
  • Bowlby viewed attachment as based on infant's
    needs for safety and security (especially from
    the mother)
  • Generally, attachment between child mother
    is dydic in nature (bersifat timbal-balik) ? a
    continueous and long socio-emotional
    relationship.

33
Attachment
  • Attachment is very important ? will influence
    a person future (success/failure) ? inline
    with their cognitif, social and emotional
    development.
  • Attachment is viewed as critical for allowing
    the infant to explore the world
  • Attachment develop from mothers ability to
    fulfill or provide oral satisfaction to the
    child.
  • Having a strong, firm attachment provides a safe
    base from which the child can gain independence.

34
Types of Attachment Behavior
35
Attachment
  • Early researchers studied bonds between parents
    and children in the animal kingdom to understand
    attachment
  • Lorenz studied imprinting in animals, the rapid,
    innate learning that takes place during a
    critical period and involves attachment to the
    first moving object observed. (experiment on
    duckling)
  • Freud suggested that attachment grew out of a
    mother's ability to satisfy a child's oral needs.

36
Based on Bowlby's work, Mary Ainsworth developed
the AINSWORTH STRANGE SITUATION, a sequence of 8
staged episodes that illustrate the strength of
attachment between a child and (typically) his or
her mother.
ATTACHMENT THE STRANGE SITUATION STUDY
37
The 8 staged episodes of the AINSWORTH STRANGE
SITUATION
  1. Mother baby enter an unfamiliar room
  2. Mother sits, letting baby explore
  3. Adult stranger enters room can converses with mom
    and then baby
  4. Mother exits the room, leaving baby with stranger
  5. Mom returns greets and comforts baby and
    stranger leaves
  6. Mom departs leaving baby alone
  7. Stranger returns
  8. Mother returns and stranger leaves

38
Infants reactions to the strange situation vary
considerably, depending on the nature of
attachment with mother
  • 2/3 are SECURELY ATTACHED CHILDREN, who use
    mother as a safe base, at ease as long as she is
    present, exploring when they can see her, upset
    when she leaves, and go to her when she returns.
  • 20 are labeled AVOIDANT CHILDREN who do not
    seek proximity to the mother after she leaves
    they seem to avoid her when she returns as if
    they are angered by her behavior.

39
(the strange situation technique, Mary Ainsworth,
nature of attachment , continued)
  • About 12 are AMBIVALENT CHILDREN who display a
    combination of positive and negative reactions to
    their mothers they show great distress when the
    mother leaves, but upon her return they may
    simultaneously seek close contact but also hit
    and kick her.
  • A more recent expansion of Ainsworth's work
    suggests a fourth category DISORGANIZED-DISORIENT
    ED CHILDREN who show inconsistent, often
    contradictory behavior, such as approaching the
    mother when she returns but not looking at her
    they may be the least securely attached children
    of all.

40
(the strange situation technique, Mary Ainsworth,
nature of attachment (continued)
  • Infant attachment may have significant
    consequences for relationships at later stages in
    life.
  • Not all children who are not securely attached as
    infants experience difficulties later in life
    some research suggests that those who had
    avoidant and ambivalent attachment do quite well
    later in life.

41
Factors that Affect Attachment Security
  • Opportunity for attachment
  • Quality of caregiving
  • Infant characteristics
  • Family circumstances
  • Parents internal working models

42
Attachment and Later Development
  • Secure attachment related to positive outcomes
    in
  • Preschool
  • Middle childhood
  • Continuity of caregiving may link infant
    attachment and later development.

43
Socio-emotional Development
  • 2 important concept relating to
    socio-emotional experience (specifically
    anxiety) in children derived from
    attachment
  • Stranger Anxiety
  • STRANGER ANXIETY is the caution and wariness
    displayed by infants when encountering an
    unfamiliar person.
  • Separation Anxiety
  • SEPARATION ANXIETY is the distress displayed by
    infants when a customary care provider departs.

44
Socio-emotional Development Stranger
Separation Anxiety
  • Both stranger separation anxiety represent
    important social progress!
  • They reflect cognitive advances in the infant,
  • Growing emotional and social bonds

45
TEMPERAMEN
46
Another factor contributing to social/personality
differences in infants
  • ? TEMPERAMENT is the patterns of arousal and
    emotionality that are consistent and enduring
    characteristics of an individual.
  • Temperament refers to how children behave.
  • Temperamental differences among infants appear
    from the time of birth.
  • Temperament shows stability from infancy through
    adolescence

47
Categorizing temperament Easy, Difficult,
Slow-to-warm babies (Alexander, Thomas, and
Chess)
  • EASY BABIES have a positive disposition their
    body functions operate regularly and they are
    adaptable.
  • DIFFICULT BABIES have negative moods and are slow
    to adapt to new situations when confronted with
    a new situation, they tend to withdraw.
  • SLOW-TO-WARM-UP BABIES are inactive, showing
    relatively calm reactions to their environment
    their moods are generally negative, and they
    withdraw from new situations, adapting slowly.

48
Socio-emotional Development in the Early
Childhood (PRESCHOOL)
49
Psychosocial Development
  • According to Eriksons ?preschoolers have
    already passed through a couple of Developmental
    stages, to pass through the stages, a
    conflict/crisis must be resolved at each stage
  • Preschoolers experience the INITIATIVE-VERSUS-GUIL
    T STAGE, the period during which children
    experience conflict between independence of
    action sometimes negative results of that
    action.

50
The initiative vs Guilt stage
  • Conflict occurs between the desire to become more
    independent and autonomous and the guilt that
    may occur.
  • Preschoolers with supportive parents independent
    autonomous
  • Preschoolers with restrictive, overprotective
    parents shame self-doubt
  • The foundational concept of this stage is that
    children become aware that they are people too!
    They begin to make decisions and shape the kind
    of person they are to become!

51
Eriksons TheoryInitiative versus Guilt
  • Initiative
  • Eagerness to try new tasks, join activities with
    peers
  • Play permits trying out new skills
  • Act out highly visible occupations
  • Guilt
  • Overly strict superego, or conscience, causing
    too much guilt
  • Related to excessive threats, criticism,
    punishment from adults

52
Emotional Dev in Early Childhood
  • Understanding of others emotions increasingly
    accurate
  • Emotional self-regulation improves
  • More self-conscious emotions (shame, guilt) as
    self-concept develops
  • Empathy, sympathy, and prosocial behavior increase

53
Self Concept in the pre school years Thinking
About the Self
  • During the preschool period, children wonder
    about the nature of self
  • The way they answer the question Who am I? at
    this stage may affect their whole life!

54
(No Transcript)
55
(Self concept in the preschool years, cont)
  • Preschoolers begin to form their SELF-CONCEPT
    (their identity, or their set of beliefs about
    what one is like as an individual).
  • Youngsters typically overestimate their skills
    and knowledge (their self concepts are NOT
    necessarily accurate).
  • They also begin to develop a view of self that
    reflects the way their particular culture
    considers the self.

56
Self Concept
  • Based on
  • Observable characteristics
  • Appearance
  • Possessions
  • Behavior
  • Typical Emotions and Attitudes
  • Asserting rights to objects (Mine!) helps
    define boundaries of self

57
Self-Esteem
  • Judgments we make about our own worth
  • Includes global appraisal and judgments of
    different aspects of self
  • Affects preschoolers initiative

58
Social Experience and Emotional Understanding
  • Caregivers
  • Label and explain emotions
  • Scaffold emotional thought
  • Siblings and Friends
  • Negotiate
  • Act out emotions in play

59
PLAY
60
Playing by the Rules How Play Affects Social
Personality Development
  • Categorizing play
  • Three year olds typically engage in FUNCTIONAL
    PLAY which involves simple, repetitive
    activities, that is, doing something for the sake
    of being active.
  • (playing with dolls, skipping, jumping rope, etc)
  • By age 4, children typically engage in
    CONSTRUCTIVE PLAY which involves manipulating
    objects to produce or build something (legos,
    puzzles, etc.)
  • Constructive play allows children to test
    developing cognitive skills.
  • Constructive play allows children to practice
    motor skills.
  • Constructive play allows children to problem
    solve.
  • Constructive play allows children to learn to
    cooperate

61
TYPES of PLAY (Parten, 1932)
  • Non Social Play - is where a child only observe
    others play, i.e. did not involve in the
    play
  • Solitary play - A child play with his/her toys
    only, i.e. no contact with other children even
    though other children is around.
  • Onlooker play - occurs when children simply watch
    others play but do not actually participate
    themselves
  • Parallel play - is when children play with
    similar toys, in a similar manner, but do not
    interact with each other.
  • Associative play- is when children play
    together in the same activities/ game and
    communicate with each other. But without
    specific task/aim.
  • Cooperative play- occurs when children play
    together and have aim and specific task?
    organize play and each have their own role to
    play.

62
Early Childhood Friendships
  • Someone who likes you, plays with you, and
    shares toys
  • Friendships change frequently
  • Friends more reinforcing, emotionally expressive
    than non-friends.

63
Preschoolers' Social Lives (Social Dev.)
  • The preschool years are marked by increased
    interactions with the world at large.
  • Around age 3, children begin to develop real
    friendships.
  • Peers come to be seen as individuals with special
    qualities.
  • R/ship?based on companionship, play
    entertainment.
  • Friendship is focused on the carrying out of
    shared activities (rather than just being in the
    same place at the same time!).
  • With age, preschooler's view of friendship
    evolves.
  • Older preschoolers see friendship as a continuing
    state, as a stable relationship that has
    meaning beyond the immediate moment.
  • Older preschoolers pay more attention to concepts
    such as trust, support, and shared interests.
  • Even by age 3, children are interested in
    maintaining smooth social relationships with
    their friends, trying to avoid disagreements.

64
(Preschool Social Life)
Some children are more readily liked by their
peers than others.
  • Qualities associated with disliked children
  • more likely to be aggressive
  • More disruptive,
  • impose themselves on their peers
  • less cooperative
  • do not take turns.
  • Qualities associated with popularity
  • physical attractiveness
  • being outgoing
  • being sociable
  • speaking more
  • smiling more
  • having a greater understanding of others emotions

65
During the childhood period, childrens ideas
about friendship undergo changes
  • According to developmental psychologist William
    Damon, children's friendships go through three
    stages
  • Stage 1 ages 4-7
  • Stage 2- ages 8-10
  • Stage 3 - ages 11-15.

66
Damons 3 stages of friendship
  • Stage 1 ages 4-7
  • Children see friends as like themselves ? friends
    as people to share toys and activities with.
  • Children do not take into account personal
    traits.
  • Stage 2 - ages 8-10.
  • Children now begin to take other's personal
    qualities and traits into consideration ? Friends
    are viewed in terms of the kinds of rewards they
    provide.
  • Friendships are based on mutual trust.
  • Stage 3 - ages 11-15.
  • Friendships become based on intimacy and loyalty
    ? involve mutual disclosure and exclusivity.
  • Children also develop clear ideas about the
    behaviors they seek in friends

67
Discipline Teaching Preschoolers Desired
BehaviorsPARENTING STYLE
  • Diana Baumrind (1980) notes 3 major types of
    parenting style
  • AUTHORITARIAN PARENTS
  • PERMISSIVE PARENTS
  • AUTHORITATIVE PARENTS

68
Parenting Style
  • Authoritarian Parents are controlling, punitive,
    rigid, cold, whose word is law they value
    strict, unquestioning obedience from their
    children do not tolerate expressions of
    disagreement..
  • Authoritative Parents are firm, setting clear
    consistent limits, but try to reason with their
    children giving explanations for why they should
    behave in a particular way.
  • Permissive Parents provide lax inconsistent
    feedback and require little of their children.

69
Effect of parenting style on children..
  • Children of authoritative parents tend to fare
    best
  • they are independent, friendly with their peers,
    self-assertive, and cooperative parents are not
    always consistent in their parenting or
    discipline styles.
  • Children whose parents engage in aspects of the
    authoritative style related to supportive
    parenting
  • Supportive parenting encompasses parental warmth,
    proactive teaching, calm discussion during
    disciplinary episodes, and interest and
    involvement in children's peer activities show
    better adjustment and are protected from the
    consequences of later adversity.

70
Gender Identity Developing Femaleness Maleness
  • Preschoolers also begin to develop expectations
    about appropriate behavior for girls and boys.
  • Like adults, preschoolers expect males to be more
    independent, forceful and competitive and females
    to be warm, nurturing, expressive and submissive.
  • These are expectations and not truths about
    actual behavior! But viewing the world this way
    affects preschoolers behavior!
  • However, young children typically hold stronger
    gender-stereotypes than adults.

71
Gender Schemas and Gender Typing
72
The END
About PowerShow.com