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Modern Missions 1900-2000 Part 2


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Title: Modern Missions 1900-2000 Part 2

Modern Missions 1900-2000Part 2
  • The battle for the minds of men. Global paradigm
    shifts were matured in every sphere of life
    around the world confusing the basis of a
    Truth-based message

  • After Civil War the Evangelical Empire crumbled
    under German Rationalism, and evolution
  • Education and comparative religions undercut the
    uniqueness of fundamental Christianity
  • Vast number of Roman Catholic immigrants
    dissolved the illusion that America was
  • Coalition of Fundamentalists (1900-1920) united
    around non-negotiables, esp. inerrancy and
  • Debate of Fundamentalism vs. Modernism in public
    arena (1920-1935)
  • The Liberal wing of the Presbyterians wanted a
    more inclusive position where differing views
    could be tolerated
  • Princeton theologian J. Gresham Machen fought to
    keep the Five Points of orthodoxy (inerrancy,
    virgin birth, substitutionary atonement, bodily
    resurrection and return and miracles), but lost
    in Princeton, 1927
  • The greatest media event Attempts to stop
    evolution from being taught (Scopes Monkey Trial)
    between William Jennings Bryan defending John
    Scopes and ACLU won acquittal, but the Liberals
    felt vindicated

Fundamentalist Institutions and Agencies
  • New Institutes established (1930-1950) Period
    of come-outism Separation
  • Fundamentalism got stricter over time (belief
    in 2nd coming became insufficient by 1930 when
    one had to be Pretribulational Premillennial to
    be a real Fundamentalist also many social
  • Fundamentalism became associated with
    anti-intellectualism, combativeness, extremism,
    and being critical of everyone else (unfair
    criticism, but common)
  • Mission Agencies formed with these views
  • GARBC approved missions and Bible Colleges
  • FOM (Fellowship of Missions Appalachian Bible
    College, BIMI, BMM, etc. ) (ABWE was just voted
    out of this group!)
  • Bob Jones University mission Gospel Fellowship
    Mission, etc.

Regular Baptist Press
International Partnership of Fundamental Baptist
Separatist Fundamentalism and Evangelicals
J. Frank Norris flamboyant leader of early
Fundamentalist Baptist
  • Conservative Harold Ockenga, Carl F. H. Henry
    sought to remake fundamentalism that could
    dialogue with social, cultural and intellectual
    trends in America calling themselves Young
  • By the early 1950s the Fundamentalists began to
    split with the Neo (New)- Evangelicals, but each
    side maintained the core doctrines
  • Billy Graham led this New-Evangelical movement
    which decided to cooperate with other Christians
    who may not hold the core doctrines for
    evangelistic purposes
  • The emotional separation and rejection of one
    another hurt the individual and association
    cooperation and fellowship across the line of
  • MISSIONS missionaries may come from different
    camps and have to cooperate on the field!

Jerry Falwell was Baptist Bible Fellowship until
becoming Southern Baptist
Billy Graham split with Fundamentalists
New Evangelicals and Secondary Separation
Dr. Graham and son Franklin
  • Fundamentalism is not the same as Evangelicalism,
    though their core doctrines can be similar
  • The Fundamentalists would be more conservative
    and narrow in association, whereas the
    Evangelicals are culturally and theologically
    more moderate
  • The issues tend to be their regard and approach
    to Scriptures and its broader worldview
  • The Charismatic movement found more space in the
    Evangelical movement and more criticism in the
    Fundamentalist movement
  • Evangelicalism tend to be the middle ground
    between liberalism and Fundamentalism, though as
    time goes on the lines become cloudy
  • Secondary Separation meant that a Fundamentalist
    could not associate with anyone not in
    fundamentalist circles (Primary Separation), nor
    with anyone who associated with anyone not in
    Fundamentalist circles (Secondary Separation)
  • Issues provoking this separation include
    worldliness contemporary music, movies, social
    drinking, dress, hair-style, too accommodating to
    doctrines Charismatics, often KJV, Social
    Gospel (evangelical left) associations Southern
    Baptists liberalism, mass evangelism with
    liberals in the direction

SBC Renewal Movements
Adrian Rogers 1931-2005
  • Conservatives first won the 1979 President
  • Noel Hollyfields research in 1976 revealed 87
    of new seminary students believed Jesus was
    divine, but only 63 of graduates believed
  • Conservative strategy elect conservative
    presidents 1979 SBC elected Adrian Rogers as
    first conservative
  • In 1986 the SBC seminary presidents gave in to
    the Fundamentalists to fire all Liberals in all
    the faculties of the six SBC seminaries (SBC
    colleges not affected)
  • The FMB (Foreign Mission Board) had to cut
    funding to foreign seminaries that had liberal
    professors (like Ruschikon Seminary,
    Switzerland), which caused major divisions
  • The issue would force Keith Parks to resign and
    the election of Jerry Rankin in 1993 as well as
    the formation of 2 state conventions in Texas and
    Virginia (one moderate and one Conservative).
  • Eventually all missionaries were forced to sign
    the 2000 Baptist Faith and Message declaration

Jerry Falwell
1st Wave Pentecostal Movement 1901
Charles Parham
  • Charles Parham saw students speaking in tongues
    while seeking the baptism of the Spirit in 1901
  • Invited to Houston to teach new evidences and
    Apostolic Faith concepts
  • William Seymour, a Black holiness pastor was
    allowed to listen from an adjoining room
  • Seymour was called to Azusa St. Mission in LA,
    where a band of followers fasted and prayed with
    him until several spoke in tongues
  • Word spread quickly, newspapers caught the story
  • By 1906 a revival broke out for 3 years
  • Quickly spread throughout the global Holiness
  • Pentecostal denominations started and grew
  • Popular leaders include Kathryn Kuhlman and Oral
  • Missionaries were sent out thinking they would
    evangelize with their tongue-gift, but failed
  • New doctrine developed that tongues became
    evidence of empowerment to evangelize, rather
    than the means to do so

2nd Wave Charismatic Movement 1960
Dennis Bennett, Anglican priest, first
non-Pentecostal leader to speak in tongues
  • In 1960 Dennis Bennett claimed he was baptized in
    the Spirit (forced to resign pastorate) but later
    founded Christian Renewal Association. This gave
    birth to the Charismatic Movement.
  • The Neo-Pentecostals (Charismatics) experienced
    the speaking in tongues (glossolalia) while
    remaining in their traditional churches
  • Neo-Charismatics refer to those who left their
    traditional churches to form their own
    denominations (i.e. Vineyard Movement)
  • Numbers by 2000 (became the 2nd largest branch
    of Christianity behind the Roman Catholic
  • Charismatic Movement 176 million
  • Neo-Charismatics 295 million
  • Pentecostals 66 million
  • 27 of all Christians and almost 60 of all
  • In 1967 Charismatics became active in the Roman
    Catholic Church at Notre Dame in South Bend, IN,
    and Duquesne University in 1977.
  • By 2000 there would be 120 million Charismatic
  • Catholics consider this experience another
    validation of their sacramental salvation through
    the Catholic Church.

Todd Bentley, Lakeland, FL revival 2008
3rd Wave Signs and Wonders Movement 1981
  • Initially associated with John Wimber and the
    Vineyard Movement
  • Belief that the gospel is best communicated if
    associated with supernatural manifestations of
    the Spirit esp. prophecy and healings
  • Deut 268, God brought Israel out of Egypt with
    a strong hand and an outstretched arm and with
  • Wimbers lectures at Fuller Theological Seminary
    from 82-85 won over Peter Wagner, Church Growth
    strategist on faculty who labeled the movement
    Power Evangelism
  • Peter Wagner Head of Dept for Church Growth at
    Fuller since 1971
  • Leader of Strategic Level Spiritual Welfare,
    Apostolic Restoration Movement, member of the
    International Coalition of Apostles and the
    Apostolic Council of Prophetic Elders
  • Head of Global Harvest Ministries network prayer
    ministries, Spiritual Warfare Network (SWN, also
    called Gideons Army) and the Wagner Leadership

International Missions
  • Difficult to track from the US 2 million
    short-term missions vs. 64,000 Protestant
  • More difficult to be accurate overseas est.
    76,000 internationals involved in missions
  • Many internationals are ethnic missionaries (sent
    out to reach their own people living in different
    countries expatriates)
  • This is the greatest potential of the global
  • Vision casting and mobilization
  • Training for tasks and ministries
  • Partnering, teaming, sharing, facilitating

Tribal Missions
  • Frank Drown
  • Lived and worked with Jivaro, head shrinking
    Indians in E. Ecuador.
  • Worked with Roger Youderian of Operation Auca
    led the rescue effort
  • Bruce Porterfield
  • 1957 NTM missionary attempt to contact the wild
    Yuqui tribe in Bolivia (ten years before had
    killed first 5 NTMers to attempt contact)
  • Famous for choaking you to see how much you can
  • Bruce, Our accounting to God is for
    faithfulness, not for results
  • David Scovill
  • UFM (CrossWorld) pioneer and linguistic
    missionary to the Danis in Indonesia
  • Taught Chronological Bible Teaching and
    established the church in Dani
  • Don Richardson
  • In 1962 Don and Carol risked their lives to share
    Christ with the Sawi people of New Guinea who
    were headhunters and cannibals
  • Discovered the Redemptive Analogy from the
    mythology of tribe that compared to the gospel

Missionary Martyrs
  • John and Betty Stam China with CIM 1934
  • Communist captured the Stam in 1934 for ransom of
  • Their baby cried and was to be killed, but a
    released prisoner gave his life to let the baby
  • While marching 12 miles Betty stopped to feed the
    baby, wrapped her in a sleeping bag and left her
  • Continuing the march a Chinese tried to persuade
    the soldier not to kill them, but he was ordered
    to join them
  • John, Betty and the shopkeeper were beheaded
  • Paul Carlson Congo 1964
  • Medical missionary accused of being an American
  • Managed a hospital and leper colony
  • During an unrest he got his family to safety in
    CAR, returned
  • Fell into the hands of the rebel army, held for
    over a year, tortured
  • During a rescue attempt he was killed by rebel
  • Chet Bitterman Colombia 1981
  • American linguist with SIL, seeking the most
    difficult tribe in Colombia
  • Just assigned to the Carabayo tribe, which
    Fanning discovered
  • While in Bogota at Guesthouse M-19 broke in and
    took Chet demanding that Wycliffe depart the
  • 48 days later his body was found in a bus, shot
    in the chest

John and Betty Stam d. 1934
Chet Bitterman (1953-1981)
Specialization Missions
  • Medical Missions Carl Becker Ituri jungle,
  • Served between 7 mission stations, one 250-bed
  • A leprosarium of 7,000 patients often treating
  • His ministry started a large church and smaller
    churches at each medical station he established
  • Often medical aid is best prevented by adequate
  • Accepting government subsidies forfeit freedom to
    preach plus high level of exhaustion, burnout
    and turnover.
  • Primary health care includes clean water,
    adequate sanitation, immunization programs,
    maternal/child health, food supply and proper
    nutrition, prevention of endemic diseases and
  • Bible Translation Cameron Townsen and Kenneth
  • Tried to sell Bibles in Guatemala in 1917-1918
    but no one spoke Spanish
  • In ten years he learned their complex language,
    translated the NT and taught literacy
  • In summer of 1934 started SIL and Wycliffe Bible

Specialization Missions
  • Radio Broadcast Clarence W. Jones, HCJB
  • Jones went to SA in 1928 looking for site to
    start a radio station. On Christmas, 1931 began
    first broadcast
  • Heralding Christ Jesus Blessing
  • Developed 500W transmitters in 1980 to overcome
    Russian jamming, for 2,400 programs a month
  • Developed educational tools, Christian Academy of
    the Air, Christian School, Hospitals in
    healthcare outreach
  • Missionary Aviation Elizebeth Betty Green
  • Betty Green served as Ferry pilot in WWII wrote
    article on using aviation for missions
  • Navy pilot Jim Truxton read article and asked her
    to help him start MAF
  • Betty flew a Waco biplane to Mexico to help SIL
    in jungle camp as first MAF pilot

New Methods to know
KennethStracham Evan-In-Depth
  • Kenneth Stracham Evangelism-in-Depth
  • General Director of Latin America Missions
  • Began Evangelism-In-Depth, a concentrated, highly
    mobilized, highly visible evangelistic activities
    (marches, crusades, total church participation,
  • Donald McGravan, missionary to India Church
  • Challenged by SVM to spend 30 years in India then
    became Professor of Church Growth at Fuller
    Theological Seminary, wrote Understanding Church
  • Rejected the popular view of mission as
    philanthropy, education, medicine, famine
    relief, evangelism and world friendship
  • Convinced that good deeds must never replace
    the task of missions building disciples of all
  • Developed theories that result in growth of
  • Ralph Winter founder of US Center for World
  • Ten years as professor of School of World
    Missions at Fuller
  • Instrumental in TEE movement
  • Established William Carey Library, American
    Society of Missiology, Prospective Program and
    International Society for Frontier Missions
  • His focus is Strategy, Mobilization and Training

Donald McGravan
Ralph Winter
TEE and Church-based Training
  • In 1963 The Presbyterian Church in Guatemala in
    19 there were hundreds of pastors who could not
    attend the seminary in Guatemala City Seminary
  • Churches are led by men who have families and
    jobs, thus cannot responsibly leave everything
    and go to school, so the school must go to them.
  • By using programmed texts and meeting weekly with
    a teacher.
  • Classes are held in area churches, homes, schools
    or open air in rural and urban settings.
  • By 1980, over 200 TEE associations worldwide with
    400 programs and 60,000 students in 90 countries.
  • In 1988 Jeff Reed proposed a Church-Based
    Leadership Development concept called BILD
    (Biblical Institute of Leadership Development.
  • Basic philosophy is that all leadership training
    should be the core ministry of the local church,
    thoroughly equipping members for any ministry
  • They have developed several degree programs in
    non-formal education in 1999 with more than 5,200
  • In 1990 Bruce Miller and Gene Getz from Dallas
    Theological Seminary developed their program of
    church leadership training through mentoring,
    in-ministry and life-on-life intensive internship
    program for developing church leaders and
  • Today they are in 30 countries , 28 denominations
    distributing over 40,000 courses.

House Church Movementsince 1990
  • Meeting in homes can be obligated by
    circumstances or preference for informal intimate
    group dynamics
  • Distinct from Small Group, or cell group concept
    which is usually part of a traditional church
  • House Church is a misnomer, rather should be
    simple church, bodylife, organic church or
    biblical church.
  • Though practiced for first 300 years and revived
    in the anabaptist, Moravian movement, it has
    become the methodology for contemporary missions
    to multiply church bodies in difficult regions
    (China, Vietnam, India, Cuba, Brazil, and Muslim
  • Major denominations and mission agencies are now
    focusing on house church networks, including the
  • The numbers of participants become staggering in
    many countries China, 80-100 million India,
    20-50 million Cuba, 10,000 HC since 1992
  • The practice of the priesthood of the believer,
    serious study of Gods Word with a mutual
    commitment to practice it weekly, worship and
    prayer, baptism and Lords Supper usually with a
    shared meal.
  • Key to Pentecostal global growth, as Korean
    David Yonggi Chos church with 22,000 cell
  • Key to non-Charismatic growth Willow Creek,
    Saddleback churches

Gene Edwards (b.1932), former SBC pastor,
pioneered house church concept
David Garrison, CPM w/ IMB
Carl George, Small Group guru
Key Paradigm Shifts in last 50 years of 20th
Donald McGavran
  • Indigenous Policy
  • Church Growth Movement
  • Short-Term Missions 2.2 million per year
  • UPG (NTM and SIL)-- Native translators
  • 10/40 Window AD 2000 Beyond
  • Chronological Bible Storying/Teaching
  • TESL
  • Emotive Worship Experience

Lausanne Global Congress on Evangelism
  • First Internatinal Congress on World Evangelism
    (ICOWE) 1974, wrote the Lausanne Covenant,
    drafted by John Stott of England.
  • Headed by Billy Graham to discuss the progress,
    resources and methods of evangelizing the world
  • Grahams commitment to unite all evangelicals for
    total evangelization of the world
  • Ralph Winter introduced the term unreached
    people groups to contradict those calling for a
    moratorium on foreign missionaries
  • UPG should become the primary focus of the Church
  • Brought 2,700 leaders from 150 nations
  • Refuses to build a bureaucratic organization,
    rather strives to be a dynamic, catalytic force
    that mobilizes a movement of like-minded
    missional Christians who will pray, plan and work
    together for global evangelism
  • Second ICOWE (Lausanne II) was held in 1989 in
    Manila when the 10/40 Window was announced
  • Third ICOWE (Lausanne III) will be in South
    Africa in 2010 to re-stimulate the spirit of
    unity, humbleness in service and a greater
    commitment to global evangelism

AD 2000 Beyond
  • Luis Bush at the Lausanne II Congress in Manila
    in 1989 presented the goal of reaching the major
    unreached people groups (UPG) with 10K or more by
    the year 2000
  • Bush identified 95 of the worlds least reached
    people within the 10/40 Window
  • Objective was mobilize the global Church to a
    specific goal of the largely ignored UPGs
  • 1995 sponsored the GCOWE with 4,000 leaders from
    186 countries to formulate evangelism plans for
  • 2/3 of delegates were from non-Western countries
  • Joshua Project 2000 identified 1,739 UPGs needing
    church-planting efforts
  • By 2001 all groups had been initiated and 50
    million mobilized to pray for the 10/40 Window

Luis Bush