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Title: Europe Author: bborrison Last modified by: bborrison Created Date: 9/23/2013 4:33:24 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) Company – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Europe

  • Religion, Colonialism, Changes and Conflict

  • Romans
  • Allowed the Jews to worship freely, only thing
    they cared about was being loyal to Emperor
  • Jesus Christianity is based off his teachings
    (a lot of Jewish principles as well)
  • Romans feared Jesus, though teachings might cause
    an uprising
  • Pontius Pilate Roman governor, arrested Jesus
    and had him crucified
  • Christians believe that Jesus rose from the dead
    and that through faith all believers could be

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  • Romans
  • Christianity started to spread slowly throughout
    the Roman Empire. Eventually the Roman Empire
    began to see it as a threat.
  • Christianity became more popular in times of
    struggle (wealth and social status also did not
  • By 300 AD, Christianity had grown so much that
    the Roman Empire was forced to accept
    Christianity as a religion.
  • Constantine supported Christianity, by 391 AD
    Christianity was adapted as the official religion
    of Roman Empire.

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  • Roman Religious Structure
  • Priest Local Levels
  • Bishops Head of all churches in an large
  • Pope Supreme power over all the church
  • Holy Trinity Father, Son, Holy Spirit.
  • Structure resembles the Catholic Church today
  • A TON of conflict between the power of bishops,
    popes and political leaders (Kings, Queens, etc)

  • Crusades
  • Cause Muslims from Central Asia gained control
    of Palestine (Israel today). Also they
    threatened Christians in the Byzantine Empire
  • Pope Urban II Decided to reclaim the holy land
  • Over 10,000 Europeans took up this cause of
    numerous military expeditions.
  • Why did so many people go Save Souls, gain land
    and wealth, make money through trade

  • 1st Crusade
  • French and Italian leaders sent out armies
  • Successful in attacking and capturing the holy
    city of Jerusalem. (Massacred Jewish and Muslim
  • Positive in that it set up trade between Europe
    and the Middle East.
  • Muslims and Christians lived along side of each
  • Europeans had some control of the Middle East

  • 2nd Crusade
  • The Turks began to unite their forces and took
    back cities that the Europeans had won
  • German and French forces failed to win back
  • 3rd Crusade
  • Muslims gained control of Jerusalem
  • Red Beard (HRE), Phillip II (France), Richard I
    (England) all united to fight back
  • Red Beard drowned leading his army, Phillip and
    Richard fought with each other.did not win city

  • 4th Crusade
  • Pope Innocent III organized it
  • Italians troops attacked Christian cities of
    Zadar and Constantinople
  • Childrens Crusades
  • Young people from across Europe marched on the
    Holy Land to regain it for Christianity.
  • Many were killed or sold into slavery
  • Results
  • Last Crusade ended in 1291 when Muslims captured
    the city of Acre
  • All but the 1st Crusades were a failure
  • Gunpowder, crossbows, etc
  • Church became more powerful
  • Exchange of goods and ideas boosted trade

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  • Reformation
  • Split of the Roman Catholic Church in Western
  • Why
  • People felt the Church was focusing too much on
    money and power
  • Start
  • Independent German states began to do their own
    thing religiously.
  • Pope Leo X tried to force these states to pay
    money for committing a sin.angered a lot of

  • Martin Luther
  • Monk who was struggling with his personal
    religious struggle
  • Belief ceremonies and good deeds made no
    difference in saving a sinner. Only thing that
    mattered was inner faith with God.
    Justification by grace through faith
  • He shocked everyone by challenging the Church
  • Pope declared him a heretic and kicked him out of
  • Luther was declared an outlaw and he hid _at_ the
    Wartburg Castle in Eisenach Germany. There he
    translated the Bible into German.
  • Followers of Luthers teachings were called

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Spread of Protestantism
  • German Issues
  • Charles V tried to stop Protestantism from
  • He was unsuccessful, each German ruler had the
    right to choose the type of Christianity for
    their state.
  • England
  • Henry VIII Created the Anglican Church to get
    away from the Roman Catholic Church
  • Henry did this because he wanted a divorce
    because his wife only gave him a daughter (Mary
    I). There had never been a Queen before.
  • Pope did not allow the divorce, so Henry VIII
    formed his own Church (Anglican Church of
  • Church kept same practices but did open the door
    for Protestantism in England

  • John Calvin
  • Became the leader of the movement in Switzerland
  • Similar to the Protestants in that it relied
    heavily on faith and the Bible
  • Predestination God decided who to save _at_ the
    beginning of time.
  • Theocracy Government ruled by a religious
  • Calvinist Righteous Living, very strict
  • Huguenots French nobles who began to covert to
    Calvinism. Fought Civil Wars with French
    Catholics for 30 years (1562-1598). Eventually
    given religious freedom.

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European Exploration
  • Foundations
  • Needed better maps, navigation tools (compass)
    and ships to effectively sail to the riches of
    India and China
  • Joint-Stock Companies helped to fund
    explorations all throughout the world.
  • Banks began to be more modern (lending, etc)
  • European Countries (Spain, Portugal, France, and
    England) began to build overseas Empires.
  • Mercantilism countries wanted to get as much
    gold and silver possible to have more wealth. A
    favorable balance of trade with its colonies
    would help this.
  • Renaissance (curiosity), Religion (freedom), Land
    and Fame all led to more people wanted to explore

  • Explorers
  • Prince Henry Henry the Navigator, sent people
    around Africa, looking for gold and trade
  • Bartolomeu Dias Sailed around the Cape of Good
  • Vasco da Gama Sailed to India.
  • Opened the door to great wealth for Portugal
  • Pedro Cabral Tried sailing west, landed in
  • Treaty of Tordesillas Imaginary line that
    divided Spains conquests from Portugal's
  • Also expanded into SE Asia (Sri Lanka, Japan,
  • Began Slave Trade
  • Portugal could not keep up, eventually overrun by

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  • Christopher Columbus
  • Shorter route to Asia by sailing Westward
    (Ptolemy and Marco Polo)
  • Made 4 total voyages to the West Indies, believed
    he had founded a completely new land.
  • Columbian Exchange Exchange of goods between
    products, plants, animals, and even disease
  • Made Spain very wealthy

  • Explorers
  • Amerigo Vespucci (Italian) Sailed for Spain and
    Portugal (Americas namesake)
  • Ferdinand Magellan (Portugese) Sailed for
    Spain, made the first journey around the world in
  • Ponce De Leon Florida and Fountain of Youth
  • Hernan Cortes Mexico, captured Aztec leader
    Montezuma and destroyed Empire w/ small pox
  • Francisco Pizarro Claimed Ecuador to Chile for
    Spain, destroyed thee Incan Empire
  • Fore a time the colonies produced great wealth
    for Spain.
  • The Empire was attached a lot by other countries

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  • Early Ties w/ Spain
  • The Netherlands were part of Spains control.
    Phillips II ruined that by treating them poorly
    b/c of Calvinism
  • William of Orange led a successful revolt against
    Spanish influence by using guerilla warfare.
  • Dutch Exploration
  • Dutch were very tolerant of others, always had
    been sea going people.
  • Dutch East India Trading Company
  • Purchased Manhattan Island from nativesNYC
  • Dutch were looking to make money, had settlements
    in North America, South America and Asia.

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Great Britain's Empire
  • Summary
  • Started during the 1600s, by 1760 Great Britain
    had the strongest colonial empire in the world
  • Start
  • King Henry VII sent John Cabot to explore the
    west in 1497 (explored Newfoundland and Nova
  • Elizabeth I Sent out many explorers (Drake,
    Hawkins, Raleigh) that claimed new lands and made
    the Spanish mad by pirating their ships.
  • Defeating the Spanish Armada gave England
    confidence to colonize.

Great Britains Empire
  • Colonization
  • Queen Elizabeth grated a charter to a group known
    as the British East India Trading Coinvolved
    with India for 260 years. Most powerful company
    in world (1700s)
  • America
  • First looking for Northwest Passage
  • Henry Hudson (explored of both Dutch and
    English)..never found the Northwest Passage
  • First settlements in Jamestown and Plymouth

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Changes to GB Empire
  • America
  • America won its independence in 1781
  • Canada
  • Canadian settlers wanted more self rule in the
    early 1800s. GB just let them have their
  • Australia
  • James Cook claimed the land in 1770 for
    Australia, GB sent prisoners to live there.
  • Aborigines Native people to Australia
  • All parts of Australia united in 1901.
  • New Zealand
  • British took control in 1840.
  • Maori Native people of New Zealand
  • By 1907 New Zealand had joined the British

Social Changes
  • Bad Living Conditions
  • Cities were dirty, unsafe, and unhealthy
  • People did not go out alone at night, no police,
  • Disease was easily able to spread b/c of waste
  • Black Death
  • Plague that started from Asian trade routes
  • Carried by black rats on ships
  • Around 25 million people died (1/3 of all Europe
  • People lost faith in God, workers wanted more
    wages, etc

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New Ways of Thinking
  • Renaissance
  • Philosophical and Artistic Movement.
  • Renewed by studying the works of ancient the idea from the Byzantines
    during the Crusades.
  • Believed in the power of human reason (thinking)
  • Niccolo Machiavelli
  • Writer who believed that political rulers should
    be only concerned about power and political

New Ways of Thinking
  • Inventions
  • Thomas Edison Light bulb and harnessing
  • Alexander Graham Bell Human voice on electrical
  • Henry Ford, Karl Benz, Etienne Lenoir Cars
  • Wilbur and Orville Wright Airplane
  • New Thinkers
  • Charles Darwin Theory of Evolution. Those who
    survive have the best natural characteristics to
  • Gregor Mendel Founded Genetics
  • Edward Jenner small pox vaccine (coxpox)
  • Louis Pasteur Pasteurization.found out that
    bacteria cause illness
  • Dmitry Mendeleyev Classified Elements
  • Albert Einstein German Scientist

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New Ways of Thinking
  • New Thinkers cont..
  • Ivan Pavlov and Sigmund Freud Psychology
  • Beethoven German Composer
  • James Fennimore Cooper American Writer
  • Pyotr Ilich Tchaikovsky ballets, operas
  • Sports
  • Became organized and popular during the 1800s.
  • Soccer and baseball were some of the earliest

Economic Changes
  • Domestic System/Barter
  • Old way of doing things were manufacturing took
    place within the home. Separate workers would
    complete tasks at home..come together to produce
    final product
  • Barter Trade
  • Money Changers were the first bankers. They
    exchanged money and gave out loans. Many Jews
    held this role in Middle Ages b/c they could not
    own land
  • People also began to invest money

Economic Change
  • Industrial Revolution
  • Rapid industrial development caused by available
    land and natural resources, available money to
    invest and available workers.
  • Mechanization Automatic machines (silk spinning
  • Richard Arkwright Use of water to power
    machine..started the first factory system.
  • Demand for cotton increased, England got most
    from the Southern United States (4 million to 100
    million pounds per year)
  • Cotton Gin (Eli Whitney) machine that cleaned
    cotton, made it easier to mass produce it

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Economic Changes
  • Industrial Revolution
  • Water (river power) was unpredictable, tried to
    harness steam power (James Watt)
  • Bessemer Process Process to inject air into
    pure Iron to remove impurities. This made steel
    easier to use.
  • Charles Goodyear Vulcanization (made rubber
    less sticky)
  • Robert Fulton Steam Engine on boat..changed
    water travel
  • Samuel Morse Morse Code and Telegraph
  • Great Britain was the European leader in
  • Factory System developed a wage system and Middle
  • Women also began to work more

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Economic Changes
  • Capitalism
  • Economic system where individuals or corporations
    control what and how much gets produced (not
  • Division of Labor Economic principle that
    increased the rate of production.each person
    specialized in a certain job.
  • Eli Whitney invented interchangeable
    partsmachines that made things that were all
    alikeeasier to fix
  • Mass Production Producing large numbers of
    identical items.
  • Business began to become corporations (people
    could buy stock in them)

Economic Changes
  • Supply-Demand
  • Item is scarce and has high demandhigh prices
    paid. When supply goes down, prices rise
  • Item is not scarce and has low demandlower
    prices paid
  • Smiths Theory Manufacturers that compete with
    other companies must reduce prices to be
    competitive (but not too low or they will go out
    of business).
  • System of Free Enterprise (no government control)

Economic Changes
  • Conditions
  • Were bad for workers
  • Humanitarians People who tried to help (Charles
  • Strikes effective way to protest working
  • Unions organizations created to protect the
    rights of workers

Economic Changes
  • Socialism
  • Some people felt that the laissez-faire approach
    would not work (let it be)
  • Felt they need to change who owned the means of
  • Means of Production money and equipment used
    to produce and exchange goods (land, RR, mines,
    factories, stores, banks)
  • Definition government owns the means of
    production and operates them for the benefit of
    all people, not just the wealthy. Everyone
    should share in the profits
  • Utopian Socialists People who believed that
    people could live peacefully together in small
    communities where everyone would work for the
    common good of all

  • Karl Marx
  • Wrote the Communist Manifesto (1848)
  • Thought that capitalism created a conflict
    between workers and business owners. His
    thoughts were that a few owners made a ton of
    money of the hard work of the workers.
  • Marx predicted that the workers would eventually
    unite and overthrow the capitalistic areas and
    create a socialist revolution.
  • Believed that people would learn the benefits of
    working together and a classless society would
    emerge..pure communism

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  • Communism
  • Government that owns the means of production and
    all economic planning (and all other aspects of
    daily life).
  • Democratic Socialism
  • People retain partial control over economic
    planning through the election of government
  • Marxs Ideas
  • Had an important affect in parts of Northern and
    Western Europe. Huge impact in Russia

New Conflicts and Problems
  • WWI
  • Nationalism, Imperialism, Militarism,
  • Triple Alliance Italy, Germany and
    Austria-Hungary (made by Bismarck during the
  • Triple Entente France, Russia, and GB
  • Serbs wanted Bosnia (Controlled by Austria) to be
    part of a Slavic Empire
  • Assassination of France Ferdinand (AH prince) by
    a Serbian nationalist set off the alliances.
  • Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungary,
    Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire
  • Allied Powers Great Britain, France, Russia,
    and others

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Newer Conflicts and Problems
  • WWI
  • U Boats
  • Propaganda
  • Trench Warfare
  • US Involvement (Lusitania and Zimmerman Note)
  • Eventually the Allies won due to American help
    and Austria/Hungary falling apart
  • Costs of WWI
  • 8.5-10 million dead, 21 million wounded, 300
  • 14 pts
  • Wilsons attempt to make the world safe for
  • League of Nations A world organization to
    maintain peacewhat the UN would become. Not
    strong after WWI
  • Treaty of Versailles Punished Germany for
    actions in WWI and caused WWII. (No resolution
    of problems, Germany poor)

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New Conflicts
  • Great Depression
  • Black Tuesday Oct 29, 1929, stock market crash
  • Market Speculation Risky Investments
  • Great Depression 30 million unemployed by 1932
  • Major effect in GB, France, and Germany (destroy
  • France WWII Difficulties
  • Maginot Line (defending from France)..
  • France signed treaties w/ Czech and Poland
  • Great Britain Struggles
  • Struggle to find people jobs during 1920s-1930s
  • Irish nationals revolted in 1916 (Easter Rising)
  • IRA Irish Republic Army.
  • Compromise Catholic Southern Ireland (Republic
    of Ireland) would be independent, 6 Northern
    counties (Protestant) remained a part of the UK

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Newer Problems
  • Eastern Europe
  • Most of Eastern European Countries were very weak
  • Austria, Poland, Hungary, etc
  • Italian Fascism
  • Benito Mussolini Leader of fascist Italy
  • Fascism Totalitarian dictatorship, opposed to
    democracies and communism (very much
  • Communism appealed to the workers, Fascism
    appealed to the middle/upper class because they
    were guaranteed to keep their power. Protect
    private property and middle class
  • Black Shirts Mussolinis military branch that
    eliminated all things socialist or democratic

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Newer Problems
  • Germany
  • Nazis Extreme Nationalism, anti-semitic (Jew)
    and anti-communist. Began around 1920
  • Hitlers views began to shape Nazi Party.
  • Through elections the Nazis were able to take
    gain a majority in the Reichstag (Parliament).
    Hitler became the emergency dictator when the
    Reichstag burnt down in 1933.
  • After that Hitler began to used the SS to round
    up Jews, forcing them to ghettos, work camps, and
    eventually concentration camps.
  • Hitler believed in the Third Reich (3rd Empire)
  • Began to rebuild the Army (illegal) and made a
    secret alliance with Italy

New Problems
  • Spanish Civil War
  • Many changes following WWI
  • Nationalist Fascist group called Falange
    (Francisco Franco)
  • Loyalist Supporters of the old Republic
  • Germany and Italy helped the Nationalist, Soviets
    helped the Loyalists.
  • People the movements would spread throughout all
    of Europe
  • Nationalists won and Franco set up a government
    that looked a lot like Italys

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New Problems
  • WWII
  • Began with Hitler's Aggression
  • Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Scandinavia and
    Low Countries, USSR, France
  • Hitler was not able to fully capture USSR and
    never invaded Great Britain.
  • Allies GB, France, USSR, USA
  • Axis Germany, Italy, Japan
  • Hitlers attack on the Soviet Union was similar
    to Napoleons failed attempt. Too big and cold.
  • Hitler began to kill the Jews in 1941.
  • Famous concentration camps like Auschwitz were
  • D-Day Allied Invasion of France.would mark the
    end for Hitler and the German Army

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World After WWII
  • United Nations
  • Created to keep peace throughout the world, dont
    make the same mistakes that happened post WWI
  • Yalta Conference
  • Divided up Germany into 4 states (3 controlled by
    the West and 1 controlled by the USSR)
  • Cold War
  • Began after WWII. The Soviet Army never really
    left the lands that they had conquered between
    Germany and USSR.
  • Marshall Plan US gave over 13 billion dollars
    to 17 Western European countries to prevent
    communism from spreading
  • Truman Doctrine USA would support any country
    in their fight against communism (Greece and
    Turkey were first)

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World After WWII
  • Berlin Airlift
  • City of Berlin (in east Berlin) was divided by
    East and West. The Soviets shut off access to
    outside world
  • US and GB dropped food and supplies into West
  • Eventually the Berlin was created to prevent
    people moving from East to West.
  • NATO
  • Military Alliance of European countries..Warsaw
    Pact was the same thing except involving Soviets
    and the countries they controlled

Great Britain
  • Prime Ministers
  • Neville Chamberlain
  • Winston Churchill (during WWII)
  • Economics
  • Struggled between welfare state and non welfare
  • One of the least industrialized countries by 1960
  • Major problems from the destruction of WWII

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  • Problems
  • Destroyed, much like Great Britain from fighting
    in WWII
  • Had trouble holding on to foreign possessions
    like Algeria and French Indochina (Vietnam)
  • Charles De Gaulle
  • French President after WWII.
  • Let go of possessions, believed in NATO, etc
  • Economy never got better and he resigned

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Other European Countries
  • Denmark, Norway, Sweden
  • All had solid democracies in place
  • All prospered in the times after WWII
  • Very little rebuilding occurred
  • Greece, Portugal, Spain
  • Turned to free-enterprise systems of economy
  • Portugal and Spain remained Authoritarian Govts

Modern Times
  • Great Britain
  • Margaret Thatcher Became the first female Prime
    Minister in Britains History
  • Reduced government funding of many social
    programs (like Republicanism)
  • Poll Tax Replaced income tax, charged everyone
    the sameled to problemsshe resigned in 1990
  • John Major More moderate, had many scandals
  • Tony Blair Elected in 1997
  • Northern Ireland (Protestant aligned with GB)
  • Battles between the Catholics (IRA) and
  • Wanted to drive the Protestants out of Ireland
  • Still an issue today

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Modern Times
  • France
  • Many different leaders (Pompidou, dEstaing,
    Mitterand, Chirac)
  • Continued to struggle with economic problems and
    foreign relations.
  • Germany
  • West Germany became a major economic power while
    East Germany struggled
  • Helmut Kohl Conservative (Reagan and Thatcher)
    kept close times with GB and USA
  • USSR collapsed and Germany was re-united as one
    country in 1992.

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Modern Times
  • NATO
  • United most of Western Europe (small countries)
  • Belgium, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Denmark,
    Iceland, Norway, Finland, Sweden, Austria,
    Switzerland all were either supportive of Western
    ideas or neutral
  • Italy
  • Divided between political parties and
    industrial/wealthy Northern Italy vs poor/rural
    Southern Italy
  • Situation improved during the 1990s
  • Spain
  • Juan Carlos King in 1975
  • Troubles with economy during the 1970s and 80s
  • By 2000, Spain was in much better shape

Modern Times
  • European Cooperation
  • Helsinki Accords 35 European Nations (and
    USA/USSR) met to discuss security and cooperation
    among countries
  • Called on all nations to respect basic human
    rights, such as speech and worshiphelped usher
    in democracy of the 1980s
  • NATO started to include Eastern European
    countries (Czech, Poland, Hungary) in 1997
  • European Economic Community Economic
    cooperation between countries to include common
    taxation, trade and currency
  • European Union 1993, ended trade barriers
    between countries. Where the Euro came from
    (common currency)

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