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Chapter 3-1. Crisis of Socio-Political Development

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Mweong-Mi? Chapter 3-1. Crisis of Socio-Political Development Prof. Jin-Wan Seo, Ph.D. Department of Public Administration University of Incheon, KOREA – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 3-1. Crisis of Socio-Political Development


1
Mweong-Mi?
  • Chapter 3-1. Crisis of Socio-Political Development

Prof. Jin-Wan Seo, Ph.D. Department of Public
Administration University of Incheon,
KOREA http//prof.incheon.ac.kr/sjinwan
2
Crises in Socio-Political Development
  1. Identity crisis
  2. legitimacy crisis
  3. Participation crisis
  4. Penetration crisis
  5. Integration crisis
  6. Distribution crisis

3
1. The Identity Crisis
  • Definition Recognition of their natural
    territory as being their true homeland
    (fundamental issue for Nation-Building)
  • Causes Cleavages by tribes, caste, ideology,
    religion, ethnic, and linguistic groups.
  •  
  • Views
  • Pluralism conveys a variety of cultural segments
    in the same political unit.
  • Equilibrium model intermediate grouping
    (Kornhauser) or overlapping membership (D.
    Truman) U.S.A.
  • Conflict model different segments, kept together
    by force of the external agency (Furnwell) -- the
    end of colonialism meant rise of original
    cleavages in Africa, South Africa, India,
    Pakistan, Lebanon
  • Modernization vs. Political Development
  • modernization often makes cleavages pronounced,
    conflict deeper. However, patron client
    within/between segment is also important.

4
2) The Legitimacy Crisis
  • Definition the problem of achieving agreement
    about legitimate nature of authority and the
    proper responsibilities of government.
  •  
  • Cause
  • - Constitutional problems
  • - role of military, bureaucracy - term and
    recruitment of president
  • - the primary goals of national effort
  • - order vs. freedom
  • - economic first vs. democracy first
  • - stability vs. change
  • - economic stability vs. religion (the spirit of
    Islam)
  • - colonial legacy
  • - ruler's personal background
  • - corruption
  • - abuse of power
  • - nationalist vs. internationalist
  •  
  • - Origin of Legitimacy (M. Weber) Tradition
    Charisma Legality Rationality

5
3)The Participation Crisis
  • Political participation activity by private
    citizens designed to influence governmental
    decision making.
  • One dimension of political participation concepts
    becomes crisis when the influx of new
    participants creates serious strains on the
    existing institutions.
  • Cause
  • - social mobilization (education, communication.,
    urban economy)
  • - emergence of interest groups the formation of
    pol. parties
  • - manipulated mass organizations demonstration
    politics (mobilized participation)
  • Means
  • - electoral activity voting turn out- lobbying
    organization activity
  • - individual contact with public officials
  • - mass media communications, political parties
  • - Violence
  • - riots, military coups, assassination, guerilla
    war, terrorism, eventually revolution
  • frequency intensity Developing gt Developed gt
    Traditional
  • Why
  • - rife-raff theory ban man
  • - return to killer instinct theory
  • - relative deprivation theory
  • - no institutions to substitute violence to
    participation

6
4)The Penetration Crisis
  • Definition the problems of government in
    reaching down into the society and effecting
    basic policies
  • This is pronounced when the rulers seek to
    accelerate the pace of economic development
    social change essential for development.
  • the gap between ruler ruled, wide
  • development oriented vs. parochial
  • dictatorial vs. participants
  • official language vs. dialects

7
5)The Integration Crisis
  • Definition the problems of relating popular
    politics (interest groups parties) to
    governmental performance (input output)

6)The Distribution Crisis
  • Definition the problems of relating distribution
    of goods, services, and values to the public
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