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Selection Focus 2-1

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Selection Focus 2-1 Analyzing 2-3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What happens on the second day in camp? Uncle Billy has stolen ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Selection Focus 2-1


1
Selection Focus 2-1
2
Literary Elements Trans. 2-1
3
Before 2-1
  • To read and analyze a short story about four
    outcasts who must battle the elements to survive ?
  • To identify and describe character types in a
    short story ?
  • To describe and analyze the authors use of local
    color

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display the information.
4
Before 2-2
Bret Harte was born in 1836 and died in 1902.
Click the Speaker button to hearmore about Bret
Harte.
5
Before 2-3
BACKGROUND
The Time and Place After James Marshall
discovered gold in California in 1848, mining
towns sprang up almost overnight and small towns
rapidly grew into cities. As fortunes were made
and lost, a new way of life was established. The
colorful incidents of western life and the vivid
anecdotes of old-timers fired the imagination of
Bret Harte, who used this material for his
stories. ?
A Closer Look at Language Bret Harte was the
first writer of the local color trend in American
literaturea trend that was popular until the
turn of the century. One technique Harte used to
convey the local color of the West was to
incorporate the vernacular, or local speech, into
his dialogue. This technique creates vivid,
realistic dialogue that typifies the time and
place of the story.
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display the information.
6
Before 2-4
VOCABULARY PREVIEW
impropriety (n) the quality of being improper
improper behavior p. 477 ?
expatriated (adj) banished exiled p. 477 ?
malevolence (n) a disposition to wish harm to
others ill will p. 478 ? equanimity (n)
evenness of temper calmness p. 479 ? jocular
(adj) humorous p. 480 ? hypothesis (n) an
unproved explanation or assumption p. 480
? seclusion (n) separation from others
isolation p. 481 ? querulous (adj) complaining
whining p. 483
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display the information.
7
Before 2-5
FOCUS ACTIVITY
Have you ever seen reruns of popular television
Westerns such as Bonanza or Gunsmoke? What are
your favorite films about the Old West? ?
Discuss In a small group, discuss some of the
standard, or stereotypical, characters that
appear in films or television series about the
Old West. What makes these characters interesting
or appealing? ?
Setting a Purpose Read to encounter a colorful
cast of characters from the Old West.
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display the information.
8
Reading 2-A
Active Reading
A
Predict Look at the story title and the picture
on page 476 of your textbook.
What will the story be about?
Possible answer The picture and title are
ominous. The story will be about people who are
isolated from society.
Navigation Toolbar
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V
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display the answer.
9
Reading 2-B
Literary Elements
B
Mood
Does the description of the setting in the
opening paragraph establish a particular mood in
the story?
Phrases like Sabbath lull that looked ominous
create suspense by suggesting that something bad
is about to occur.
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display the answer.
10
Reading 2-C
Critical Thinking
C
Inferring
What can be inferred about Mr. Oakhursts
character based on his reaction to the fact that
the men are probably after him?
Mr. Oakhursts reaction indicates that he is a
calm, rational man who does not become frightened
easily.
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display the answer.
11
Reading 2-D
Active Reading
D
Question
What does the narrator say about the people of
Poker Flat in his claim that they judge only by
easily established standards of evil?
He implies that the people of Poker Flat are not
inclinedor are not philosophically sophisticated
enoughto look past labels or professions to see
whether people are good or bad.
As you read, decide whether you should judge the
outcasts based on the sentiments of the secret
committee.
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display the answer.
12
Reading 2-E
Authors Craft
E
Descriptive Language Note that, befitting
Oakhursts profession as a gambler, Harte uses
gambling terms to describe his approach to life.
13
Reading 2-F
Critical Thinking
F
Drawing Conclusions
What can you conclude about the Duchess, Mother
Shipton, Mr. Oakhurst, and Uncle Billy based on
each characters actions as they leave Poker Flat?
The Duchess is fearful and proud Mother Shipton
is mean and callous Uncle Billy is crude and
Mr. Oakhurst is calm and generous.
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display the answer.
14
Reading 2-G
Literary Elements
G
Theme Naturalists believe that nature is a
powerful, indifferent force in peoples lives.
The cold, wild images of the mountain pass
indicate that nature will be a similar force in
the lives of the outcasts.
15
Reading 2-H
Authors Craft
H
Foreshadowing Oakhurst is hesitant to stop at the
wooded amphitheatre.
How does the author use Oakhursts reluctance to
foreshadow events to come?
Oakhursts thoughts warn the reader that danger
lies ahead. Oakhurst knows that they do not have
enough provisions to stop, yet they stop anyway.
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display the answer.
16
Reading 2-I
Active Reading
I
Evaluate Evaluate the towns decision to oust Mr.
Oakhurst.
Based on what you have read so far, do you think
this was a fair decision?
Possible answer Oakhursts actions seem to
provide no cause for his expulsion. Perhaps the
committee members are motivated by their gambling
losses.
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display the answer.
17
Reading 2-J
Literary Elements
J
Character Think about the change in the Duchesss
demeanor after Piney Woods arrives. The mood
among all the outcasts has changed since the
arrival of Piney and Tom.
18
Reading 2-K
Authors Craft
K
Setting Note the language Harte uses to describe
the setting in which the party has encamped. He
says the wind moaned through the pine trees
long and gloomy aisles. The language helps set
the bleak tone and highlights the devastating
effects of nature on the outcasts.
19
Reading 2-L
Active Reading
L
Question
Why does Mr. Oakhurst decide not to awaken the
others when he realizes what Uncle Billy has done?
Once he discovers that Uncle Billy has stolen the
animals, he realizes that there is no point in
awakening and alarming the others.
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display the answer.
20
Reading 2-M
Literary Elements
M
Setting
How does the mood of the outcasts contrast with
the setting during the storm?
The jovial mood of the outcasts is juxtaposed
with the violent images of the storm.
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display the answer.
21
Reading 2-N
Active Reading
N
Visualize Visualize the storm abating at
midnight, as the clouds part and the stars
glitter. Compare this calm image to the
tumultuous images of the storm in the preceding
passage.
22
Reading 2-O
Literary Elements
O
Theme Think about how Oakhursts sentiments about
life reflect the Naturalists belief that people
are helpless against fate (which Oakhurst, using
a gamblers language, refers to as luck).
23
Reading 2-P
Literary Elements
P
Personification Personification is a literary
term for the technique of endowing animals or
inanimate objects with human characteristics.
How does Harte personify the sun on the third
day?
He first describes it as looking through the
valley at the outcasts and then endows the sun
with a human emotion, referring to its regretful
commiseration.
Personification is particularly effective here
because one of the major conflicts in the story
is nature versus people.
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display the answer.
24
Reading 2-Q
Authors Craft
Q
Foreshadowing
How does Harte use foreshadowing when he
describes Mother Shipton cussing at Poker Flat?
He calls her cussing a final malediction. This
curse is Mother Shiptons last mean act before
her death.
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display the answer.
25
Reading 2-R
Active Reading
R
Question
Why might the outcasts seem so content after a
week in the cabin despite being trapped by the
snow?
The outcasts may enjoy each others company they
may not be willing to face the severity of their
situation.
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display the answer.
26
Reading 2-S
Critical Thinking
S
Evaluating The narrators statement on page 483
that Mother Shipton was once the strongest of
the party suggests that this is no longer true.
As you read the rest of the paragraph, consider
whether or not you agree.
27
Reading 2-T
Literary Elements
T
Character
How does Mother Shiptons decision to sacrifice
her food indicate a change in her character?
Her ultimate sacrifice indicates that she is no
longer as selfish or as uncaring as she once
appeared.
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display the answer.
28
Reading 2-U
Literary Elements
U
Setting Note the descriptions of the setting
after the storm abatesthe wind lulled, the
snow flew like white winged birds, and the
spotless mantle mercifully flung.
What do these descriptions reveal about the
conflict between nature and the outcasts?
Nature is now calm and peaceful because it has
been victorious.
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display the answer.
29
Reading 2-V
Literary Elements
V
Symbolism At the end of the story, Harte presents
an image of the women, frozen, with peaceful
expressions on their faces.
What might this symbolize?
In death they are innocent. The people who
discovered them could scarcely have told which
was she that had sinned.
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display the answer.
30
Responding 2 Contents
Personal Response Analyzing Literature Literary
Elements Literature and Writing Skill Minilessons
Click a hyperlink to go to the corresponding
content area.
31
Response 2-1
PERSONAL RESPONSE
Did the ending of the story surprise you? Why or
why not?
32
Analyzing 2-1
RECALL
What has the secret committee of Poker Flat
decided to do? Why? How is this decision carried
out?
The committee banishes all improper persons
because the town has suffered losses. The
outcasts are marched to the outskirts of town and
told not to return.
INTERPRET
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display the next question.
What is the narrators tone, or attitude, toward
Poker Flats secret committee and its improper
persons? What words convey that tone?
His tone is bitter he emphasizes their hypocrisy
by their spasm of virtuous reaction,
unfamiliarity with Sabbath influences, and
lawless and ungovernable action.
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display the answer.
33
Analyzing 2-2
RECALL
Summarize what happens on the outcasts first day
together.
They head toward Sandy Bar, but stop when the
Duchess declares she can go no farther. They make
camp and are joined by Tom Simson and his
fiancée, who are coming from Sandy Bar. Tom
points out an old cabin, where the women sleep
the first night.
INTERPRET
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display the next question.
What can you infer about Mr. Oakhursts
character, based on the way he treats Tom and
Piney?
He is honorable because he tries to stop them
from delaying their trip and endangering their
lives.
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display the answer.
34
Analyzing 2-3
RECALL
What happens on the second day in camp?
Uncle Billy has stolen the animals the outcasts
are snowed in they fix up the cabin and get
through the day by entertaining each other.
INTERPRET
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display the next question.
What do you learn about the characters, based on
the way each one behaves on the second day in
camp?
Oakhurst is protective he doesnt tell Simson
and Piney about Uncle Billy. Tom is naive and
generous he offers the cabin to the outcasts.
Piney is naive and good natured.
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display the answer.
35
Analyzing 2-4
RECALL
What happens to Mother Shipton? Why? What actions
does Mr. Oakhurst take in the last part of the
story?
Mother Shipton dies of starvation, having saved
her food for Piney. Oakhurst kisses the Duchess,
leaves, and shoots himself.
INTERPRET
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display the next question.
What do you think the narrator means when he says
that Oakhurst is at once the strongest and yet
the weakest of the outcasts?
He is strong because he assumes leadership and
because he remains calm and rational. He is weak
because he kills himself.
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display the answer.
36
Analyzing 2-5
RECALL
When the people from Poker Flat arrive at the
camp, what do they find?
They find Piney and the Duchess dead in the cabin
and Oakhurst dead under a tree.
INTERPRET
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to
display the next question.
In your opinion, what message, or lesson, does
this story convey? Support your ideas, using
details from the selection.
Possible answer Hard times bring out the best in
people. (Mother Shipton sacrifices herself,
Oakhurst behaves selflessly, and the Duchess
finds peace.)
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display the answer.
37
Analyzing 2-6
EVALUATE AND CONNECT
Which story character or characters do you admire
the most? the least? Give reasons for your
answers.
38
Analyzing 2-7
EVALUATE AND CONNECT
How does the author use foreshadowing to help
prepare the reader for future events? Give
specific examples.
The ominous tone of the first paragraph
foreshadows future events. The party is not
equipped for delay, foreshadowing their
difficulties.
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display the answer.
39
Analyzing 2-8
EVALUATE AND CONNECT
Do you think the secret committee of Poker Flat
is justified in acting as it does? Why or why not?
Possible answer The committee is hypocritical.
They oust Oakhurst, though many of them also
gambled.
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display the answer.
40
Analyzing 2-9
EVALUATE AND CONNECT
Which story characters resemble the stereotypical
characters youve seen in films or television
series about the Old West? Explain.
Possible answer The Duchess is the call girl,
Oakhurst the hero, Uncle Billy the cheating
drunk, and Piney Woods the ingenue (innocent or
unsophisticated girl).
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41
Analyzing 2-10
EVALUATE AND CONNECT
Do you believe that people are sometimes capable
of acting in a completely unselfish wayeven
sacrificing themselves for the good of others?
Explain.
42
Elements 2-1
LITERARY ELEMENTS
  • A character is a person in a literary work. ?
  • Some characters are flatthat is, they reveal or
    represent a single personality trait.
    Stereotypes, or stock characters, such as the
    noble hero or the innocent young lover, are
    usually flat characters. ?
  • A round character, on the other hand, shows
    varied and sometimes contradictory traits just
    as real people do. ?
  • A static character remains mostly the same
    throughout a story a dynamic character grows and
    changes.

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43
Elements 2-2
LITERARY ELEMENTS
What flat characters does Harte create in this
story? What personality trait does each character
reveal or represent?
Uncle Billy represents selfishness and cowardice
Tom represents naivete Piney represents
innocence.
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display the answer.
44
Elements 2-3
LITERARY ELEMENTS
Who are the round characters in this story? What
varied and contradictory traits does each one
exhibit?
Mr. Oakhurst is both strong and weak Mother
Shipton is both mean and generous the Duchess is
both worldly and childlike.
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display the answer.
45
Elements 2-4
LITERARY ELEMENTS
Who are the static characters? Who are the
dynamic characters? Explain your choices.
Uncle Billy, Tom, and Piney are static Mother
Shipton, the Duchess, and Oakhurst are dynamic.
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display the answer.
46
Lit Writing 2
Analyzing Local Color
When writers evoke a particular region by
re-creating the language, customs, and geography
of the area, they use a technique called local
color. In a few paragraphs, analyze how Harte
uses local color in The Outcasts of Poker Flat.
Explain how local color adds to your
understanding of the story.
47
Minilesson 2-1
Practice Use a dictionary to find the etymology,
or history, of each of the following words from
The Outcasts of Poker Flat.
1. gulch
perhaps from an English dialect gulch to gulp
from the Middle English gulchen
2. bellicose
from the Middle English, from the Latin
billicosus, from bellicus, of war, from bellum war
3. castanet
from the Spanish, from castaña meaning chestnut,
from the Latin castanea, from the Greek kastanea
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48
Minilesson 2-2
Practice Use a dictionary to find the etymology,
or history, of each of the following words from
The Outcasts of Poker Flat.
4. pastoral
from the Middle English, from the Latin
pastoralis, from pastor herdsman
5. pariah
from the Tamil (Indian), paraiyan drummer
6. impropriety
from the French, impropriété, or Latin,
improprietat
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display the answers.
49
Minilesson 2-3
Practice Use a dictionary to find the etymology,
or history, of each of the following words from
The Outcasts of Poker Flat.
7. malevolent
from Latin, malevolentfrom male, badly, and
velle, to wish
8. equanimity
from the Latin, aequanimitas or French aequo
animo, with even mind
9. jocular
from Latin, jocularis
10. hypothesis
from Greek, hypotithenai
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50
Gram. Lang. 2-1
51
Gram. Lang. 2-2
active
passive
passive
52
Literary Elements Trans. 2-2
?
?
sweet, innocent, naive
smooth, forceful, weak, thoughtful, capable of
leadership
?
?
rough, prone to emotional outbursts, uses foul
language, mean, yet shows a flicker of altruism
at the end
?
?
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