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Chap. 13 Habitat degradation

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Title: Chap. 13 Habitat degradation


1
Chap. 13 Habitat degradation
Essentials of Ecology 3rd. Ed.
  • ??? (Ayo)
  • ?????? ???????
  • ?????? ??? (2008)

2
Habitat degradation
  • 13.1 introduction
  • 13.2 Degradation via cultivation
  • 13.3 power generation and its diverse effects
  • 13.4 degradation in urban and industrial
    landscapes
  • 13.5 maintenance and restoration of ecosystem
    services

3
13.1 Introduction
  • 13.1.1 Physical and chemical impacts of human
    activities
  • Physical degradation of habitats includes soil
    loss and desertization caused by intensive
    agriculture and changes to river discharge as a
    result of water impoundment for hydropower
    generation or abstraction for irrigation of crops
  • Chemical degradation (DDT)
  • 13.2 Economic costs of human impacts lost
    ecosystem services

4
  • Fig. 13.1 Graph showing the changes in
    sparrowhawk eggshell thickness in Britain.

5
Fig. 5. DDT gets praise from an advertisement in
the June 30, 1947, issue of Time.
6
DDT ????
  • DDT Dichloro-Dipheny-Trichloroethane
  • ??-??-????
  • DDT??????
  • ???????1874?
  • ?1939?,????????? (Paul Muller)
  • ?????????1940?????
  • 1948? Paul Muller ???1939??????????????

7
DDT??????
  • 1947??,DDT??????????
  • 1957?,???????DDT?????,???????
  • 1962?,Rachel Carson ?Silent Spring
  • 1963?5?,????????????DDT????????
  • 1967?,DDT??????????
  • 1972?6?14?,???9,312?(??125?????)???,??350???????,?
    ?????????,?????

8
  • Acid rain damage to spruce forest.

9
Economic costs of human impacts
  • Biodiversity has intrinsic value.
  • Provisioning (??), cultural (??), regulating (??)
    and supporting (??) services (??)
  • Costanza et al. (1997) added up all ecosystem
    services worldwide, arriving at an estimate of
    US38 trillion (1012)
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