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The Hebrews


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Title: The Hebrews

The Hebrews
  • Chapter 3, Section 2

Ark of the Covenant
The Hebrews
  • Many people accept the Bible as a collection of
    sacred writings. How might it also be an
    historical document?

The Hebrews
  • Give examples of documents that historians might
    use to piece together the story of a person or

The Hebrews
  • Unlike other groups living in the Canaan,
    believed in one all-powerful God.
  • Yahweh, Elohim" (God), El Shaddai" (God
  • This teaching exists today as Judaism.
  • Judaism has influenced two other monotheistic
    religions, Christianity and Islam.

The Hebrews
The Land of Canaan
  • Abraham
  • lived in the city of Ur
  • around 1900 B.C. he left and settled in the
  • Hebrews believed that God made a covenant with
    Abraham at this time.
  • I will make of you a great nation was Gods
    promise to bless Abraham and his descendants if
    they would remain faithful to God.

The Patriarchs (father ruler) Abraham
  • Abraham and his descendants are selected by
    Yahweh to be his chosen people over all other
  • Abraham, who is a Semite living in Haran, a city
    in northern Mesopotamia, and whose father, Terah,
    comes from the city Ur in southern Mesopotamia,
    is visited suddenly by Yahweh and told to move
    his family.

Abram tried to convince his father, Tera, of the
folly of idol worship. One day, when Abram was
left alone to mind the store, he took a hammer
and smashed all of the idols except the largest
one. He placed the hammer in the hand of the
largest idol. When his father returned and asked
what happened, Abram said, "The idols got into a
fight, and the big one smashed all the other
ones." His father said, "Don't be ridiculous.
These idols have no life or power. They can't do
anything." Abram replied, "Then why do you
worship them?"
Abrahams journey
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  • Isaac was the subject of the most difficult test
    of Abraham's faith G-d commanded Abraham to
    sacrifice Isaac as a burnt offering. (Gen 22).
    This test is known in Jewish tradition as the
    Akeidah (the Binding, a reference to the fact
    that Isaac was bound on the altar).

  • Jacob and Esau
  • Rachel and Leah
  • Jacob (Israel) wrestled with God
  • 12 sons and grandsons become the fathers of the
    12 tribes of Israel

  • Interpreter of dreams
  • Coat of many colors
  • Sold into slavery
  • Prime Minister of Egypt

The Hebrews Review
  • Abraham
  • Isaac
  • Jacob
  • Joseph

The Hebrews
The Exodus from Egypt
  • Severe drought struck the Canaan and the
    Israelites migrated to Egypt perhaps during the
    time in which the Hyksos ruled.
  • They lived peacefully in Egypt until the
    pharaohs enslaved them.

The Hebrews
In Egypt
  • At some point during the Hebrew stay in Egypt,
    they become enslaved by the Egyptians.
  • This is most likely during the expulsion of the
    Hyksos at the end of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom.

The Hebrews
The Exodus
  • Hebrew people released after a series of ten
    plagues, the last of which took the life of
    every firstborn son.
  • Families which prepared for the Passover of the
    angel of death were spared.

The Hebrews
  • The story of Moses is told in the book of Exodus.
  • The Exodus
  • The Law

The Hebrews
The Exodus
  • During the exodus from Egypt, the Hebrew people
    are taught by Moses (upon instruction from God)
    how they are to live.
  • Ten Commandments
  • Became major part of Western moral and ethical

The Hebrews
The Torah
  • Genesis (the beginning)
  • Exodus (the exit)
  • Leviticus (instructions for Levites/priests)
  • Numbers (first census)
  • Deuteronomy (teaching of Moses)

The Hebrews
The Promised Land
  • Moses died before reaching the Canaan, but chose
    Joshua to lead the 12 tribes into Promised land.
  • Joshua leads a fighting force to reclaim land
  • After wars, Israelite soldiers become farmers,
  • Divide land among 12 tribes.

Twelve Tribes
Settling the Promised Land
  • Joshua

The Period of the Judges
  • No single Israelite leader during 200 years of
  • Respected male and female judges used as
  • Gideon, Samson, Deborah, Samuel
  • First judges were military, later were more legal
  • Strong judges kept tribes united
  • Weak judges led to some tribes turning to other

The Judges
  • 1. Othniel (37-11)
  • a. brother of Caleb b. defeated the Arameans
    the spirit of the Lord was on him
  • 2. Ehud (312-30)
  • a. left-handed b. killed Eglon, king of Moab, by
  • 3. Shamgar (331, 56)
  • a. fought against the Philistines
  • 4. Deborah (4-5)
  • a. woman tribal leader, both military and
    legal b. campaigned against Sisera, Canaanite
    general under Jabin, the King of Hazor c. Barak
    was military leader under Deborah d. Jael, a
    Kenite woman, killed Sisera as he fled

  • 5. Gideon (6-8)
  • a. came from a family of Baal worshippers b.
    afraid to trust God, portrayed as an arrogant
    coward c. God gave him a plan to defeat the
    Midianites d. ended up worshipping Baal
  • 6. Abimelech (9)
  • a. not a judge, attempted to make himself king
    but failed
  • 7. Minor Judges Tola and Jair (101-5)
  • 8. Jephthah (106-127)
  • a. illegitimate child and an outcast b. fought
    against the Ammonites c. made a rash vow that led
    to the sacrifice of his only child (see Jepthah's
    Rash Vow)

  • 9. Minor Judges Ibzan, Elon, Abdon (128-15)
  • 10. Samson (13-16)
  • a. born to a barren woman by promise b. was a
    Nazarite, but broke his vows c. was a womanizer
    and a drunk d. God helped him bring relief from
    the Philistines e. his fatal attraction to

The Hebrews
The Hebrews
Hebrew Monarchy Samuel, Saul and David
  • Samuel, last of the judges, anoints Saul as
    first king
  • Saul, first King of Israel
  • Location of palace at Gibeah
  • Brings Israel into conflict with sea-peoples
  • Killed in battle against Philistines with his son

The Hebrews
  • Second King of Israel
  • Anointed by Samuel
  • Shepherd boy/musician
  • David vs. Goliath
  • Friendship with Sauls son
  • Moves to the capital to Jerusalem (city of David)
  • Relationship with Bathsheba
  • Makes plans for Temple
  • Chooses Solomon successor

The Hebrews
  • Renowned for his wisdom
  • Thousand wives and concubines and the visit of
    the queen of Sheba
  • Built elaborate temple as permanent home for Ark
    of the Covenant

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The Hebrews
Israel and Judah
  • 922 Solomon dies, son faces rebellion
  • Northern tribes demanded less taxes and an end to
    forced labour.
  • Kingdom split into northern Israel, southern
    Judah (with Jerusalem)

Division of Israel and Judah
Five years after the death of Solomon, Jerusalem
was ransacked by the Egyptians, the kingdom split
into two north and south.
Division of Israel and Judah
  • Northern capital moved to Samaria
  • northern ten tribes
  • King Ahab, with his queen Jezebel, moves to
    incorporate foreign gods into Israel
  • 722 B.C. Israel falls to Assyria Israelites
    deported (lost tribes of Israel)

The Assyrians, who conquer northern Israel,
introduce a new way of dealing with vanquished
nations. Exile.
  • The Assyrians bring in a group of people from
    someplace else, who -- because they are now
    living in Shomron or Samaria -- come to be known
    as Samaritans.
  • The Samaritans are people who more or less adopt
    Judaism, but not completely. Because of this,
    they are never really accepted by the Jewish
    people, and they're very resentful.

Division of Israel and Judah
  • Southern capital remained in Jerusalem
  • two southern tribes of Judah and Benjamin
  • Judah pays tribute to Assyria upon fall of Israel

14th king after King David, and he rules from 590
to 561 BC.
  • And he did what was right in the eyes of the
    Lord, like all that his father David had done.
    And he trusted in the God of Israel. There was
    none like him among all the kings of Judah who
    were after him, nor were there before him. (2
    Kings 183-5)

  • Rebuilds fortifications of Jerusalem
  • Assyrians under Sennacharib, lay seige but do not
  • ... Hezekiah himself I shut up in Jerusalem, his
    capital city, like a bird in a cage, building
    towers round the city to hem him in...
  • a plague hits their camp and 185,000 Assyrian
    soldiers die overnight.
  • Sennacherib returns to Ninevah.

  • 722 BC Assyria conquers and ends Kingdom of
  • Assyrian Empire conquered by Babylonians 612 BC
  • Babylonias King Nebuchadnezzar captures
    Jerusalem in 586 BC
  • Destroy the temple
  • Take thousands of slaves to Babylon

The Hebrews
  • Jewish survivors and those who have returned to
    the homeland, led by various prophets (Haggai,
    Zecharia, and Nehemia) struggle to rebuild the
    temple and city of Jerusalem.
  • Jewish leaders speak of a deliverer or messiah
    who will lead and restore Israel.

The Hebrews
Hebrew Timeline
  • 2100 - 1900 BC Abraham and descendants live
    nomadic life
    in Canaan
  • 1900 - 1500 BC Hebrews live in Egypt
  • 1400 BC Hebrews leave Egypt and,
    Joshua, invade Canaan
  • 1040 BC First Kings Saul, David

The Hebrews
Hebrew History Timeline Cont.
  • 930 BC Kingdom divides into North
    (Israel) and
    South (Judah)
  • 722 BC Israel conquered by Assyria,
    people taken
    into captivity
  • 586 BC Babylonian army destroys
  • 539 BC Babylonian empire falls
    Persians and Cyrus allows Jews
    to return home

586 B.C. Jerusalem falls to Nebuchadnezzar of
  • people of Judah (Jews), deported to Babylon
  • Babylonians set up puppet king, Zedekiah, to
  • Jews revolt and the Temple is destroyed by the

Babylonian Exile
By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down, we
also wept, when we remembered Zion. We hung our
lyres on the willows in its midst. For there
those who carried us away captive required of us
a song and those who tormented us required of us
mirth, saying, Sing us one of the songs of
Zion. How shall we sing the Lord's song in a
foreign land? If I forget you, O Jerusalem, let
my right hand forget her cunning. If I do not
remember you, let my tongue cleave to the roof of
my mouth if I do not set Jerusalem above my
highest joy. (Psalms 1371-6)
Nebuchadnezzar to Belshazar
  • Daniel in the lions den.
  • Daniel survives, prompting Nebuchadnezzar to
    issue a decree forbidding anyone to blaspheme the
    God of Israel.
  • Writing on the wall.
  • The last king of Babylon, Belshazzar thinks he
    has outdone the God of Israel when the seventy
    years are over.

  • "And this whole land of Israel shall be a ruin,
    and a waste, and these nations the tribes of
    Israel shall serve the king of Babylon seventy
    years. And it shall come to pass, when the
    seventy years are fulfilled, that I will punish
    the king of Babylon ..." (Jeremiah 2511-12)

Daniel has no trouble reading the writing on the
wall. It says
They counted the years wrong.
  • "God has numbered the days of your kingdom and
    brought it to an end ... your kingdom has been
    divided and given to the Medes and Persians."
    (Daniel 525-28)
  • That very night invading hoards of Persians and
    Medes attack. The king and all his party are
    killed. Only Nebuchadnezzar's grand-daughter,
    Vashti, survives.

The armies of Medes under Darius and the armies
of Persia under Cyrus march into Babylon and
conquer it. The Babylonian Empire ceases to exist
and it is now absorbed by the new Persian Empire.
  • In 370 BC Cyrus issues a decree allowing all the
    indigenous peoples that had been exiled by the
    now-defunct Babylonian empire to go back to their
  • Of the million Jews living in Persia, only a
    handful (42,000) return

Queen Vashti
Granddaughter of Nebuchadnezzar, wife of
Achashverosh (Xerxes I)
  • After some drunken revelry featuring (yet again)
    the Temple vessels, the king orders his wife to
    appear wearing nothing besides the royal crown.
    She refuses to come and he has her executed.
  • Queenless, scouts are sent throughout the land to
    find the most beautiful woman.

Queen Esther
Haman is the advisor to the King.
  • Haman gets the king to agree to issue a secret
    decree to annihilate the Jews of Persia on the
    13th day of the Hebrew month of Adar.
  • He chooses this day by throwing lots (purim).
  • Things get turned around for Haman, and he ends
    up hanging on the gallows he had prepared for the

Darius II
Allows Jews to rebuild the temple.
  • Ezra emerges as a Jewish leader to keep the
    people on task and pure. (No intermarriage.)
  • 2nd Temple Period
  • Increase in amount of Priests

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To the Greeks, what was beautiful was holy to
the Jews, what was holy was beautiful. These
views were bound to clash.
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