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Developmental Psychology


Developmental Psychology Unit 9 mention telomeres s dealing with question #14 Gender & Society Social Learning Theory: - The theory that we learn social behavior ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Developmental Psychology

Developmental Psychology
  • Unit 9

Essential Question
  • How do people develop physically, cognitively,
    socially, and morally throughout the lifespan?

Infancy Childhood Day1
Do Now
  • Babies think and act differently than we do.
    Describe a situation where you observed this
    infantile mindset. What was different than that
    of an adult mind?

Prenatal Development the Newborn
  • Sperm and egg cells fuse into a zygote
  • Over time, the zygote becomes an embryo, where
    organs begin to be formed. The X and Y
    Chromosomes determine the sex of the child X
    means female, Y results in male
  • Then, the unborn child becomes a fetus, which it
    will remain until birth. They can begin to hear
    outside voices

Prenatal Development the Newborn
  • The fetus can be exposed to teratogens, outside
    chemicals or viruses
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome occurs if the fetus is
    exposed to alcohol

The Competent Newborn
  • Newborns look for faces, as well turn their heads
    towards sounds
  • They can recognize familiar voices, and respond
    to those they know well
  • Habituation
  • decreasing responsiveness with repeated

Physical Development
  • The brain is mostly formed at birth. The frontal
    lobe develops the most after birth, however
  • Maturation
  • Biological growth processes that enable orderly
    changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by
  • Most infants learn to walk by 15 months
  • Due to unfinished development in the hippocampus
    and frontal lobes, we experience infantile
    amnesia, which is why we cannot remember much
    before the age of 5

Cognitive Development
  • Older we get, more schemas we build
  • Assimilate interpreting new info with
    already-existing schemas
  • Accomodate adapting old schemas to incorporate
    new info

Cognitive Development
Cognitive Development
  • Lev Vygotsky
  • Believed language was important for social
    mentoring, building blocks for thinking

  • What is object permanence?
  • What is conservation?
  • At what age can a child think abstractly?
  • How does one fit information into their schemas

Infancy Childhood Day2
Social Development
  • Stranger Anxiety
  • The fear of strangers that infants commonly
    display, beginning by about 8 months of age.
  • Attachment
  • An emotional tie with another person shown in
    young children by their seeking closeness to
    the caregiver and showing distress on separation.

Social Development
  • Harry Harlows Experiment (1971)
  • Infants bond with surrogate mothers because of
    bodily contact not because of nourishment.
  • Critical Period
  • An optimal period shortly after birth when an
    organism's exposure to certain stimuli or
    experiences produces proper development.
  • E.g. Newborns exposure to breastfeeding

Social Development
  • Attachment Differences
  • Secure Attachment
  • Caused by careful sensitivity and responsiveness
    when the infant is very young. They grow up with
    a sense of basic trust
  • a sense that the world is predictable and
  • Insecure Attachment
  • Caused by apathetic parenting. Tends to have a
    worse sense of trust, and avoid attachment.

Social Development
  • Secure Attachment vs. Insecure Attachment
  • 60 of infants display secure attachment when
    placed in unfamiliar environments.
  • e.g. Infants happily explore environment in the
    presence of their mother. When mother leaves
    signs of distress are evident in infants.
  • 30 of infants show insecure attachment when
    placed in same settings.
  • e.g. Infants cling to their mothers or caregivers
    and are less likely to explore environment.

Social Development
  • Attachment Deprivation
  • When deprived from attachment, children tend to
    grow into more aggressive and abusive adults.
  • Similarly, when taken from a loved one, children
    have difficult times eating, sleeping, or getting
    along with others.

Social Development
  • Imprinting
  • The process by which certain animals form
    attachments during a critical period very early
    in life.
  • Konrad Lorenz
  • -Discovered imprinting by observing newly
    hatched ducklings
  • -Special type of learning.

Social Development
  • Self-Concept
  • All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves,
    in answer to the question, Who am I?
  • Stages of Self-Concept
  • Infancy attachment
  • Younger children positive sense of self,
  • End of childhood (around 12 yrs old) Awareness
    of Self Concept
  • Children's views of themselves affect their
  • How can parents encourage a positive, realistic
  • G. Stanley Hall Stress and Storm of

Social Development
  • Parenting Styles
  • 1. Authoritarian
  • Parents impose as expect obedience
  • 2. Permissive
  • Parents submit to their children's desires. They
    make few demands and use little punishment.
  • 3. Authoritative
  • Parents are both demanding and responsive. They
    use control through rules, but also explain the
    reason for the control. They encourage open
    discussion when making rules and allow
  • association between certain parenting styles and
    certain childhood outcomes is CORRELATION.
    Correlation is not causation

  • What is an example of imprinting?
  • Define Self- Concept.
  • Name and describe the 3 type of Parenting Styles.

Adolescence Day3
Do-Now (Discussion)
  • What do you associate with adolescence?
  • What physical, cognitive, and social changes mark

  • Adolescence
  • The transition period from childhood to
    adulthood, extending from puberty to
  • Puberty
  • The period of sexual maturation, during which a
    person becomes capable of reproducing.

Physical Development
  • Primary sex characteristics include reproductive
    organs and external genetalia.
  • Girls ovaries, vagina, estrogen
  • Boys testes, penis, testosterone
  • Secondary sex characteristics are non
    reproductive traits.
  • Girls breasts, wide hips
  • Boys facial hair, deepened voice
  • Menarche
  • First menstrual period, often known as the
    menstrual cycle.

Physical Development
  • As teens mature, development of frontal lobes
  • -Improved judgement
  • -Impulse control
  • -Ability to plan for long term
  • Frontal lobe maturation lags the emotional limbic
  • -Compulsiveness
  • -Risky behaviors

Cognitive Development
  • Finding sense of morality
  • Haidt gut feeling, social institutionist
  • Piaget morals build with cognitive development
  • Kohlberg moral reasoning
  • adolescents develop a capacity for formal
    operation and that this development is the
    foundation for moral judgment

Cognitive Development
  • Kohlbergs moral reasoning development
  • preconventional pre age 9, self interest, follow
    rules to gain/avoid something
  • conventional early adolescence, caring for
    others, follow rules because theyre rules
  • postconventional self-defined ethical set of
    right and wrong
  • http//

Social Development
  • Erik Erikson believed each stage of life has a
    psychosocial crisis
  • Adolescence stage
  • search for identity (sense of self) and social
    identity (answers Who am I? in terms of group
  • search for intimacy
  • separation from parents

Social Development
  • Emerging Adulthood

  • Gender
  • The biologically and socially influenced
    characteristics by which people define male
  • Role
  • A set of expectations (norms) about a social
    position, defining how those in the position
    ought to behave.
  • Gender Role
  • A set of expected behaviors for males females.

Gender Society
  • Gender Identity
  • Our sense of being male or female.
  • Gender Typing
  • The acquisition of a traditional masculine or
    feminine role.
  • e.g. Stay at Home Mom Coal Mining
  • .VS.
  • Coal Mining Mom Stay at Home

Gender Society
  • Social Learning Theory
  • - The theory that we learn social behavior by
    observing and imitating and by being rewarded
    or punished.
  • - Children learn gender-linked behaviors by
  • E.g. Girls play with dolls
  • Boys dont cry!

  • What is the social learning theory?
  • Why do teens indulge in risky behaviors?
  • Difference between primary and secondary sex

Adulthood Day 4
Do Now
  • How has your perception of adults changed from
    young childhood to now?
  • What makes someone an adult?
  • How do you know someone is an adult? Is it their
    age? Their attitude? Looks?

Physical Development
  • Middle Adulthood
  • Aging gradual decline in fertility
  • Females go through menopause around age 50
  • natural end of menstruation
  • takes an emotional toll on women
  • Men
  • sperm count decline
  • testosterone level decrease
  • ejaculation/erection frequency and speed decrease

Physical Development
  • Later Life
  • society is focusing on retirement homes, home
    nurses, and retirement funds because life
    expectancy is increasing
  • Spirit and gender affects length of life
  • Chronic anger and depression increase our risk of
    ill health and premature death
  • Death-Deferral Phenomenon
  • What is Death?
  • Cells stop reproducing
  • body is frail and vulnerable to infection

Physical Development
  • immune system weakens
  • brain neurons slow
  • memory areas decline
  • frontal lobes decline
  • Sensory abilities diminish
  • vision pupil shrinks, lens becomes less

Physical Development
  • Dementia Alzheimers
  • A series of smalls strokes, a brain tumor, or
    alcohol dependence can damage the brain and cause
    mental erosion called dementia and Alzheimer's
  • Alzheimer's destroys the brightest of
  • (Loss of brain cells and neuronal deterioration
    that produce acetylcholine which is necessary for
    memory and thinking)
  • First memory deteriorates
  • reasoning deteriorates
  • becomes emotionally flat
  • disoriented ? disinhibited ? incontinent ?
    mentally vacant

Cognitive Development
  • As age increases, recent past events events
    that happened a decade or two back are more
    likely to be remembered.
  • Recalling names become increasingly difficult.
  • Recognition memory does not decline with age.
  • Meaningful material that is recalled better than
    meaningless material.

Cognitive Development
  • Crystallized Intelligence
  • Our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills which
    tend to increase with age.
  • e.g. The older we get, the wiser we become.
  • Fluid Intelligence
  • Our ability to reason speedily and abstractly.
    This type of intelligence tends to decrease
    during late adulthood.
  • e.g. Problem Solving

Adulthood's Ages and Stages
  • People entering their 40s go through a period
    called midlife transition
  • The social clock varies from era to era and
    culture to culture
  • Social clock
  • the culturally preferred timing of social events
    such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
  • Chance events have lasting significance because
    they often deflect us down one road rather than

Adulthood's Commitments
  • Love
  • Evolutionary perspective relatively monogamous
    pairing makes sense parents who cooperated to
    nurture their child to maturity were more likely
    to have their genes passed along to posterity
    than were parents who didn't
  • Couples who get married/civil union more often
  • Love bears children -gt children absorb
    time/money/energy and satisfaction in marriage
    may decline-gt children eventually leave home
  • http//
  • Work
  • Who are you? -gt What do you do?
  • Happiness is about having work that fits your

Reflections on Two Major Developmental Issues
  • Stability and Change
  • First 2 years of life provide little basis for
    predicting a persons eventual traits
  • As people grow older, personality gradually
  • stability change necessary for life

  • What physical changes happen during adulthood?
  • What happens to the brain in late adulthood?
  • What is the role of work and love in adulthood?