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Equity- Equality- Inclusion: Normative principles in development

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Equity- Equality- Inclusion: Normative principles in development Gabriele K hler Development economist, Munich Visiting Fellow, IDS, Sussex office_at_gabrielekoehler.net – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Equity- Equality- Inclusion: Normative principles in development


1
Equity- Equality- Inclusion Normative
principles in development
  • Gabriele Köhler
  • Development economist, Munich
  • Visiting Fellow, IDS, Sussex
  • office_at_gabrielekoehler.net
  • G.Koehler_at_ids.ac.uk
  • www.gabrielekoehler.net
  • Ludwig Maximilians University
  • PhD-Program International Health
  • Module I
  • Munich, 14 December 2011

2
Overview of presentation
  1. Normative framework
  2. Developmental role of human development, human
    rights, equity income poverty, human development
    concept, social exclusion
  3. Policies for human development, human rights,
    equity

3
I.) Normative frameworks
  • From physical investment to social capital from
    the UN development decades to human development
  • From the UNs social summits of the 1990s to the
    Millennium Declaration in 2000
  • From the Millenium Declaration to a new
    development constellation with multi-polar views
    and trends

4
I.) Normative frameworks
  • ?Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948
  • comprehensive normative framework
  • The 2 Covenants 1966
  • on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
  • on Civil and Political Rights
  • The Right to Development 1986
  • economic, social, cultural and political
    development
  • International Convention on the Elimination of
    All Forms of Racial Discrimination 1969 (CERD)
  • Convention on the Eradication of all Forms of
    Discrimination against Women 1979 (CEDAW)
  • Convention on the Rights of the Child 1990 (CRC)

5
I.) Normative frameworks
  • Recent developments Emergence of rights
    oriented conventions and instruments in the UN
    context
  • FAO 2004, Voluntary Guidelines to Support the
    Progressive Realization of the Right to Adequate
    Food in the Context of National Food Security -
    includes livelihoods and land reform
  • World Health Assembly 2008 - return to Alma Ata
    primary health care for all
  • Global Social Floor Initiative since 2009
    striving for an ILO Recommendation on Social
    Protection for all 2012
  • MDGs 2010 more emphasis on equity, inclusion,
    human rights
  • Special rapporteurs - experts of OHCHR combining
    the humanist with the intellectual

6
I.) Normative frameworks
  • The Office of the High Commissioner on Human
    Rights and the roles of the Special Rapporteurs
  • on poverty
  • the right to food
  • education
  • adequate housing
  • safe drinking water and sanitation
  • violence against women
  • right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest
    attainable standard of physical and mental
    health)
  • and other substantive areas.

7
II.) The developmental role of human development,
human rights, and equity
  • Income poverty
  • The concept of human development and some
    reflections
  • The concept of social exclusion

8
(1) Income poverty
  • Poverty is often defined as living below a
    defined poverty line, and halving poverty is one
    of the MDGs.

9
(1) Global income poverty
10
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11
Income poverty
  • But number of extremely poor in Sub-Saharan
    Africa and South Asia increased
  • using 1.25 per personday income poverty measure
  • Number of poor and vulnerable people
  • 2.5 billion persons
  • using 2 per personday income poverty measure

12
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13
(2) The concept of human development
  • A systematic examination of how human beings in
    each society live and what substantive freedoms
    they enjoy
  • A notion of the broadening of choices
  • Based on the idea that economic and social
    development matter

14
(2) The concept of human development
  • The Human Development Reports (HDRs) of UNDP in
    1990 introduced a 3-pronged definition of human
    development
  • Distinctive human development discourse
  • Longevity
  • Educational attainment
  • incomes
  • Concept adjusted for gender, for equity, and for
    multidimensional aspects of poverty
  • (UNDP Human Development Report 2010)

15
Worldwide trends in the Human Development Index,
1970-2010
16
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17
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18
Weak relationship between economic growth and
changes in health and education
19
Wellbeing
  • Different discourses
  • Wellbeing as objective, subjective and relational
  • Multidimensional poverty
  • Missing domains

20
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21
Absolute poverty in Asia, Europe and Latin
America
Sources World Bank (2009), Gallup (2010)
22
Absolute poverty in Africa
23
A success story?
  • A lower-middle income country
  • Average 5 annual growth rate since 1990
  • 60 of budget dedicated to social sectors
  • Nearly 100 primary enrollment in 2008
  • 80 health care coverage
  • Prudent public debt management (42.8 of GDP in
    2009)
  • 3 fiscal deficit
  • Inflation at approx. 3 in the 2000s

24
Tunisia
Source OECD/AfDB/UNECA (2010), African Economic
Outlook
25
Higher average incomes, better health and
improved education do not automatically mean
higher life satisfaction
26
3. The impact of social exclusion
  • Systematic social exclusions are the result of
    the intersecting inequalities
  • Cultural inequalities
  • Spatial inequalities
  • Economic inequalities
  • Political inequalities
  • The interaction of the exclusions explains the
    persistence of social exclusion over time. (
    Naila Kabeer)

27
Vectors of social exclusion
  • Income/economic class/ access to productive
    assets
  • Caste/clan
  • Ethnicity
  • Faith
  • Language
  • Health condition/communicable/visible diseases
  • Ability/disability
  • Geographic location/distance/urban vs rural
  • Citizenship and migration status
  • Condition of menstruation
  • Sexual orientation
  • Recurrent emergency situations
  • Conflict situation
  • Age

28
(3) Impact of Social Exclusion
  • MDG outcomes perform worse among socially
    excluded groups they need special measures to
    enable them to claim their rights to social
    services and public goods
  • Disparities based on social exclusion must be
    made more visible
  • Policies to address the inequities resulting from
    exclusion are needed

29
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30
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32
Intergenerational education impact on child
situations
33
Religious affiliation and deprivations, Bhutan
34
Literacy rate of population aged 15 years and
above by yearly HH income (Rural Myanmar)
  • Data Source Ohnmar, Than-Tun-Sein, Ko-Ko-Zaw,
    Saw-Saw and Soe-Win. Household Income, Health and
    Education in Rural Myanmar. SOUTHEAST ASIAN J
    TROP MED PUBLIC HEALTH Volume 36 No 2 March 2005
    , p532

35
Ethnic identity and school enrolment, Myanmar
  • Data Source IDMC (2003). Conflict, poverty and
    language difference behind low school attendance
    in the ethnic states. Access to Education. Found
    on http//www.internal-displacement.org/idmc/websi
    te/countries.nsf/(httpEnvelopes)/17362FE0A66DDFA38
    02570B8005AAA68?OpenDocument

36
III. Policies for human development, human
rights, and equity
37
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38
Promoting equity, equality and inclusion
  • Equality is the principle that all human beings
    are equal and have equal rights
  • Equity is a principle that refers to fairness of
    treatment according to needs and specific
    requirements.

39
Approaches to address income poverty
  • Employment and decent work as the key response
  • Agricultural development, land reform, and rural
    off-farm employment opportunities, access to
    agricultural inputs and to (micro-) credit
  • Social protection as a core mechanism social
    protection floors
  • Systematic income redistribution

40
New approaches to socio-economic policy decent
work agenda
  • Global jobs pact policies
  • Retain employed in employment/rapid
    reentry/sustain enterprises/maintain wage levels
  • Support job creation/investment in
    employment-intensive sectors/green jobs
  • Protect persons/families affected social
    protection
  • Enhance support to women, men, youth
  • Act simultaneously on labour demand and supply
  • Equip workers with skills for today and
    tomorrow
  • Use public employment guarantees, include
    informal economy
  • Increase investment in infrastructure, RD,
    public services and green production
  • Respect international labour standards

41
Social Protection Floor
42
Global social protection floor
  • Movement to adopt a social floor
    recommendation at 2012 ILO Conference
  • http//www.gopetition.com/petitions/signature-camp
    aign-social-protection-floor.html

43
Policy approaches to create equitable access to
social services
  • Ensure universal free social services delivery
  • underpinned by health insurance in the case of
    health services
  • Equitable access to services, geographically and
    socially
  • Ensure equal quality of services staffing,
    people skills and material resources
  • Ensure cultural sensitivity
  • Ensure transparent information
  • Enable inclusive participatory programming and
    participation
  • Valorise community-based services

44
Policy approaches to address exclusion
  • Include compensatory/reparatory measures to
    overcome generational exclusion redress
    mechanisms
  • Address on-going exclusion and discrimination-affi
    rmative action (reservation, representation,
    protective legislations, budget allocations,
    social protection cash transfers)
  • Protect against violence
  • Address impunity
  • Support public education to address
    discrimination and exclusion
  • Ensure inclusive health services
  • Change disparaging language and designations
  • Enable inclusive programming-empowerment

45
Policy approaches Universalism and targeting
  • Universalism is an approach in social policy that
    is rights based,and hence strives to cover all
    citizens with a social policy service or
    transfer, usually using taxes or other public
    resources to fund the intervention.
  • Targeting is a needs-based approach, covering
    those most vulnerable or the poorest as a
    priority, because funds are limited.

46
Emerging innovations in policy discourse
  • Multidimensional understanding of poverty
  • Attention to employment and decent work
  • Push for social protection social protection
    floors
  • Stronger emphasis on maternal and child health
  • Recognition social exclusion with much more focus
    on equity policies
  • A discussion of tax reform incl progressive
    taxation
  • Recognition of the role of agriculture, rural
    development and the need for some kind of land
    reform
  • Universalism, social contract, rights based
    approach
  • Acknowledgement of the role of the state

47
Emerging innovations in policy discourse
  • G20 Cannes final declaration (2011)
  • Global strategy for growth and jobs
  • Employment and social protection
  • More stable resilient international monetary
    system
  • Deepening financial sector reforms
  • Addressing food price volatility, increasing
    agricultural productivity
  • Improving functioning of energy markets
  • Pursuing fight against climate change
  • Reinforcing multilateral trading system
  • Development investing for global growth
  • Fight against corruption
  • Intensifying fight against corruption
  • Governance

48
Discussion Health policies and inequities
  • How to address inequities in access,
    affordability and coverage
  • What are the issues in your country
  • Advantages and disadvantages of either targeting
    or universal approaches
  • In general
  • In the health sector

49
References
  •  
  • Sabine Alkire 2011, Oxford Poverty Human
    Development Initiative OPHI. OPHI HDCA
    Summerschool 2011 Oxford Department of
    International Development. Queen Elizabeth House,
    University of Oxford. http//www.ophi.org.uk/teach
    ing/short-courses/2011-summerschool/
  • Michelle Bachelet 2011. Social protection floor
    for a fair and inclusive globalization. Report of
    the Advisory Group chaired by Michelle Bachelet
    Convened by the ILO with the collaboration of the
    WHO. ILO 2011. www.ilo.org
  • Johannes Jütting, Jan Rieländer, Christopher
    Garroway 2011. Social cohesion - a useful
    framework for assessing social progress in fast
    growing countries.. Powerpoint presentation based
    on Perspectives on Global Development 2012.
    Social Cohesion in a Shifting World. OECD
    Development Centre
  • Naila Kabeer, Can the MDGs provide a pathway to
    social justice. The challenge of intersecting
    inequalities. IDS and UN MDG Achievement Fund.
    2010. www.ids.ac.uk
  • Gabriele Köhler, Policies towards social
    inclusion. Global Social Policy. April 2009 pp.
    24-29, Sage publications (have requested
    journals permission for access)
  • Gabriele Köhler, Des Gasper, Richard Jolly, Mara
    Simane 2011. Deepening the MDGs human security.
    Conference on MDGs beyond 2015. German
    Development Institute. Bonn. November 2011.
    http//www.die-gdi.de/CMS-Homepage/openwebcms3_e.n
    sf/(ynDK_contentByKey)/MPHG-8JB9BB/FILE/2-220Koe
    hler20et20al20201120Human20security.pdf
  • UN. Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
    http//www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/
  • UN 1969. International Convention on the
    Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
    http//www2.ohchr.org/english/law/cerd.htm
  • UN 1979 Convention on the Eradication of all
    Forms of Discrimation against Women,
    http//www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/text/econve
    ntion.htm
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