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Title: Year 3 POMO Moving Images/Film


1
Year 3 POMO Moving Images/Film
2
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Peirce identified three kinds of basic
signs Symbol the signifier is purely
arbitrary or conventional (dependent on social
and cultural conventions) it
does not resemble the signified.
Examples alphabetical letters, numbers, traffic
signs. Icon the signifier is perceived
as resembling or imitating the signified, or
being similar to it in some of
its qualities. Examples a portrait, a model
airplane. Index the signifier is not
arbitrary but is directly connected in some way
(physically or causally)
to the signified in a way that can be observed or
inferred. Examples smoke (an
index of fire), footprints (an index of a passing
person), photographs and films
(the direct result of the imprint of light on a
sensitized surface). Signs do
not belong exclusively to one category there is
a great deal of overlap, and signs often have
characteristics of more than one of these
types. Example A photographic portrait is both
an index and an icon, because it is a direct
trace of the physical presence of the person (via
light) and because it resembles that person.
5
Meaning arises from the differences between
signifiers these differences are of two kinds
syntagmatic (concerning positioning) and
paradigmatic (concerning substitution). These two
dimensions are often presented as 'axes', where
the horizontal axis is the syntagmatic and the
vertical axis is the paradigmatic. The plane of
the syntagm is that of the combination of
'this-and-this-and-this' (as in the sentence,
'the man cried') The plane of the paradigm is
that of the selection or replacement of
'this-or-this-or-this. Syntagmatic relations are
possibilities of combination, paradigmatic
relations are functional contrasts - they involve
differentiation.
6
Paradigm - a class of objects or
concepts Syntagm - an element which
follows another in a particular sequence
Syntagms and paradigms provide a structural
context within which signs make sense they are
the structural forms through which signs are
organized into codes. In film and television,
paradigms include ways of changing shot (such as
cut, fade, dissolve and wipe). The medium or
genre are also paradigms, and particular media
texts derive meaning from the ways in which the
medium and genre used differs from the
alternatives. Roland Barthes outlined the
paradigmatic and syntagmatic elements of the
'garment system' in similar terms. The
paradigmatic elements are the items which cannot
be worn at the same time on the same part of the
body (such as hats, trousers, shoes). The
syntagmatic dimension is the juxtaposition of
different elements at the same time in a complete
ensemble from hat to shoes.
7
The photo is a sign. Its signifier is ink on
paper. Its signified is what in your language or
experience this corresponds with (the ink dots
look like a human figure, with dark skin, holding
his hand to his temple, wearing a hat.") The
sign is the two combined (A young, black French
soldier saluting).
Denotation connotation mythology
mediation naturalization The cover photograph
of issue 326 of Paris-Match
8
But Barthes says, I see very well what it
signifies to me that France is a great Empire,
that all her sons, without any colour
discrimination, faithfully serve under her flag,
and that there is no better answer to the
detractors of an alleged colonialism than the
zeal shown by this African in serving his
so-called oppressors. This is the second-order
signification. Form A young black soldier is
saluting in French uniform. Concept France is a
great Empire, that all her sons, without any
colour discrimination, faithfully serve under her
flag. Signification There is no better answer
to the detractors of an alleged colonialism than
the zeal shown by this African in serving his
so-called oppressors.
Denotation connotation mythology mediation
- naturalization The cover photograph of issue
326 of Paris-Match
9
An analogue is something that bears an analogy to
something else. An analogue is an analogan. At
first glance all analogical reproductions of
reality drawings, paintings, movies, theatre
performances seem to be a message without a code,
a denotative message. But each of these
messages or utterances develops in an immediate
or evident fashion, beyond the analogical content
itself, a supplementary message which is what we
commonly call the style of the reproduction. Here
we are concerned with a second meaning, whose
signifier is a certain treatment of the image as
a result of the creators action, and whose
signified, whether aesthetic or ideological,
refers to a certain "culture" of the society
receiving the message. In short, all these
imitative "arts" comprise two messages a denoted
message, which is the analogon itself, and a
connoted message, which is the way in which the
society represents, to a certain extent, what it
thinks of the analogon. Roland Barthes, The
Responsibility of Forms
10
intertextuality - any text depends on a host of
prior conventions, codes, other texts. The term
is sometimes used to refer to the unavoidable
multiplicity of references in any text sometimes
it is used to refer to deliberate references,
quotations or pastiches. In the first of these
senses, the intertext of Independence Day
includes all other films featuring alien attack,
the Prince of Bel-Air, Hollywood blockbusters
foregrounding special effects etc. In the
second sense, The Untouchables features a
conscious quotation from the Odessa Steps
sequence in Eisenstein's Battleship Potemkin,
Brian de Palma's Dressed to Kill features a
series of conscious references to Hitchcock's
Psycho etc.
11
Intermedia was a concept employed in the
mid-sixties by Fluxus artist Dick Higgins to
describe the ineffable, often confusing,
inter-disciplinary activities that occur between
artistic genres or mediums prevalent in the
1960s. Thus, the areas such as those between
drawing and poetry, or between painting and
theater could be described as intermedia. With
repeated occurrences, these new genres between
genres could develop their own names (e.g. visual
poetry or performance art.) Higgins said that
the term was first used by Samuel Taylor
Coleridge (1772-1834) an English poet, Romantic,
literary critic and philosopher. Higgins
described the tendency of new art to cross the
boundaries of recognized media or even to fuse
the boundaries of art with media that had not
previously been considered art forms, including
computers. The term "Intermedia" has become the
preferred term for interdisciplinary practice.
12
The term intermediality was coined in 1983 by
German scholar Aage A. Hansen-Love.
Intermediality applies to any transgression of
boundaries between media and thus is concerned
with heteromedial' relations between different
semiotic complexes or between different parts of
a semiotic complex.   Intermediality deals with
media as conventionally distinct means of
communicating cultural contents. Media in this
sense are specified principally by the nature of
their underlying semiotic systems (involving
verbal language, pictorial signs, music/sound,
etc., or, in cases of Composite media' such as
film, a combination of several semiotic systems),
and only in the second place by technical or
institutional channels. "Transmedial phenomena
are phenomena that are non-specific to lndividual
media. Since they appear in more than one medium,
they point to palpable similarities between
heteromedial semiotic entities. Transmediality
appears, for instance, as repetition of motifs
and thematic variation, and narrativity.
13
  • Definition SIMULACRUM
  • The more common use of the term derives from the
    work of French postmodern theorist Jean
    Baudrillard (1983) who argued that the sign and
    what it refers to had collapsed into one another
    in such a way that it had become impossible to
    distinguish between the real and the sign.
    According to Baudrillard, simulacra are signs
    that can no longer be exchanged with 'real'
    elements, but only with other signs within the
    system. For Baudrillard reality under the
    conditions of postmodernism has become
    hyperreality, disappearing into a network of
    simulation. This is understood as a shift from
    the practice of 'imitation' (or 'mimesis', the
    attempt at an accurate imitation or
    representation of some real thing that lies
    outside of the image or picture) to that of
    'simulation' (where a 'reality' is experienced
    that does not correspond to any actually existing
    thing). A simulation can be experienced as if it
    were real, even when no corresponding thing
    exists outside of the simulation itself.

14
The simulacra that Baudrillard refers to are
signs of culture and media that create perceived
reality Baudrillard believed that society has
become so reliant on simulacra that it has lost
contact with the real world on which the
simulacra are based. Simulacra and Simulation
identifies three types of simulacra and
identifies each with a historical period First
order, associated with the pre-modern period,
where the image is clearly an artificial
placemarker for the real item. Second order,
associated with the industrial Revolution, where
distinctions between image and reality break down
due to the proliferation of mass-produced copies.
The item's ability to imitate reality threatens
to replace the original version. The first and
second orders are simulation. Third order,
associated with the postmodern age, where the
simulacrum precedes the original and the
distinction between reality and representation
breaks down. There is only the simulacrum. The
third order is hypereality.
15
The first thing that any media text, indeed any
act of communication, must do is to produce or
reproduce meanings.
Macao
16
Sleeping Beautys Castle Disneyland,
California 1960 Sleeping
Beautys Castle Disneyland, Paris
17
D.W. Griffith Intolerance 1916
18
Hollywood backlot Intolorence set c.
1915-16
19
Allegory is a figurative mode of representation
conveying a meaning other than the literal. An
allegory is a device that can be presented in
literary form, such as a poem or novel, or in
visual form, such as in painting or sculpture.
As a literary device, an allegory in its most
general sense is an extended metaphor. As an
artistic device, an allegory is a visual symbolic
representation. An example of a simple visual
allegory is the image of the grim reaper. Viewers
understand that the image of the grim reaper is a
symbolic representation of death. Since
meaningful narratives are nearly always
applicable to larger issues, allegories may be
read into many stories, sometimes distorting
their author's overt meaning.
20
Twin Towers Time Magazine Lyle Owerko
11/9/01 Tower of Babel Pieter Bruegal the
Elder Dutch 1565
21
Orphée, (1949) French film directed by Jean
Cocteau and starring Jean Marais. This film is
the central part of Cocteau's Orphic Trilogy,
which consists of The Blood of a Poet (1930),
Orphée (1949) and Testament of Orpheus (1960).
22
Godzilla,(Gojira) is a 1954 Japanese Kaiju
science fiction film directed by Ishiro Honda
with special effects by Eiji Tsuburaya,
distributed by Toho Company Ltd. Godzilla is pop
culture's grandest symbol of nuclear apocalypse,
but he is also the primordial spirit of Japanese
aggression turned against itself."
23
District 9 is a 2009 science fiction thriller
film directed by Neill Blomkamp.
24
In fiction, revisionism is the retelling of a
story or type of story with substantial
alterations in character or environment, to
"revise" the view shown in the original work.
Unlike most usages of the term revisionism, this
is not generally considered negative. Visual and
artistic rhetoric, therefore, refers to the way
in which images, both small and large, subtle and
obvious, are distributed throughout any number of
visible modes of communication (television,
magazines, internet, film, etc). The art of
composing writing is called rhetoric, so when we
apply these concepts to pictures, it is called
visual rhetoric. It is how images impact an
audience for the persuasive purpose of the
image-maker's intent. Visual rhetoric also
examines the relationship between images and
writing.   Visual rhetoric is pervasive, in part,
because it is powerful. Visual messages are
volatile, eliciting positive and negative
responses simultaneously.
25
E.J. Bellocq Storyville Photographs
c.1912 After his death in 1949, most of his
negatives and prints were destroyed. However, the
Storyville negatives were later found concealed
in a sofa. In 1971, a selection of the
photographs were published in a book entitled
Storyville Portraits.
26
E.J. Bellocq Storyville Photographs
c.1912 E.J. Bellocq was an odd, indrawn,
misshapen man, hydrocephalic, a dwarf
photographing ordinary women.
27
Pretty Baby, (1978) is an historical fiction
drama film directed by Louis Malle.
28
  A Motif is   1. a recurring subject, theme,
idea, etc., esp. in a literary, artistic, or
musical work. 2. a distinctive and recurring
form, shape, figure, etc., in a design, as in a
painting or on wallpaper. 3. a dominant idea
or feature. As a trope a motif is something
symbolic that keeps turning up in order to
reinforce the main theme of the work. Usually,
this is a physical item, although a motif may
show itself in other ways such as through
dialogue. It may even be a double motif a
pattern on somebody's sofa, an emblem on the
heroine's shirt or a bumper sticker on the hero's
car. Motifs are employed in three different
ways   A single object, or a collection of
extremely similar objects, that appear(s) many
times throughout the course of the
play/film/book. A collection of related
objects or symbols that appear over and over
again. Generally the most popular option, as it
marks the motifs as significant, but puts the
emphasis firmly on the theme. An assortment of
objects that don't seem to be related, but on
closer inspection have an underlying resemblance
that serve the theme. For example, a black cat,
spilled salt and an umbrella left open indoors
all point to the theme of bad luck A motif
differs from a theme in that a theme is an idea
set forth by a text, where a motif is a recurring
element which symbolizes that idea.
29
Sandro Botticelli The Birth of Venus
1482
30
Andy Warhol Details of Renaissance
Paintings (Sandro Botticelli, Birth of Venus,
1482) 1984
31
Directed by Terry Gilliam The Adventures of
Baron Munchausen 1988)
32
Roland Barthes said that 'no sooner is a form
seen than it must resemble something humanity
seems doomed to analogy' The ubiquity of tropes
in visual as well as verbal forms can be seen as
reflecting our fundamentally relational
understanding of reality. Reality is framed
within systems of analogy. Figures of speech
enable us to see one thing in terms of another.
As with paradigm and syntagm, tropes 'orchestrate
the interactions of signifiers and signifieds' in
discourse. A trope such as metaphor can be
regarded as new sign formed from the signifier of
one sign and the signified of another. The
signifier thus stands for a different signified
the new signified replaces the usual one. As I
will illustrate, the tropes differ in the nature
of these substitutions.
33
Tropes generate 'imagery' with connotations over
and above any 'literal' meaning. Once we employ a
trope, our utterance becomes part of a much
larger system of associations which is beyond our
control.   In linguistics, trope is a rhetorical
figure of speech that consists of a play on
words, i.e., using a word in a way other than
what is considered its literal or normal form.
The other major category of figures of speech is
the scheme, which involves changing the pattern
of words in a sentence. Some type of tropes
are   metaphor an explanation of an object or
idea through juxtaposition of disparate things
with a similar characteristic, such as describing
a courageous person as having a "heart of a
lion. metonymy a trope through proximity or
correspondence, for example referring to actions
of the U.S. President as "actions of the White
House". irony creating a trope through
implying the opposite of the standard meaning,
such as describing a bad situation as "good
times". synecdoche related to metonymy and
metaphor, creates a play on words by referring to
something with a related concept for example,
referring to the whole with the name of a part,
such as "hired hands" for workers a part with
the name of the whole, such as "the law" for
police officers the general with the specific,
such as "bread" for food the specific with the
general, such as "cat" for a lion or an object
with the material it is made from, such as
"bricks and mortar" for a building. allegory - A
sustained metaphor continued through whole
sentences or even through a whole discourse.
34
Metaphors need not be verbal. Advertisers
frequently use visual metaphors, as in this ad
for Smirnoff vodka. In this example from a men's
magazine, the metaphor suggests that (Smirnoff
enables you to see that) women (or perhaps some
women) are nutcrackers (the code of related
Smirnoff ads marks this as humour). Visual
metaphor can also involve a function of
'transference', transferring certain qualities
from one sign to another. In the Chanel
advertisement, two key signifiers are juxtaposed.
The image of Catherine Deneuve signifies French
chic, sophistication, and glamour. The image of
the bottle simply signifies Chanel No. 5 perfume.
At the bottom of the ad, in large letters, the
name of the perfume is repeated in its
distinctive typographical style, making a link
between the two key signifiers. The aim, of
course, is for the viewer to transfer the
qualities signified by the actress to the
perfume, thus substituting one signified for
another, and creating a new metaphorical sign.
35
Metonyms may be visual as well as
verbal. Metonymy can be applied to an object that
is visibly present but which represents another
object or subject to which it is related but
which is absent. This ad for pensions in a
women's magazine asked the reader to arrange four
images in order of importance each image was
metonymic, standing for related activities (such
as shopping bags for material goods). A
metaphorical term is connected with that for
which it is substituted on the basis of
similarity, metonymy is based on contiguity or
closeness. Metonymy does not require
transposition (an imaginative leap) from one
domain to another as metaphor does.
36
In film, a pair of consecutive shots is
metaphorical when there is an implied comparison
of the two shots. For instance, a shot of an
aeroplane followed by a shot of a bird flying
would be metaphorical, implying that the
aeroplane is (or is like) a bird. Metaphor is
based on apparent unrelatedness, metonymy is a
function which involves using one signified to
stand for another signified which is directly
related to it or closely associated with it in
some way. Metonyms are based on various indexical
relationships between signifieds, notably the
substitution of effect for cause. Metonymy is
the evocation of the whole by a connection. The
idea of narrative prose and film being
essentially metonymic has encountered a large
following, among literary scholars, and film
semioticians. The classical Hollywood clichés are
often described as metonymic (e.g. the falling
calendar pages, the driving wheels of the
railroad engine) or synecdochic (e.g. close shots
of marching feet to represent an army). True
metonymies are secondary indexical signs they
relate two pre-existing signs by means of their
respective contents, which means that a sign
present in the syntagmatic chain serves to invoke
another sign which is absent from it.
37
Attention clips will not play ! North by
Northwest directed by Alfred Hitchcock
1959
38
Strike (Stachka) is a 1925 silent film made in
the Soviet Union by Sergei Eisenstein. Attention
clips will not play !
39
Attention clips will not play ! Strangers on a
Train directed by Alfred Hitchcock 1951
40
Strangers on a Train directed by Alfred
Hitchcock 1951
41
Extended Metaphor An extended metaphor sets up a
principal subject with several subsidiary
subjects or comparisons. Essentially the
subject is developed at great length, occurring
frequently in or throughout a work. Citizen
Kane (1941), directed by and starring Orson
Welles. The motif of Rosebud as metonymy.
42
Citizen Kane (1941), directed by and starring
Orson Welles.
43
In photographic and filmic media a close-up is a
simple synecdoche - a part representing the
whole. Indeed, the formal frame of any visual
image (painting, drawing, photograph, film or
television frame) functions as a synecdoche in
that it suggests that what is being offered is a
'slice-of-life', and that the world outside the
frame is carrying on in the same manner as the
world depicted within it. Synecdoche invites or
expects the viewer to 'fill in the gaps' and
advertisements frequently employ this trope.
The Nissan ad shown here was part of a campaign
targeting a new model of car primarily at women
drivers (the Micra). The ad is synecdoche in
several ways it is a close-up and we can
mentally expand the frame it is a 'cover-up' and
the magazine's readers can use their
imaginations it is also a frozen moment and we
can infer the preceding events.
44
(No Transcript)
45
Deixis is reference by means of an expression
whose interpretation is relative to the (usually)
extralinguistic context of the utterance, such
as who is speaking the time or place of
speaking the gestures of the speaker, or the
current location in the discourse. Deixis
contextualizes enunciations. I am here. He is
going over there. She is walking across the
room.
46
Diegesis, is the telling of the story by a
narrator the author narrates action indirectly
and describes what is in the characters' minds
and emotions. The narrator may speak as a
particular character or may be the invisible
narrator or even the all-knowing narrator who
speaks from above in the form of commenting on
the action or the characters. Diegesis is the
reporting or narration of events, contrasted with
mimesis, which is the imitative representation of
them so a character in a play who performs a
certain action is engaged in mimesis, but if she
recounts some earlier action, she is practising
diegesis. Mimesis shows, rather than tells, by
means of directly represented action that is
enacted. The distinct is often cast as that
between showing (mimises) and telling
(diegesis).
47
In The Responsibility of Forms, Roland Barthes
reintroduces the word Diegesis to us in an
adjectival form, Diegetic, in order to
distinguish between ideas, images or thoughts
that are shown as opposed to those which are
told. In photography, a diegetic horizon would
be a background that speaks volumes to the viewer
according to his own interpretation rather
than one that conveys an unmistakable message to
anyone who sees it. This could just as easily be
diegetic landscape, diegetic seascape
or diegetic structures. In cinema, a diegetic
world is the state of mind that a viewer might
be mentally transported to as he watches and
becomes lost in a particularly interesting or
intriguing film. A diegetic break is the
point where a film allows the viewer to
reflexively return to reality, as in the moments
immediately following a horror scene or a love
scene.
48
"Diegetic" typically refers to the internal
world created by the story that the characters
themselves experience and encounter the
narrative "space" that includes all the parts of
the story, both those that are and those that are
not actually shown on the screen (such as events
that have led up to the present action people
who are being talked about or events that are
presumed to have happened elsewhere). The
elements of a film can be "diegetic" or
"non-diegetic. These terms are most commonly
used in reference to sound in a film, but can
apply to other elements. For example, an insert
shot that depicts something that is neither
taking place in the world of the film, nor is
seen, imagined, or thought by a character, is a
non-diegetic insert. Titles, subtitles, and
voice-over narration (with some exceptions) are
also non-diegetic.
49
The concept of gaze (often also called the gaze
or, in French, le regard), in analyzing visual
culture, is one that deals with how an audience
views other people presented. 1 - the
spectator's gaze the spectator who is viewing
the text. This is often us, the audience of
a certain text. 2 - intra-diegetic gaze, where
one person depicted in the text who is looking at
another person or object in the text,
such as oner character looking at another. 3 -
extra-diegetic gaze, where the person depicted in
the text looks at the spectator. 4 -
the camera's gaze, which is the gaze of the
camera, and is often equated to the
authors, photographers, artists, director's
gaze.
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