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Workshop 'Technology-enhanced learning in the context of technological, societal and cultural transformations' learning

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Title: Workshop 'Technology-enhanced learning in the context of technological, societal and cultural transformations' learning


1
Workshop 'Technology-enhanced learning in the
context of technological, societal and cultural
transformations' learning
2
Ben Bachmair University of Kassel
Maren Risch
  • Operationalisation of
  • a cultural ecology for mobile learning
  • in the running German school project MyMobile
    Handy im Unterricht
  • Steps of the validation of 4 didactic
    parameters for analysis and planning

3
The main issues within two strands
  • To represent the the mobile complex for didactic
    purposes. From the widened structuration model to
    the tool of the didactic parameters
  • Tools and conversational elements of an
    hermeneutic approach for the development of
    theory and school learning
  • Tools parameters, guidelines, focal points
  • Conversational elements workshops for media
    educationalists / realisation of instructional
    units with weekly Skype conferences, assessment
    of learning outcomes and evaluation by teacher,
    parents, students / public presentation website,
    interviews, conferences, publications

The school project MyMobile Handy im
Unterricht
4
1. The mobile complex with its visible mobile
devices and the schools options
5
The general model for developing educational
reactions to socio-cultural changing
  • Anthony Giddens(1984) Structuration the
    relation of social structures and agency
  • Stuart Hall (1997) Media in the cultural
    circulation between cultural practices

6
Structures
  • The socio-cultural complex of individualisation
    within the society of individualised risks,
  • socio-cultural milieus
  • - Partial failing of the school for socially
    specific learners (PISA results at risk
    learners) and the increasing informal learning
    outside the school,
  • - Individualised and mobile mass communication.

7
The changing structures of mass communication
individualised, mobile
  • Away from professionally edited and
    institutionally delivered content
  • to Web 2.0 and the ubiquitous individualised
    mobile production of content and contexts by
    means of the convergent mobile phone
  • which coins and challenges the agency of the
    people.
  • This leads to cultural practices like to use
    media internet platforms e.g. YouTube for
    specific application like the video of the
    mobile.

8
Agency
  • - Learning as meaning making in a variety of
    situations which are not restricted to the
    school,
  • - Habitus for individualized learning within
    divergent socio-cultural milieus, which leads to
    informal learning,
  • - Naïve/ native expertise which is individually
    appropriated on personal definitions of
    relevance.
  • - Personal definition of relevant contexts within
    media induced spaces, e.g. Web 2.0.

9
Cultural practices of learning
  • Increase of informal learning outside the
    school
  • Curricular learning
  • in traditional modes (driven by a teacher and
    learning subjects) and
  • in flexible modes (situated, constructivist,
    collaborative)
  • with at-risk learners as a feature of the
    individualisation of risks.

10
Organisation in Phases Episodes
Streets with Places Lessons are divided by
learning standards
E 2)
E 4)
Getting to Know Practicing Getting
Deeper
Episodes can be used in each part of the lesson.
10
11
Representation of the mobile complex in the
students perspective
12
Schools option Banning of mobiles
or Assimilation of informal learning mobile
expertise habitus of learning By means of
taking up conversational threads of the
students docking to the students generated
contexts as zones of proximal development
The socio-cultural complex of mobile
devices Brought mobile devices into everyday
life within media convergence Reinforces
individualization by mobility Transforms
agency mobile expertise Transforms mass
communication mobile, individualized and
convergence contexts
Children and young people as students with their
agency and their resources within their cultural
practices informal learning mobile
expertise habitus of learning
13
Didactic parameters for analysing and planning
within the mobile space of convergence and
learning
  • The model of the didactic parameters
  • represents
  • structures, agency, practices of the mobile
    complex
  • in the perspective of the school

14
  • (A) Learning set
  • Practice of the school ---- practices of mobile
    media
  • (B) Relation to the object of learning
  • Mimetic reproduction ---- personal
    reconstruction
  • (C) Basis of the institutional support for
    teaching and learning
  • School curriculum ---- personal expertise
  • (D) Media and Modes of representation
  • Discrete (linear mono medial, mono modal)
    convergent

15
2. The tools of an hermeneutic approach for the
empirical round through the schools dominant
practices
16
2.1 My understand of an hermeneutic approach
  • an institutionalized spiral of
  • objectivations tools like parameters,
    guidelines, focal points
  • and
  • conversations workshop, Skype meetings,
    websites, formal presentation of results,
    evaluation etc
  • within the tension of theoretical frames,
    empirical investigations and the development of
    practices

17
  • A German summary of an hermeneutic approach to
    theory and empirical investigation
  • in the field of communication studies
  • by Friedrich Krotz (2005)
  • Neue Theorien entwickeln. Eine Einführung in
    die Grounded Theory, die Heuristische
    Sozialforschung und die Ethnographie anhand von
    Beispielen aus der Kommunikationsforschung.
  • Köln, Herbert von Halem

18
Krotz 2005, p. 70 3 types of theories
  • Type 1 mathematically represented functional
    interrelations quantitative methods
  • Type 2 complexes of statements and discourses,
    which described in a condensed way the structures
    and processes of phenomena qualitative research
  • Type 3 Meta-theories

19
Theory of type 2My access to describe in a
condensed way structures and processes
  • A) Two levels obvious / veiled
  • A1) What is obvious and can be taken for
    granted?
  • A2) What is veiled under the surface?
  • B) Two focuses centre and marginal
  • B1) What is in the foreground and the centre?
  • B2) What is at the edge?

20
The objectified tools within a theory of type 2
  • Didactic parameters for analysing and planning
    within the mobile space of convergence and
    learning
  • Culture ecological guidelines for mobile learning
  • Focal points of a didactic of mobile learning

21
(1) The condensed model of structures, agency
and practices of the mobile complex with special
reference to the school and didactic
  • (A) Learning set
  • Practice of the school ---- practices of mobile
    media
  • (B) Relation to the object of learning
  • Mimetic reproduction ---- personal
    reconstruction
  • (C) Basis of the institutional support for
    teaching and learning
  • School curriculum ---- personal expertise
  • (D) Media and Modes of representation
  • Discrete (linear mono medial, mono modal)
    convergent

22
At the first phase of planning and realising the
the school project My Mobile the model of the
didactic parameters did not correspond with the
theoretical frames of the media educational
project group.
  • Therefore the cultural ecology for mobile
    learning was condensed to guidelines.
  • The guidelines represent the development of
    socio-cultural and mass communicative structures,
    agency and media related practices in the mode of
    educational pursuits

23
Evaluation of the didactic parameters was planned
but failed due to the lack of conversational
element
  • Now, one part of the evaluation of the didactic
    parameters has to be done be the media
    educational project group. Its main mean is to
    consider the outcomes of the instructional units
    for the publication on the website

24
(2) The Culture ecological guidelines for mobile
learning represent the educational pursuits for
the mobile complex
  • A
  • Mobile phones and other mobile devices function
    as global cultural resources within a mobile,
    individualized and convergent mass communication.
  • This dramatically new mode of mass communication
    includes user generated contexts which serve
    among others as archives for media and knowledge.

25
B.
  • Mobile phones and other mobile devices function
    as resources for formal and informal learning.
  • An educational task is to use mobile devices for
    the assimilation of the informal learning of the
    students, who act in everyday life as native and
    naïve experts.

26
C.
  • The context oriented mobile, individualized and
    convergent mass communication and society is a
    challenge for the so called situated learning
    (Lave, Wenger 1990).
  • The situated learning is a way to the essentials
    of learning, which is hidden underneath the
    stiff, frozen practices of school learning. The
    focus of the concept of situated learning is
    based on learning as meaning making in a context.
  • Learning as meaning making that brings into play
    the life world of the student, in my view,
    creates a context that contains the powerful
    option to replace the passive transfer of
    knowledge, which is still in the foreground of
    many schools.

27
(3) The Focal points of a didactic of mobile
learning represent the educational and didactic
options within the 4 parameter under the heading
of the guidelines and combine them with the width
of mobile applications
  • 1. Why?
  • Mobile learning is the didactic answer to the
    already changed culture of media and learning of
    the children and young people
  • 1.1 The new and dominant media culture of
    everyday life individualized, mobile and
    convergent.
  • 1.2 Increasing relevance of the informal learning
    and decreasing reach of scholastic learning

28
2. How?The feature elements of the mobile
learning
  • 2. 1 To integrate informal learning by means of
    the mobile
  • 2.2 To set up episodes of situated learning by
    means of the mobile
  • 2.3 To generate learning and media contexts by
    means of the mobile
  • 2.4 To set up conversational bridges by means of
    the mobile
  • 2.5 To support students as experts of their
    everyday life within the school by means of the
    mobile
  • 2.6 To set up responsive contexts of development
    and learning by means of the mobile

29
3. By which applications?The mobiles multimedia
variety of applications as a mobile miniaturized
computer and interface within media convergence
  • 3.1 Ubiquity and mobile multimedia computer
  • 3.2 Personal disposition at any time
  • 3.3 Several active media applications for taking
    videos, photos, music
  • 3.4 Applications for everyday life management
    like calendar, alarm, spatial navigation
  • 3.5 High capacities as repositories for a variety
    of representational modes
  • 3.6 Access to a diverse personal communication
  • 3.7 Access to the Internet with its specific mode
    of communication and with its knowledge and media
    archives (can be expensive for the moment).

30
Discursive elements and objectified tools in the
time order of appearance in the project
  • Didactic parameters for analysing and planning
    within the mobile space of convergence and
    learning
  • Workshops on the Parameters and the culture
    ecological approach to mobile learning
  • Culture ecological guidelines for mobile learning
    for the website and for planning the
    instructional units
  • First instructional unit in a school mobile
    between globe and Google evaluation by teacher,
    students, parents assessment of the learning
    results
  • Public presentation for media education (paper
    PPT)
  • Second instructional unit in a school What is
    Enlightenment?
  • Website with the report on the first
    instructional unit
  • Focal points of a didactic for mobile learning
  • Book publication

31
2. Strand Report from a German school projectof
mobile learning
MyMobile Handy im Unterricht (Mobile within
school instruction) is run by the public
association medienbildung.com gGmbH
32
Handy zwischen Kugel und Google Mobile between
globe and Googel
  • Konstruktion und Vermessen von Kreisen und Kugel
    im lehrergeleiteten Unterricht mit
    mediengeleiteten Episoden von Schüleraktivitäten
  • Construction and measuring of circles and globes
  • in a teacher guided instruction
  • with media based episodes of students activities

33
Mobile video in Math on the investigation of
angles
  • At home a 12 year old boy investigated angles.
  • He took pictures of differently obvious and
    clear angles
  • and framed it with a soundtrack of a Pokémon
    song and a poster.

34
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Learner generated contextby means of a video
homework on investigating angles
  • At home and in everyday
  • Life ambiguity is normal.
  • Now, the Math teacher
  • can deal with ambiguity.
  • - The boy frames his
  • investigation of angles
  • with the Pokémon
  • sound track and
  • the poster of a pop song.

39
Assimilation of learner generated contexts into
the school
  • By means of the mobile homework
  • the 12 year old boy widens the optional learning
    context into his fields of entertainment.
  • Pokémon is also a strategy game with levels,
    calculable results, comparing success, etc. These
    issues of the strategy game and the entertainment
    context are rather close to Math.

40
Assimilation of the school by
  • Responsive Contexts Docking at user generated
    contexts as zones of proximal development
    (Vygotsky 1930, 1934)
  • Conversational options (Laurillard 2007, p. 160)
    knotting conversational threads

41
The curricular task assimilation by
prolonging conversational threads docking at
user generated contexts as zone of proximal
developmentinto / at to the school practice
42
Context options by combining white board and
mobile
43
  • The context of the white board is regulated by
    teacher and inherits the structure of the teacher
    guided instruction.
  • The context of the mobile phone incorporates
    everyday life and entertainment and is the domain
    of the students.
  • Both contexts are assimilated into one formal and
    informal learning context by the teacher white
    board and student mobile phone.
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