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Title: Cultural%20Competency%20Equity,%20and%20Social%20Justice


1
Cultural Competency Equity, and Social Justice
  • Portland State University
  • July 2014
  • John Lenssen

2
Culture refers to integrated patterns of human
behavior that include the
  • language, thoughts, communication,
  • actions, customs, beliefs, values, and
  • norms of racial, ethnic, religious, or social
    groups.

3
Defining Culture
  • Often used interchangeably with race and
    ethnicity
  • Way of perceiving, believing, evaluating, and
    behaving. It is the blueprint that determines the
    way we think, feel, and behave.
  • Groupings of people based on shared values
    beliefs and behavioral norms
  • Includes both subjective (e.g., values, norms,
    etc.) and physical aspects (e.g., buildings,
    dress, foods, etc. Triandis)

4
(No Transcript)
5
Deeply Held, Harder-to Recognize Components of
Culture
  • Perception of time (Hall)
  • Perception of space (Hall)
  • Individualism-collectivism
  • High context-low context (Hall)
  • Importance of hierarchy
  • Modes of self-expression
  • Modes of thinking
  • Importance and rigidity of gender roles
  • Nature of change
  • Humans relationship to the natural world

6
Schools must embrace the worlds from which their
children come, while at the same time teaching
them what they need to know to succeed in the
broader, dominant culture. Lisa Delpit
7
Cultural Competency
  • What is cultural competence? Put most simply, it
    is the ability to successfully teach students who
    come from cultures other than your own.
  • Diller and Moule

8
Hierarchy of Cultural Competency
Unconsciously Competent
Consciously Competent
Consciously Incompetent
Unconsciously Incompetent
9
The Guiding Principles (Cultural Proficiency)
  • Culture is a predominant force you cannot NOT be
    influenced by culture.
  • People are served in varying degrees by the
    dominant culture.
  • It is important to acknowledge the group identity
    of individuals.
  • Diversity within cultures is important cultural
    groups are neither homogeneous nor monolithic.
  • Respect the unique needs that members of
    dominated groups may have.

10
A Courageous Conversation
  • Engages those who wont talk
  • Sustains the conversation when it gets
    uncomfortable or diverted
  • Deepens the conversation to the point where
    authentic understanding and meaningful actions
    occur.

11
Four Agreements of Courageous Conversations
  • Stay engaged.
  • Speak your truth.
  • Experience discomfort.
  • Expect and accept non-closure.

12
Courageous Conversations
Believing   Morally Thinking     Intellectually
Emotionally   Feeling Socially    Doing
13
Changing the Discourse in Schools
  • Discourse II conversations tend to be about
    uncomfortable, unequal, ineffective, prejudicial
    conditions and relationships in a school.
  • Any real effort to make substantive (systemic)
    change must begin with a Discourse II dialogue in
    schools, one that blames no one and deconstructs
    what is really going on.

14
Discourse II Quotations
  • In your small group discuss your quotation.
  • Develop a one minute presentation for the class -
    highlighting your take-away from the quotation.

15
Courageous Conversations Changing the Discourse
in Schools
  • Discourse I Deals With
  • Singular truths
  • Improving what exists
  • Techniques, methods, and
  • content
  • Discourse II Deals With
  • Multiple stories
  • Changing something significant
  • Learning and school relationships

16
Discourse I Discourse II
  • Symptoms
  • Discipline and control
  • The familiar
  • Answers and solutions
  • Causes
  • Alienation and resistance
  • The uncomfortable
  • Dilemmas and mysteries

17
Discourse I Discourse II
  • Ability and merit
  • Dropouts
  • The work of adults
  • Reproduction
  • Privilege and oppression
  • Pushouts
  • The learning and experience of students
  • Transformation

18
Initiating Discourse II
  • On the topic of student discipline, and being
    mindful of the disproportionate discipline data
    in your school
  • develop Discourse II questions intended to
    deepen the dialogue and lead to systemic change.

19
We Must Examine and Engage in Dialogue Around
  • Assumptions
  • Beliefs
  • Values
  • Expectations
  • Visions

20
Listening To Each Other
  • When we begin listening to each other, and when
    we talk about things that matter to us, the world
    begins to change. Everyone has the capacity to
    be able to figure out how to make a difference.
    Listening and talking to one another heals our
    divisions and makes us brave again.
  • Margaret Wheatley,
  • Turning to One Another

21
9 Healthy Ways to Communicate
  1. Reflect back what is being said. Use their
    words, not yours.
  2. Begin where they are at, not where you want them
    to be.
  3. Be curious and open to what they are trying to
    say.
  4. Notice what they are saying and what they are not.

22
9 Healthy Ways to Communicate
  • 5. Emotionally relate to how they are feeling.
    Nurture the relationship.
  • 6. Notice how you are feeling. Be honest and
    authentic.
  • 7. Take responsibility for your part in the
    conflict or misunderstanding.
  • 8. Try to understand how their past affects who
    they are and how those experiences affect their
    relationship with you.
  • 9. Stay with the process and the relationship,
    not just the solution.

23
Beliefs
  • What beliefs guide our work?

24
Beliefs
  • Student Intelligence
  • Student Potential
  • Responsibility
  • Learning
  • Readiness To Learn
  • Student Ability
  • Morality
  • Grading
  • Discipline
  • Leadership

25
Values
  • What are the values that we expect, teach, and
    support in our schools?
  • What are the hidden values that are communicated?

26
Values
  • Responsibility
  • Safety
  • Cooperation
  • Knowledge
  • Family
  • Talent
  • Citizenship
  • Turf
  • Time
  • Respect
  • Honesty
  • Competition
  • Achievement
  • Grading System
  • Effort
  • Compliance

27
Practices
  • What are our conscious and unconscious practices?

28
Practices (with potential for unintended negative
impact)
  • Homework
  • Suspensions
  • Grouping
  • Celebrations
  • Grading
  • State assessments
  • Recognition
  • Student government

29
Expectations
  • All students can learn.
  • vs.
  • I am responsible for all students learning.

30
Expectations
  • I have high expectations for all students, but
    realistically I do not expect all students to
    meet benchmarks.
  • Vs.
  • I have high expectations for all students, and I
    am disturbed when all students do not meet
    benchmarks.

31
External Oppression External oppression is the
unjust exercise of authority and power by one
group over another. It includes imposing one
groups belief system, values and life ways over
another group. Womens Rural Advocacy Programs
32
Institutionalized Oppression
  • Institutionalized oppression is the systematic
    mistreatment of people within a social identity
    group, supported and enforced by the society and
    its institutions, solely based on the persons
    membership in the social identity group.

33
Internalized Oppression
  • External oppression becomes internalized
    oppression when we come to believe and act as if
    the oppressor's beliefs system, values, and life
    way is reality.
  • Self-hate" and "internalized racism" are other
    ways of saying internalized oppression.
  • The result of internalized oppression is shame
    and the disowning of our individual and cultural
    reality.
  • Womens Rural Advocacy Programs

34
Microaggressions
  • Brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral,
    and environmental indignities, whether
    intentional or unintentional, that communicate
    hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights
    and insults to the target person or group.

35
Types of Microaggressions
  • Microassault
  • Microinsult
  • Microinvalidation

36
Have you ever been hurt and the place tries to
heal a bit, and you just pull the scar off of it
over and over again. Rosa Parks
37
Response to Microaggressions
  • Step One Select one type of microaggression.
  • Step Two Script a specific statement that fits
    within the type of microaggression. (statement
    could be a microaggression that focuses on a
    different form or oppression)
  • Step Three Brainstorm several responses to the
    microaggression.
  • Step Four Select one response to present to the
    group.

38
Privilege
  • Million dollar privilege
  • White privilege
  • Male privilege
  • Class privilege
  • Heterosexual privilege
  • Education status privilege

39
Unearned Advantage
  • This latent system of unearned privilege is
    about having the benefit of the doubt -- not
    because of who you are and what you have done,
    but because of how people perceive you as a
    member of a favored group.

40
White Privilege
  • Peggy McIntosh defines white privilege as, an
    invisible package of unearned assets like an
    invisible weightless knapsack of special
    provisions, maps, passports, code books, visas,
    clothes, tools, and blank checks.

41
White Privilege Checklist Peggy McIntosh
  • I can if I wish arrange to be in the company of
    people of my race most of the time.
  • I do not have to educate my children to be aware
    of systemic racism for their own daily physical
    protection.

42
White Privilege Checklist
  • I can take a job with an affirmative action
    employer without having my co-workers on the job
    suspect that I got it because of my race.
  • I will feel welcomed and "normal" in the usual
    walks of public life, institutional and social.

43
White Culture there is one
  • Promoting independence, self expression, personal
    choice, individual thinking and achievement (vs.
    adherence to norms, respect for authority/
    elders, interdependence, and group consensus and
    success)
  • Egalitarian relationships, flexible roles and
    upward mobility (vs. stable, hierarchical roles
    - dependent on gender, background, age)
  • Understanding the physical world apart from its
    meaning for human life (vs. in relation to human
    life)
  • Private property and individual ownership (vs.
    shared)

44
Characteristics of White Consciousness
  • Universal perspective
  • Doesnt everyone experience life the way that I
    do?
  • Individualism
  • I earned this through hard work and effort.
  • Avoidance
  • This isnt my problem.
  • Decontexualization
  • How does this particular situation have anything
    to do with race?

45
Ego Identity Formation
  • Most research on identity formation has been
    provided by Erik Erikson.
  • Identity is a subjective sense of wholeness that
    is achieved during adolescence through an
    identity crisis (turning point).
  • Those who fail to achieve a secure identity are
    faced with identity confusion, a lack of clarity
    about who they are and what their role is in life.

46
Several Models of Ethnic Development have been
proposed
  • Many researchers agree that an achieved identity
    is the result of a crisis or awakening, which
    leads to a period of exploration or
    experimentation and finally to a commitment or
    incorporation of ones ethnicity.

47
What is ethnic identity development?
  • A sense of group or collective identity based on
    ones perception that he or she shares a common
    racial/ethnic heritage with a particular
    racial/ethnic group
  • Racial identity development theory concerns the
    psychological implications of racial-group
    membership, that is belief systems that evolve in
    reaction to perceived differential racial-group
    membership.

48
Unexamined Ethnic Identity
  • Characterized by the lack of exploration of
    ethnicity.
  • Existing models suggest that minority subjects
    initially accept the values and attitudes of the
    majority culture.
  • Including internalized negative views of their
    own group held by the majority.

49
Conformity
  • In this stage, people of color identify strongly
    with White Dominant Society, permitting the White
    society to define their worth and value.
  • Individuals in this stage often accept negative
    stereotypes about themselves and their group. In
    addition, they know very little and are not
    interested in learning about their own ethnic
    heritage or history.
  • Such persons usually associate with primarily
    White people and have very little to do with
    members of their own ethnic group.

50
Dissonance
  • In this stage, persons have experiences, or gain
    insights, that cause them to question their
    conforming attitudes, and cause confusion and
    conflict.
  • They question values of the dominant culture they
    have previously held in high esteem.

51
Dissonance
  • They become more aware of racism, oppression, and
    stereotyping.
  • Ethnic minority individuals may attempt to
    develop friendly relations with members of their
    own ethnic group with whom they have previously
    not been able to identify.

52
Resistance and Immersion
  • This is a stage of extremes, during which
    individuals become immersed in their own cultural
    history, values, and life-style.
  • Such persons are highly motivated to combat
    oppression, racism, and prejudice, and may
    evidence activist behavior and an increased
    distrust of the dominant culture.

53
Resistance and Immersion
  • Overall, individuals in this stage attempt to
    separate themselves from the dominant group,
    believing that majority people are responsible
    for their negative life circumstances.

54
Introspection
  • In this stage, individuals take a hard look at
    their total rejection of the dominant culture and
    total acceptance of their own group.
  • Individuals often experience conflict and
    confusion regarding loyalty to their cultural
    groups and their personal preferences and
    autonomy.

55
Introspection
  • Internal conflict is most profound in this stage,
    as individuals struggle to find a balance between
    what they want for themselves, based on personal
    desires, needs, and aspirations versus what their
    own ethnic group expects of them.

56
Synergetic Articulation and Awareness
  • Persons in this stage have acquired knowledge and
    an appreciation of their own cultural group,
    which enable them to value and respect the
    culture and values of other people.
  • Persons in this stage have resolved many of the
    previously experienced conflicts, resulting in
    fulfillment of their cultural identity.

57
Ethnic Minority Acculturation Modes
  • Berry (1989) developed modes to cultural
    acculturation
  • Assimilation, valuing the majority culture over
    ones own culture
  • Separation, preserving ones culture while
    withdrawing from the majority culture
  • Marginalization, losing cultural contact and
    identification with ones culture as well as the
    majority culture
  • Integration, valuing and integrating ones
    culture as well as the majority culture

58
White Racial Identity Development
59
Contact
  • In the contact stage, White individuals are
    unaware of themselves as racial beings because
    being White is so much the norm that it is taken
    for granted.
  • Those in this stage who choose to interact across
    racial and cultural lines become aware of
    societal pressure against doing so.  

60
Disintegration
  • In the disintegration stage, Whites are forced to
    acknowledge that they are White.
  • During this stage, Whites respond to minorities
    in three different ways over-identification with
    ethnic minorities, paternalistic attitudes toward
    ethnic minorities, or retreat back into White
    culture.  

61
Reintegration
  • Individuals in this stage may become very hostile
    toward ethnic minorities and become more
    positively biased toward their own group.
  • They are either covertly or overtly anti-ethnic.
    Many in this stage are also angry and afraid.

62
Pseudo-Independence
  • This stage is characterized by an intellectual
    acceptance of ethnic minority persons.
  • A pronounced feature of this stage is that, while
    cross-cultural communication occurs, it involves
    those minorities who are most similar to Whites.

63
Pseudo-Independence
  • For example, ethnic minorities with comparable
    values, educational and economic levels, and with
    sometimes similar physical features to White
    people, might be invited to socialize with White
    people.

64
Immersion/Emersion
  • Begins search for ethnic and cultural
    backgrounds.
  • Wants to develop a positive self-concept as
    White in light of the reality of white
    privilege.
  • Begins to form relationships with people of
    color.
  • Questions the benefit of speaking up about racism
    among white people.

65
Autonomy
  • In the autonomy stage, White individuals have
    greater acceptance of racial differences and
    similarities.
  • Differences are not perceived as deficits and
    similarities are not seen as enhancers.

66
Autonomy
  • Autonomous people actively seek opportunities to
    involve themselves in cross-cultural interaction
    because they value cultural diversity and are
    secure in their own ethnic identity.

67
Pedagogy of the Oppressed Paulo Freire
  • Problem posing
  • Students and teachers perceive critically the
    ways they exist in the world.
  • Co-construction of the curriculum.
  • Education as the practice of freedom

68
Anti-Oppression Strategies
  • Own our positionality!! Speak from our own
    experience/perspective. Speak our truths knowing
    that they are not necessarily universal or the
    norm.
  • Encourage critical thinking!!
  • Get to know our students cultural backgrounds
    and the dynamics of oppression in their lives.

69
Anti-Oppression Strategies
  • Build bridges between students cultural
    experiences and the culture of the classroom and
    content.
  • Surface conflicting values and beliefs.
    Facilitate dialogue through the conflicts.
  • Acknowledge that dominant culture beliefs about
    intelligence and ability tend to re-enforce the
    cycles of oppression.

70
"Education either functions as an instrument
which is used to facilitate integration of the
younger generation into the logic of the present
system and bring about conformity or it becomes
the practice of freedom, the means by which men
and women deal critically and creatively with
reality and discover how to participate in the
transformation of their world."
  • Paul Freire
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