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Cold War, 1945-63

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Title: Cold War, 1945-63 Author: Chris Higgins Last modified by: nicholas forde Created Date: 9/17/2008 12:15:26 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cold War, 1945-63


1
? starter activity
By the 1970s the US and the USSR each had enough
nuclear weapons to blow the world up several
times over. Can you explain this cartoonists
joke?
2
Characteristics of Cold War
  • Suspicions between capitalists communists
  • Propaganda
  • Espionage
  • Nuclear arms race
  • Space race

3
Why did the wartime alliance breakdown?
  • Background to the Cold War

4
Steps to the political, economic and military
division of Europe
5
The Breakdown of the Grand Alliance
  • STEP 1 The Wartime Conferences
  • Note the changes of personnel
  • TEHRAN- the need for a second front. No
    decision on the future of Germany / unconditional
    surrender / Poland / Eastern Europe
  • YALTA (Churchill ) (Roosevelt)
  • POTSDAM (Truman) (Atlee)
  • What was agreed at each?

6
YALTA (Churchill ) (Roosevelt) Feb 1945
  • Red Army occupied most of Europe
  • Germany to be divided into zones
  • Poland back to 1921 borders (Curzon / Oder-
    Neisse Line)
  • United Nations
  • Declaration for a liberated Europe
  • POTSDAM (Truman) (Atlee)

7
POTSDAM (Truman) (Atlee) (July 1945)
  • POTSDAM (Truman) (Atlee) (July 1945)
  • Truman get tough
  • Germany had surrendered in May 1945
  • Atomic bomb tested the day after the start of the
    conference
  • Zones of occupation

8
Salami Tactics
  • USSRs takeover of political control of Eastern
    Europe like slicing off salami piece by piece
  • Soviet supervision of governments in E Europe
  • Political parties sliced off
  • Communist core remains- local Communist parties
    replaced by Moscow trained Communists

9
STEP 2
  • Kennans Long Telegram- 1946
  • Soviet view of the world was one of insecurity
  • Soviet path was one of Stalinism rather than
    Marxism
  • Cruelty and repression of the Soviet system
  • Impervious to the logic of reason Moscow is
    highly sensitive to the logic of force

10
Step 3- The Iron Curtain Speech
11
Step 4- The Truman Doctrine
12
Step 5- The Marshall Plan
13
Step 6- Red Army Occupation of Europe 45-47
14
Step 7 Czechoslovakian Coup
15
Step 8- The Berlin Crisis of 1948
16
Who was responsible for the Cold War?
17
  • Orthodox View- Soviets to blame
  • Revisionist View US Dollar Diplomacy
  • Post Revisionist View- Misperceptions on both
    sides- action and reaction both sides
    improvising
  • Soviet View
  • Balance of Power v Ideology

18
Key events
Berlin Wall last days
  • 1945, Yalta Potsdam conferences
  • Soviet expansion in E. Europe
  • 1946, Iron Curtain
  • 1947, Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan
  • 1949, NATO
  • 1955, Warsaw Pact
  • 1961, Berlin Wall
  • 1962, Cuban Missile Crisis

Cuban Missile Crisis
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