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Title: Promoting Intercultural Understanding in the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme: A Qualitative Case Study in Hong Kong Second Language Chinese Classrooms


1
Promoting Intercultural Understanding in the
International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme A
Qualitative Case Study in Hong Kong Second
Language Chinese Classrooms
Alliance for International Education  Mumbai, 10
12 October, 2014 Strand D. Intercultural
Understanding in the Curriculum Kwok-Ling
LAU PhD candidate, Faculty of Education The
University of Hong Kong Supervisor Dr. Mark Shum
2
The Aim of Study
  • The aim of this study seeks to examine the
    enabling factors for successful implementation of
    intercultural understanding and ?international
    mindedness' in the International Baccalaureate
    Diploma Programme (IBDP) in a Chinese as a second
    language Chinese classroom in three international
    schools. The IB programme promotes intercultural
    understanding and international mindedness in
    education and it is of great interest to see how
    it is implemented in second language Chinese
    classrooms in Hong Kong

3
Research questions and Methodology
Research Questions Research methodology
1. How successful do the teachers of Chinese as a second language of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme teach the concept of international mindedness and intercultural understanding in Chinese lessons? I apply multi-methodological approach in order to get triangulation. Classroom observation, In-depth interview teachers with semi-structured questions. Classroom discourse analyze (Christie, 2008) , Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) (Halliday, 1994) and Appraisal theory (Martin and White 2005) are be applied.
4
Research questions and Methodology
Research Questions Research methodology
2. How successful do the students of Chinese perform in class work in the teaching and learning cycle? Classroom observation, In-depth interview students with semi-structured questions. Classroom discourse analyze (Christie, 2008) , Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) (Halliday, 1994) and Appraisal theory (Martin and White 2005) are used for student text analyze.
5
Research Methodology
  • Choice of the Case Study
  • I collected the data from three IB schools which
    were not be chosen only for the sake of
    convenience.
  • School A was opened in 1894 which has been
    authorized as an IB school and it has been
    authorized to offer the IB Chinese B Diploma
    Programmes since in 2005.
  • School B was opened in 1983 and it has been
    authorized to offer the IB Chinese B Diploma
    Programmes beginning in 1991.
  • School C has been authorized to offer the IB
    since 2000.
  • Since the choice of the representative cases
    contributes much to the external validity of the
    case study, it is important to show that the
    school in question is typical example of the
    implementation of an IB Chinese Diploma
    Programme.

6
Theoretical Framework
  • In the theoretical framework, I refer to Thompson
    (2012), Haywood (200786-87), UNESCO Declaration
    in 1974 and Hill (2006, 2012), McKenzie
    (2012227) and Harrison (201395-96) contribute
    new insights on international mindedness.

7
Theoretical Framework of International mindedness
Adapted from Thompson (1998, 2013), Hill
(2012258-259 and 2014 HK Seminar)
Adapted from Thompson (1998, 2013), Hill
(2012258-259 and 2014 HK Seminar)
8
Table 3 Judgement of IBOs mission statement
Text Judgement positive
The International Baccalaureate aims to develop inquiring, knowledgeable and caring young people who help to create a better and more peaceful world through intercultural understanding and respect. inquiring, knowledgeable (Social esteem positive ?capacity?) caring, better , peaceful, respect (Social sanction propriety ?ethics?)
To this end the organization works with schools, governments and international organizations to develop challenging programmes of international education and rigorous assessment. challenging, rigorous (Judgement positive ?capacity?)
These programmes encourage students across the world to become active, compassionate and lifelong learners who understand that other people, with their differences, can also be right. active, lifelong learners (Social esteem capacity) compassionate, respect (Social sanction propriety?ethics?)
(www.ibo.org/mission/)
9
Analysing Appraisal Theory
  • White (1998) indicates that JUDGEMENT is
    obviously a system which is very much culturally
    and ideologically determined and particular
    judgements of behaviour will depend on
    socio-semiotic position, on the set of social
    values to which the evaluator subscribes.
    JUDGEMENT provides one of the most explicit means
    by which writer/speakers can inscribe their
    heteroglossic position in a text. They thereby
    confront those who would ascribe a different set
    of judgements to those behaviours. We are
    concerned with, what Fairclough (1989 78) terms
    the conception of the world, including
    normative values.

10
Curriculum Macrogenre
Curriculum Macrogenre School B (Christie
2000162, Shum, 2010 140) each lesson 60 minutes
Curriculum Macrogenre School B (Christie
2000162, Shum, 2010 140) each lesson 60 minutes
Curriculum Macrogenre School B (Christie
2000162, Shum, 2010 140) each lesson 60 minutes
11
Curriculum Macrogenre
Table 1
Curriculum Initiation Introduction Teacher gave an introduction on aims of the unit plan objectives in the first lesson. Task Specification Teacher set the task and gave the instructions and expectation about the aims of tasks and define the definition of poverty by scaffolding through question and answers . Teacher initiates students' learning motives and fixes the direction of learning by inquiry based learning give assignment of homework by group research in lesson 1.
Curriculum Negotiation Students were divided into 5 groups to research about the topic of Poverty in China and the world in group discussion. Teacher gave comments on each groups presentation. Students had group presentations from lesson 2 and lesson 5 as shown in Figure 1.
Curriculum closure Teacher gave comments and drew the conclusion of the lesson.
12
Intercultural Understanding
  • ????????,????????????,?????,????????,???,????????
    ,?????????,?????,?????????,?????????????????????,?
    ???????????,???critical thinking (ve Judgment
    Social Esteem Capacity ) ,???????????????????????
    ?????? ?????,(-ve Judgment Social Esteem
    tenacity (resolve) ?????????????????,???? (ve
    Judgment Social Esteem tenacity
    (resolve)????????????????????????????1?????2????
    ?3?????4?(????????????????)??5?????????????(??),?
    ?????????? (ve Judgment Social Esteem Capacity
    ),??????????????????,????(ve Judgment social
    sanction propriety (ethics) ????,?????????????

13
Intercultural Understanding
  • Hill stresses that intercultural understanding is
    the most important component in international
    mindedness.
  • International mindedness has the following
    components to it I think the first and most
    important is intercultural understanding,
    awareness and what we sometimes called
    intercultural literacy and that is absolutely
    fundamental without that you cant have
    international mindedness. (Interview with Hill
    2012)

14
Intercultural Understanding
  • Harrison (201395-96) indicates that
    intercultural understanding is an important
    component in and subset in international
    mindedness. Students develop intercultural
    understanding and respect for cultural diversity
    through learning experience and languages in
    internationally minded curricula.
  • Cambridge (200026) indicates that it was very
    important to have sustainable development and
    intercultural dialogue in a global village.

15
Intercultural understanding
  • School A
  • ??Why are we learning global issues? This is
    because you can understand and respect other
    cultures and heritage.
  • ??????????????,??????????????????? understand
    other cultures (ve Appren)?????,??????????
    respect (ve Appren)??
  • TeacherWhy are we learning global issues? This
    is because you can understand other cultures and
    heritage, (ve Appren)and ?? respect (ve
    Appren)them.
  •  

16
Intercultural understanding
  • School B
  • Group Presentation Group 1
  • Chris Moreover, internet promotes learning
    cultural heritages such as Cantonese Opera and
    Chinese Opera around the world. It can also
    promote and preserve cultural heritages.
  • Chris The fourth point is that we can use
    internet to admire the essence of the cultures of
    all other countries. ve Apprecn intercultural
    understanding ,respect other cultures. For
    example, people from other countries can also
    watch the Cantonese or Beijing opera.
  • Appreciateand preserve cultural heritage

17
Intercultural understanding
  • Teacher indicated that students should cultivate
    intercultural understanding as students were come
    from different cultural background. She asked
    students to explore global issues in the world in
    order to cultivate intercultural awareness,
    cultural diversity and knowledge of cultural
    identity in a global village through learning
    Chinese.
  • Students answered that Hong Kong is part of China
    and they were living in Hong Kong and they have
    to know about the cultural identity in Hong Kong
    through learning Chinese language. Students also
    need to learn the world through global issues.
  • ???????????,????????????,??????????????????,?????
    ?????,???????????????????????,????????Why are we
    leaning ???????
  • ?????????????,??????????,??????

18
Values Education
  • In the following group discussion, students make
    moral judgement on the social sanction such as
    gender equalities. In their research
    presentation, they criticized that gender
    inequalities caused poverty in China. They
    criticized the government not to improve the
    quality of living of girls in rural villages
    because of government corruption.
  • Student ????,???????causing poverty.

19
Values Education
  • Lee (2004139) indicates that values education
    promote orderly and caring school communities,
    improving human rights for girls and women and
    promote values of justice and equity.
  • Teacher asked students to think why girls cannot
    go to school because they have to do household in
    the family and give birth for the next generation
    in traditional Chinese ideology. Students make
    the Judgment social sanction propriety (ethics)
    and criticize that the inequalities and social
    injustice were caused by the governments
    corruption and the unreasonable Chinese
    traditional ideology and discrimination. Students
    make the inscribed judgment on world-view or
    ideological position or heteroglossic diversity.
  • Therefore, students think that girls should have
    same human right to receive education.

20
Values Education
  • Students also learn caring and compassion. In
    their presentation, students found that they did
    not have caring for others. However, students
    reported that they learn the human values and
    caring for others through discussion of case
    study. They reported that they were willing to
    help and give donation in order to improve the
    life of poor children. They learn and cherish
    these valuable experiences and understand social
    injustice and discrimination.

21
Global Citizenship
  • Harrison (201397) indicates that global
    citizenship and intercultural understanding
    embrace the large scale of human civilization,
    issues that affect global populations and what
    can happen when cultures interact. Global poverty
    is one of the global issues, which is related to
    large scale of human civilization.

22
Global Citizenship
  • Students build up the knowledge of global
    awareness to think globally.
  • Teacher used transdisciplinary approaches to ask
    students thinking about the transdisciplinary
    knowledge of poverty. Students can connect prior
    knowledge of other subjects such as geography and
    history to generate questions about economy,
    education, poverty and inequity and health
    problems with poverty in the rural area. Students
    mentioned that the poor were facing illness and
    death caused by lack of healthcare in the poor
    countries.

23
Human Rights and Democracy
  • Group 2
  • Student FengAs the first effect, the network
    can be used as a platform for discussion.
    Everyone can comment or express their own opinion
    so we have to protect the freedom of speech and
    respect human right. When it comes to express our
    opinions, we can promote (social esteem
    capacity) the democratic development. (propriety
    (ethics) inscribed Positive judgement). We have
    a good example, it is the Arabic Spring.

24
Human Rights and Democracy
  • Student C The Internet has also become a tool
    for controlling thinking. (Ideological position
    (propriety (ethics) inscribed Negative
    judgement) It is beneficial that the government
    has closed down certain websites for propagating
    their own political thinking. displacing and
    replacing the culture of the indigenous country
    (propriety (ethics) inscribed Negative
    judgement)
  • Some developed countries do not realise promoting
    forcibly (a high value of INTENSITY FORCE) their
    own cultures and values to other countries by
    depending on their economies and political
    standing in the international society. (Propriety
    (ethics) inscribed Negative judgement)

25
Human Rights and Democracy
  • Students discussed human rights and democracy in
    their group presentation.
  • It was like China closing down the websites
    regarding Liu Xiaobo ???after winning this Nobel
    Peace Prize (propriety (ethics) inscribed
    Negative judgement) because Liu fought for
    democracy. (propriety (ethics) inscribed
    Positive judgement)

26
Human Rights and Democracy
  • Another example is that a lot of the local
    mainland Chinese do not know the truth regarding
    the June 4 incident. (inscribed negative
    judgement, veracity (truth)
  • Because the Chinese government has closed down
    these websites so that the Government does not
    want others to know what they had done and what
    had really happened. (inscribed negative
    judgement, propriety (ethics) inscribed Negative
    judgement)

27
The Pedagogical approaches
  • The pedagogical approaches include scaffolding,
    inquiry based learning, research skills, critical
    thinking, collaborative learning,
    student-centered teaching.
  • Students realized international mindedness by
    making moral judgments and applying
    interdisciplinary knowledge of social issues to
    learn the concepts of intercultural
    understanding, global citizenship.
  • I hope that this study will contribute to promote
    intercultural understanding and international
    mindedness and give suggestions on improvement in
    IB curriculum development, teaching and learning.

28
The Pedagogical approaches
  • Student-centered teaching
  • In the teaching cycle, teacher implemented
    inquiry based teaching. Teacher identified that
    they had discussed regarding the social issues
    such as poverty and media by questioning in order
    to enhance students understanding, engagement in
    the classroom interaction in order to arouse
    their curiosity and confidence in further
    discussion.

29
Scaffolding
  • Vogotsky (1978 86, Christie 2000, 125 )
    indicated that Zone of proximal development is
    the distance between the actual development level
    as determined by independent problem solving and
    the level of potential development as determined
    through problem solving under adult guidance or
    in collaboration with more capable peers. The
    teacher showed scaffolding in her teaching in
    order to help her students to reach their level
    of potential development.

30
Scaffolding, collaborative learning, research
skills and critical reflection
  • Teacher If you look for the poverty definition,
    you have read the United Nations and World Bank,
    United Nations dedicated to improving the well
    being of present and future generations through
    the promotion of sustainable development.
    (inscribed Social Esteem capacity Positive
    Judgement)
  • ???????,??????????,??????,???????????????,???????
    ?,????????,??????????????,?????????????,??????????
    ????????????????

31
Communication skills
  • In the communication skills, teacher taught
    students to read the poverty references not only
    learning for vocabulary expansion, comprehension
    skills but also learning culture and the global
    poverty problems. They learn how to understand
    and analysis the poverty line.
  •  

32
Research skills and Collaborative skills
  • Davies, L. (200623) indicates that global
    citizen should have research skills and the
    schools should encourage research skills on
    global issues such as rights, poverty or conflict
    in their local area.
  • Hill (2012259) indicates that critical thinking
    and collaboration are applied beyond the national
    borders in the education for international
    mindedness which will help teachers and students
    to shape the attitude towards intercultural
    understanding, peaceful co-existence and global
    sustainable development for the future of the
    human race. Students found that poverty will be
    caused by war because of unstable political
    situation.

33
Collaborative learning, research skills and
critical reflection
  • Teacher encourages students to develop research
    skills, collaborative and critical reflection
    which are the key components of ways of knowing.
    They are applying new knowledge in real-life
    situation.
  • Teacher Now, I want all of you to search for
    information and after 2 to 3 weeks present an
    oral presentation. The main theme is related to
    culture, that is the influence of the internet on
    cultural exchanges. As far as the economics part,
    it is better that all of us learn together
    because it is a bit more difficult. Sometimes, we
    do not know how to analyse it.

34
Conflict resolution skills
  • UNESCO (20108) and Oxfam (20061) stress that
    learning conflict resolution skills are important
    components in international mindedness which
    requires mutual understanding, nondiscrimination,
    respect for difference, inclusion and equal
    opportunity, regardless of race, culture, gender,
    language or religious or political beliefs. It is
    difficult for a society without equity or justice
    to remain peaceful or socially cohesive. Without
    peace or harmony, economic and environmental
    sustainability are also threatened.

35
Conflict resolution skills
  • In the following student presentation, students
    found that poverty was globalised including
    social problem, climate change and civil war.
    Civil war caused a lot of children were killed
    and they lost their homes
  • Students Poverty was globalised which was mainly
    caused by war, social problems, climate change.
    Civil war caused a lot of children were killed
    and they lost their homes and destroying
    infrastructures. Children could not receive
    education and therefore it took a lot of time to
    rebuild the society. Moreover, the government
    should provide education and necessities.

36
Critical thinking
  • TeacherThis is a Chinese class. You have to know
    about poverty in China and Hong Kong,because you
    are living in Hong Kong. Then you need to look
    for poverty in another country. You have to
    express your opinions critically (ve Judgment
    Social Esteem Capacity ) on how the government
    solve the poverty problems effectively. ( -ve
    Judgment Social Esteem tenacity (resolve)) You
    have to criticize the government should handle
    the poverty problems but they had did not handle
    the poverty problems properly. (-ve Judgment
    Social Esteem tenacity (resolve) )
  • You hav to look for the definition, cause and
    effect and suggested solutions and compare with
    other countries in the world which can help you
    to learn international mindedness (ve Judgment
    Social Esteem Capacity ),You are caring the
    global issues. (ve Judgment social sanction
    propriety (ethics).

37
Critical thinking Skills
  • Teacher used probing questions to engage students
    to make judgement and self-reflection on personal
    beliefs and ethics. Students have to think the
    relationship between poverty and ethics. She
    encouraged students to learn from the peers
    through discussion and critical thinking.
    Students criticize that poverty was caused by the
    corruption of the government. Students make the
    Judgment social sanction propriety (ethics) and
    criticize that the inequalities and social
    injustice were caused by the governments
    corruption and did not care the poor in Africa.

38
Critical thinking
  • Chris?????????,????????????????,???????????????,
    ???????????????????????,??????????,??????????????

39
Critical thinking
  • Chris The large volume of information on the
    Internet makes it difficult to differentiate
    between genuine and false information, causing
    misunderstanding and errors when the information
    is received. This will lead Internet citizens to
    have incorrect impressions of the cultures of
    other countries. This will give rise to bias.
    Under more severe conditions, it will lead to
    racial discrimination. (inscribed Social
    Sanctionpropriety (ethics) Negative Judgement).
    Students analyze casual relationship of the
    reasons of internet abuse, which caused ethics
    problems.
  • Students engage in self-reflection on personal
    beliefs and values.

40
Critical thinking
  • ?????????,?????????,????????,?????????,????????
    ??,??????????,???????
  • Teacher For each argument point, you must have a
    corresponding evidence. Then, you need to prove
    that argument. Evidence for the argument is the
    fact. Facts are the examples that you can find in
    real life.
  • Teacher requests students have to apply
    reasoning, justification, induction and deduction
    in order to get rid of biases.

41
Critical thinking skills
  • Discussion of controversial issues can build
    skills such as listening, debate, handling
    conflict, self awareness, distinguishing between
    fact and opinion, creative problem solving,
    critical thinking, ethical reasoning, recognizing
    bias, evaluating evidence, justifying an
    argument, logical "We should be teaching students
    how to think. Instead, we are teaching what to
    think." (Clement and Lochhead, 1980, Cognitive
    Process Instruction). Critical thinking can help
    students to have self reflection and
    classification of values. Teacher promotes
    thinking and discussion can encourage students to
    have critical thinking skills and whole class
    engagement which can offer more opportunities for
    students to share their opinions, receive
    feedbacks and achieve challenge tasks by groups.

42
Results and Discussion
  • It is very important that teacher to be a role
    model to promote international mindedness.
  • Halliday points out (2007187) that the second
    language learning likes the first language
    learning is a problem solving activity and
    information processing.
  • The teacher encourages students to learn and
    respect different points of view on social
    issues. Christie (2000169) indicates that
    teachers open-mindedness will help students to
    develop international mindedness and their
    independent points of view critically.

43
Results and discussion
  • Interview with teacher
  • Teacher I think the ideology of the IB mission
    statement is very deep. It hope to educate
    children to be internationally minded. It is very
    important. So they will also be open-minded and
    willing to express their own opinions. Therefore,
    I think in the classroom they should be able to
    express their own view freely.
  • ?????,??IB Mission Statement???????,?????????????
    ??,????,????????,?????????????????????????????????

44
Conclusion
  • In order to be able to accept and respect other
    cultures and have tolerance towards cultural
    differences. Both teachers and students need to
    cultivate intercultural understanding and have
    the ability to think globally in a critical and
    logical way, mutual trust and respect and work
    co-operatively, take responsibilities in society,
    resolve conflict in a non-violent manner.
    (Judgment Social Esteem Capacity ).
  • The teaching and learning tradition has been
    shifted to conceptualized international
    mindedness, global citizenship, knowledge
    acquisition as well as shifted towards
    independent learning. (Judgment Social Esteem
    Capacity ).

45
Conclusion
  • Zhou (2006) advocates Learning to be developing
    professional attributes, including commitment,
    sense of responsibility and love for teaching and
    for learners to improve human communication
  • Learning to live together breaking isolation for
    team work and guiding learners as coach of
    learning and as co-learners with their pupils in
    achieving educational aims of human development
    and full flowering of human potential.

46
Peaceful World
  • IBOs mission statement is to create a better and
    more peaceful world through education.
  • Confucius advocated a perfect world of
    brotherhood of mankind which is an ideal world or
    Utopia Da-Tong ???? encompasses equality,
    union, harmony, welfare, justice and universal
    peace.
  • Mencius promoted peace and justice for the entire
    world.
  • As Liu (2000) argues that Neo-Confucian
    philosophers promote respecting different
    cultures, multiculturalism, humanitys ultimate
    concern ???? and compassion by sustainable
    development and intercultural dialogue in a
    global village.

47
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