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Rehab - Background

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... Gerald Ford gave Nixon a pardon preventing criminal prosecution, and then lost the next election - Jimmy Carter was a one-term president - etc.) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Rehab - Background


1
Rehab - Background
  • Review Prison Outline
  • Walker Chap 11
  • Wedding cake model
  • Walkers discussion is contemporary --- Some
    background should be helpful in
  • understanding policy issues with rehab
  • Comments
  • Social/political policies like rehab usually have
    a history, and contemporary interest in policies
    pretty much
  • always arises from specific circumstances
    (usually problems) that have arisen. By looking
    at the history of
  • policies we can better tell where they come from,
    how they have worked in the past, their chances
    for
  • working under changes circumstances, etc.
  • As a smart philosopher once said
  • those who forget their history are doomed to
    repeat it

2
Rehab - Background
  • Rehab is usually discussed in an individual
    context - not a policy (programs) context.
  • There are important differences
  • Coercion issue (forced help)
  • Program issues (prediction, fit, etc.)
  • Measuring success (short vs. long term)
  • Net widening (vs. aging out)
  • Comments
  • Rehab programs relating to target groups
    (prisoners, probationers, etc.) are almost always
    coercive (do it
  • or suffer some kind of consequences!). Program
    issues involve questions about who will be a good
    candidate
  • for rehab, which programs are appropriate for
    which people (e.g. non drug users dont need drug
  • treatment). Success is often measured by short
    term results (e.g. improvements in
    behavior/attitude)
  • but long term results are more important
    (relapse? recidivism?). Aging out usually has
    better long term
  • results than any programs, so net widening
    might be a problem no matter how successful the
    program
  • appears to be.

3
Rehab - Background
  • Individual rehab
  • Sometimes it works, usually it doesnt - dieting,
    smoking, alcohol, gambling, drugs,
  • self-help, financial problems, etc.
  • Two key problems dropout relapse
  • Given this how to measure success those who
    start, finish, etc.??
  • Comments
  • All of us know how difficult it is to get rid of
    bad habits (like smoking) or adopt more effective
    ways of
  • doing things (eating right, working out,
    budgeting, etc.). All of these problems are
    magnified in a policy
  • approach where coercion is usually involved.
  • So how do we measure whether a program is
    successful (and worth the cost!)?
  • By how many people finish? by short term results?
    by long term results? or what?

4
Rehab - Background
  • Aging is the best crime reduction policy we know
    about (Walker)
  • Aging doing nothing (as policy)
  • Measure Rehab vs. Doing Nothing
  • Doing something makes things worse!
  • Comments
  • Rehab (individual and policy) is further
    complicated by aging out one of the patterns
    that emerges pretty
  • consistently from the research is that almost any
    intervention (doing something) hinders the
    process of
  • aging out and thus is counter-productive. For
    example, some researchers argue that both
    punishing illegal
  • drug use and drug education/treatment backfire by
    spreading drug use they contribute to causing
    what
  • they are trying to prevent! So the key measure of
    success for rehab programs is whether it works
    better
  • than aging out (doing nothing) and no rehab
    programs have clearly met this standard.

5
Rehab - Background
  • Where did rehab issue come from??
  • Before WW2, not much of an issue -- bigger
    problems - wars, depression, etc.
  • Rehab issue comes with prosperity!
  • (Maslows hierarchy of needs?)
  • Comments
  • The focus on rehab appears to arise historically
    with prosperity. Psychologist Abraham Maslow
    argued
  • that humans tend to focus on basic needs first
    (food, shelter, etc.) and only after these are
    consistently
  • satisfied do we look beyond to secondary needs,
    e.g. quality of life issues.

6
Rehab - Background
  • Remember indiv side of rehab ....
  • But we want to talk about rehab directed at
    subgroups in the larger population
  • prisoners drug users at risk juveniles
    parolees etc.
  • Comments
  • In terms of cj policy, most of the rehab focus is
    on changing targeted groups of people who are in
    a
  • coercive context (prisoners, detainees,
    probationers, etc.) they (almost always the
    poor/powerless) are
  • a problem for society (or more often the
    powerful people in a society) and rehab becomes
    the nice
  • alternative to confinement, extermination, etc.
    Thus conservatives tend to say they are a
    problem, punish
  • them harshly while liberals tend to say they
    are a problem, help them change notice that
    neither
  • usually questions the social arrangements that
    give them power and render others powerless.

7
Rehab - Background
  • 1950s and 1960s post WW2 socialism higher
    wages and benefits
  • Led to Prosperity, Optimism, Liberalism and
    also the rise of rehab
  • Expanding economy consumer manufacturing
  • Expanding opportunity service jobs
  • Civil Rights Movement and Feminism
  • War on Poverty - bringing everybody up
  • Comments
  • Before WW2, most Amer were rural/agricultural/smal
    l town/etc. and low wages for workers, poverty,
  • wars, and economic depressions made life
    difficult for most people. After WW2, the govt
    adopted many
  • socialist reforms and this led to higher wages,
    broader opportunities, more prosperity, etc. The
    rapidly
  • growing "middle class" (basic needs now reliably
    met) then began to drive an interest in rehab.

8
Rehab - Background
  • Low but rising crime rates in 1960s
  • baby boomers reaching the prime crime age
  • masked by Vietnam War Civil Rights Mvmt
  • expanding drug use
  • Imprisonment Rate low - and dropping!
  • A good time to fix problems!!
  • Comments
  • In the 1950s and into the mid-1960s, the economy
    was expanding, crime rates were low, and
    imprisonment
  • rates were dropping across most of the country.
    This seemed to many like a good time to fix
    problems, and
  • this was the heyday of the rehab movement.
  • In reality, crime rates were beginning to rise
    (baby boomers), but this was hardly noticed (and
    data was
  • manipulated by the FBI and other police agencies)
    because of attention drawn by the Civil Rights
  • Movement, the emerging anti-war movement, and
    emerging drug use.

9
Rehab - Background
  • Liberal rehab approaches
  • Diversion - into job programs, military
  • old manufac, new service jobs, military
  • For prisoners - rehab programs driven by
    indeterminate sentencing and the promise of help
    on release - halfway houses, etc.
  • Comments
  • The "top layer" of rehab (mostly for less serious
    offenders) involved factory jobs and often
    joining the
  • military - for more serious offenders who usually
    were sent to prisons for relatively short terms,
    the "new
  • rehab" was to include indeterminate sentencing to
    push prisoners into rehab (cooperate and get out
  • sooner) plus job training in prison, halfway
    houses upon release, and programs to help excons
    get jobs.

10
Rehab - Background
  • 1970s The lost decade
  • everything went wrong!
  • Vietnam disaster
  • War on Poverty abandoned
  • Declining economy
  • Pessimism Malaise
  • Backlash against CRM, Liberalism, Femism
  • Comments
  • By the late 1960s, the US was beginning to come
    apart at the seams - the white/conservative
    backlash
  • against the Civil Rights Mvmt, the anti-war mvmt,
    anti-poverty programs, etc., plus a declining
    economy, led
  • to the disastrous decade of the 1970s (Richard
    Nixon resigned in disgrace - Gerald Ford gave
    Nixon a
  • pardon preventing criminal prosecution, and then
    lost the next election - Jimmy Carter was a
    one-term
  • president - etc.) - by the end of the 1970s, the
    US was (permanently?) split between mostly-white
  • conservatives (Ronald Reagan was elected in 1980)
    and everybody else. Long a part of the
    conservative
  • agenda, "get tough" approaches to crime (and the
    poor, drug users, etc.) now became the focus of
    much
  • govt policy, and this what has developed and
    deepened since.

11
Rehab - Background
  • Crime rates stabilized at a high level (baby
    boomers aging out)
  • But distorted by conservative politicians media
    crime and drug scares
  • our ever-increasing crime rates
  • Martinson Report - rehab a failure --
  • Get tough approaches become popular
  • Comments
  • Meanwhile, crime rates stabilized at relatively
    high levels (the baby boomers began aging out)
    even as
  • conservatives continued to promote the idea of
    "ever increasing crime rates" and the media
    increased
  • their focus on crime in both news reporting and
    fictional TV shows, movies, etc. The popularity
    of the "get
  • tough" approaches only increased with the
    Martinson report which (superficially) showed
    that rehab had
  • not been demonstrated to work despite the
    expenditure of large amounts of money on
    programs.

12
Rehab - Background
  • 1980s - The conservative turn
  • Continuing econ probs - declining manufac,
    globalization effects
  • Continuing abandoning of the poor
  • War on crime, war on drugs escalate
  • Crime rates stable, but IR rising fast
  • Prison overcrowding, rehab declining
  • Comments
  • Economic problems continued into the 1980s as
    manufacturing continued to decline and jobs
    continued to
  • move to other countries (mainly for cheap labor).
    As tax bases deteriorated (lower wages led to
    lower tax
  • revenues and govt expenditures) the poor were
    increasingly "abandoned" (services deteriorated)
    and poor
  • communities were left with high crime rates.
    Meanwhile, overall crime rates remained stable
    (baby
  • boomers aging out and "graying" of society).
    Popular conservative get tough approaches were
    sending huge
  • numbers of poor people to prison and prisons were
    overcrowded and disorganized (violence, gangs,
    etc.).
  • Rehab continued to decline as liberalism declined
    and there was no money anyway because of the cost
    of
  • expanding prisons.

13
Rehab - Background
  • 1990s - Clinton years (conservative turn
    continues with cons democrat admin)
  • economic boom - based on new technologies
    (computers, electronics, etc.)
  • double help for poor - econ govt
  • crime rates falling fast as BBs age out
  • but - war on crime and drugs continues and
  • IR continues to grow rapidly
  • Huge prison expansion (at a huge cost!!)
    Warehouse prisons - little rehab
  • Comments
  • In the 1990s the US experienced an economic boom
    - the new jobs, rising wages, and rising tax
    revenues
  • provided some help for poor people (jobs and govt
    aid) and continuing aging out of the baby boomers
    led to
  • big decreases in street crime rates. But the cons
    war on crime and drugs continued (with even more
    govt
  • money to spend!) and the imprisonment rates grew
    rapidly. As prisons increasingly became very
    expensive
  • warehouses for the poor, rehab funding was
    further cut and programs disappeared.

14
Rehab - Background
  • 2000s - return to more conservative Repub admin
  • economy crashes terrorism and war
  • double hit on the poor - econ govt
  • crime decrease stops - rates level off
  • continuing war on crime and drugs
  • continuing imprisonment binge - and continuing
    growth of huge cost
  • Led to the current rehab dilemma
  • Comments
  • After 2000, the economy turned down and many poor
    jobs were lost, plus a cons govt cut the few
    programs
  • for the poor that had emerged in the 1990s. The
    crime decreases stopped and crime rates leveled
    off at
  • still high rates (esp violent crime). The war on
    crime and drugs escalated again and the imp binge
    grew
  • faster at huge cost, and this led to a dilemma -
    the cost of "get tough" was finally beginning to
    create
  • huge problems for state budgets (schools, health
    care, colleges, etc.).

15
Rehab - Background
  • Rehab as a political football
  • Rehab (policy) mostly doesnt work -- Long
    history of failure
  • But extremely high recidivism rates and the
    staggering costs of prisons poses a huge problem
    that drives govts back to rehab.
  • Mostly at state level - states pay for most of
    the costs!
  • Comments
  • This why "rehab is back" - it has a long history
    of failure and there is no reason to believe that
    it will work
  • any better today than it has in the past - but
    conservative "get tough" approaches are an even
    bigger and
  • more costly disaster - they don't work either and
    as prison pops grow so do recidivism rates and
    the cost
  • of prisons - meanwhile states are "de-funding"
    public schools, colleges, health care, and other
    services
  • that might actually reduce crime in order to pay
    for prisons. Thus states get both the high cost
    of prisons
  • and high crime rates - they have to do something,
    but what can they do? What are the politically
    viable
  • alternatives to rehab?
  • This is where Walker's discussion of rehab starts
    .......
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