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SYMPOSIUM ON VISITOR SAFETY AND SECURITY IN THE CARIBBEAN

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Title: SYMPOSIUM ON VISITOR SAFETY AND SECURITY IN THE CARIBBEAN


1
SYMPOSIUM ON VISITOR SAFETY AND SECURITY IN THE
CARIBBEAN
  • CRIME AND HARASSMENT OF TOURISTS/VISITORS
  • ANALYSIS, ASSESSMENT AND RECOMMENDATIONS
  • PRESENTER CLIFFORD E. GRIFFIN, PhD
  • September 22-23, 2003

2
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3
2003 World Tourism Forecast
  • US4,544.2 billion of economic activity
  • 11.2 per cent of total exports
  • 10.2 per cent of GDP
  • 194,662,000 jobs
  • 7.6 per cent of total employment
  • Source World Travel Tourism Council

4
Caribbean Travel and Tourism Industry 2003
Forecast
  • US34.6b economic activity3 growth
  • 567,870 jobs1.4 employment growth
  • US6.5b or 1.8 industry GDP growth
  • 1,857,000 jobs1.4 growth in Travel and Tourism
    economy
  • US23.1b or 2.3 growth in Tourism economy

5
Travel and Tourism Economy
  • 1,857,000 jobs12 of total employment
  • US23.1b or 13 of GDP
  • US16.2b exports16.2 of total exports
  • US7.6b capital investment, 22.3 of total
  • US2.0b Government exp., 8.8 share

6
Caribbean Travel and Tourism 10-year Projections
to 2013
  • 5.5 Travel/Tourism growth to US78.4b
  • 6.7 growth to US16.3b in direct benefits
  • 6.7 growth to US53b for Tourism and Travel
    economy overall
  • 5.6 direct sector jobs growth to 975,800
  • 4.7 Travel/Tourism Econ jobs growth to 2,945,100
    overall

7
Caribbean Travel and Tourism 10-year Projections
to 2013
  • 7 growth in visitor exports to US36.3b
  • 3.5 growth in capital invest to US14.3b
  • 3.5 govt expenditure growth to US3.8b
  • Source World Travel Tourism Council at
  • http//www.wttc.org/measure/PDF/Caribbean

8
Caribbean Travel and Tourism
  • Almost unparalleled globally as a source of
    income, employment, hard currency earnings and
    economic growth
  • Sustainability is intimately linked to visitor
    safety and security

9
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10
Tourist/Visitor Safety and Security Picture
  • Pre-9-11 security 1 concern for 15 of visitors
  • Post-9-11 safety 1 reason for choosing a
    particular destination
  • Historically, tourism destinations covered up
    their security
  • Today, travelers no longer fear tourism security
    but demand it
  • Increasingly police are viewed as economic
    development tools

11
Regional Tourist/Visitor Safety and Security
Concerns
  • Food
  • Health and Health Care Delivery/Facilities
  • Transportation
  • road, air and water traffic accidents
  • Signage
  • Accommodation
  • Environment Management
  • Employment
  • Crisis response/disaster management systems
  • Harassment Crime Terrorism

12
Concerns for Governments and Tourism Stakeholders
  • Perception of rising crime levels against
    tourists/visitors
  • Perception that regions rising crime rates may
    adversely affect the tourism industry
  • Regions openness may be conducive to crimes of
    opportunity as well as planned crimes
  • Increasing complaints of harassment by
    tourists/visitors

13
COMPARATIVE STAKEHOLDER ATTITUDES TOWARD CRIME IN
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
14
Focus
  • Crime against tourists/visitors
  • Harassment of tourists/visitors
  • Crime committed by tourists/visitors

15
Tourist/Visitor
  • VISITORnon-residents who visit a country
  • TOURISTvisitors who spend at least one night in
    a country
  • CRUISE SHIP PASSENGERregarded as tourist

16
Tourist/Visitor
  • Crime data do not distinguish between tourist and
    cruise ship passenger
  • While the crime rate against all visitors will
    provide a fairly accurate overall picture, it
    will somewhat understate the risk for tourists.

17
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18
Crime and Violence Definition
  • Crime, including assault, battery, rape, murder,
    etc. are considered acts of violence
  • Analytically useful to distinguish between crime,
    acts of violence and harassment

19
Crime and Violence Definition
  • CRIME A social harm that the law makes
    punishable
  • VIOLENCE unjust or unwarranted use of force,
    usually accompanied by fury, vehemence, or
    outright rage.
  • Source Blacks Law Dictionary 7th ed., 1999.

20
Harassment Definition
  • Annoying behavior carried to extremes.
  • Behavior need not be annoying initially
  • persistence?annoyance
  • Extreme annoyance?harassment.
  • Words, conduct, or action (usually repeated or
    persistent) that, being directed as a specific
    person, annoys, alarms, or causes substantial
    emotional distress in that person and serves no
    legitimate purpose

21
Crime and Harassment in Perspective
  • PriceWaterhouse Coopers 2nd annual survey of
    Jamaican hoteliers, Nov 2001...
  • Crime and Harassment are the most important
    issues that will affect hotel occupancies and
    earnings49
  • In 2000--until crime and harassment are reduced,
    sector will fall far short of its potential
  • Reduction of crime and harassment the 1 problem
    to be resolved if tourism industry is to improve
    earnings and occupancies-- 66.1.

22
HARASSMENT
  • It is disquieting to have strangers stand in
    your path or shadow you while you walk, all the
    time begging or offering their unsolicited
    services. On a recent trip to Ocho Rios I
    witnessed blatant tourist harassment and since
    there were no policemen anywhere in sight, I had
    to take it on myself to call the fellow aside and
    tell him that he is killing our country by his
    selfish act.
  • (Garth A. Rattray, Gleaner, May 1, 2001).

23
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24
Tourist/Visitor Victimization Data Issues
  • Reliable data difficult to obtain
  • Where produced, closely guarded by many
    tourism-reliant destinations
  • Tendency to suppress information about extent of
    crime and harassment of tourists/visitors.
  • General concern publishing/publicizing data
    would injure sector.

25
Regional Tourist/Visitor Crime Data Problems
  • All jurisdictions collect crime data
  • Variation in data collection/management
  • Some do not discriminate between local and
    tourist/visitor crime
  • Few collect tourist/visitor crime data
  • Tourist/visitor crime underreported
  • Tourist/visitors short stay
  • Belief that police can/will do little about it
  • Reported if victim wishes to file insurance
  • Recorded crimes against tourists/visitors will be
    less than actual

26
Nature of Tourist/Visitor Crime
  • Mainly against stay-over visitors rather than
    against cruise ship visitors3 types of crime
  • Property crimes
  • Robbery/theft from hotel/guest houses, vehicles,
    beaches and public places, remote sight-seeing
    tours
  • Sometimes results in bodily harm
  • Unwelcome Sexual Advances
  • Especially against women (often leads to rape)
  • Offering Sale of Illicit Drugs
  • GOAL to secure cash or potable property

27
Perpetrators Views of Tourists/Visitors
  • Normally very wealthy
  • Take risks
  • Go out after dark, visit clubs/pubs, drink and
    get careless
  • Perpetrators consider a street mugging is
    considered less risky than a hotel room burglary

28
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29
Tourist/Visitor Dishonesty
  • Guests skip out on their bills
  • Theft of other guests property
  • Make false claims of impolite/improper service
  • Make false claims about loss of property
  • Make fraudulent insurance claims
  • Commit credit card fraud
  • Write bad checks (travelers and personal)
  • Pass counterfeit money
  • Engage in other illicit activities
  • Drug trafficking, gun running, money laundering,
    prostitution, alien smuggling

30
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31
Recorded Crimes Against Tourists/Visitors to
Barbados 1980-2000
900
800
700
600
500
incidence of crime
Recorded Crimes
400
300
200
100
0
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
years
32
Recorded Crimes Against Tourists/Visitors to
Barbados 1980-2000
900
849
821
800
797
758
751
750
701
700
690
611
600
564
539
523
500
incidence of crime
494
Recorded Crimes
439
436
416
415
400
379
352
345
323
300
200
100
0
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
years
33
Distribution of Recorded Crime Against
Tourists/Visitors to Barbados 1980-2000
Burglary
51

22
Robbery
9
Other Theft
7
Theft From Beach
Theft From Motor Vehicle
Types of Crime
3
Distribution of Recorded Crime
Theft From Person
3
Aggravated Burglary
2
Wounding
2
1
Sex Offences
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
percentages
34
Reported Crimes Against Tourists/Visitors to
Tobago 1996-2002
180
160
153
151
147
140
120
113
incidence of crime
100
85
No of Crimes
80
66
58
60
40
20
0
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
years
35
Tobago Tourist-Visitor Crimes 1996-2002
180
160
153
151
147
140
120
Incidence of Crime
113
100
No of Crimes
85
80
66
60
58
40
20
0
2000
1996
1997
1998
1999
2001
2002
Years
36
Reported Crimes Against Tourists/Visitors to TT
Jan 2002 to July 2003
14
12
10
8
Trinidad
Tobago
Totals
monthly incidence of crime
6
4
2
0
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
months
37
Types and Distribution of Crimes Against
Tourists/Visitors to TT Jan 2002-Jul 2003
Murder
0.70
1.50
Kidnappings
1.50
Wounding
1.50
Sexual Offenses
Types of Crime
6.60
Distribution of Crime
Assaults
Burglaries
9.60
12.50
Housebreakings
Robberies
18.40
47.70
Larcenies
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
60.00
percentage distribution of crime
38
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39
Reported Crimes Against Cruisers in TT in 2002
1
Wounding With Intent
1
Robbery With Violence
1
Robbery With Aggravation
types of crime
5
Crimes Against Cruisers
Larceny Dhingy and Engine
Larceny Boat Engine
1
3
Larceny From Boat
3
Larceny
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
number of incidences
40
REPORTS OF CRIMES AGAINST CRUISERS IN 2OO2
4.5
4
4
3.5
3
2.5
MONTHLY INCIDENCE OF
VICTIMIZATION
Yachties
2
2
2
1.5
1
1
1
1
1
1
0.5
0
0
0
0
0
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
MONTHS
41
Annual Yacht Arrivals To Trinidad and Tobago 1992-
2002
Annual Yacht Arrivals
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
Years
42
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43
MAIN FORMS OF HARASSMENT
  • Pressure to buy things they do not wish
  • Attempts to sell them drugs (ganja, coke, crack)
  • Being followed around
  • Being pushed around
  • Being pushed and shoved into taxis
  • Being approached for sex or to buy sexual favors
  • Being approached to sell foreign currency
  • Being pushed and shoved in shopping areas

44
MAIN FORMS OF HARASSMENT
  • Being pressured to braid hair
  • Being pressured to hire guides
  • Being abused or threatened
  • Using incentives to entice tourists/visitors to
    patronize a particular business or activity
  • Trailing and following tourists/visitors closely
    anticipating their needs
  • Overcharging for goods and services
  • Verbal abuse when services offered are not
    accepted

45
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO STAKEHOLDER ATTITUDES TOWARD
CRIME AND HARASSMENT OF VISITORS
46
HARASSERS PERSPECTIVE
  • Individuals do not view persistent sales pitch as
    harassment
  • Behavior consistent with Caribbean culture of
    salesmanship is aggression--to make a sale,
    interest a potential customer, or get a fare.
  • Do not view persistent sales pitches to
    tourists/visitors lying on the beach or walking
    in the streets as being disturbing or a nuisance.

47
TOURIST/VISITOR HARASSMENT RATES
48
PRINCIPAL AREAS OF HARASSMENT
49
FORMS OF HARASSMENT EXPERIENCED
50
Stakeholders' Views of Most Frequent Types of
Harassment
20.8
No Response
23.4
Beach Boys
Craft Sellers
6.9
main types of harassers
Tour guides
2.8
1.4
Hair Braiders
0
Tour Operators
12.5
Taxi Drivers
0
5
10
15
20
25
frequency of harassment
51
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52
DOMINICAS RESPONSE
  • April 2001 law criminalizing harassmentdesigned
    to curb harassment and make the island more
    visitor-friendly
  • Police can harassment anyone caught harassing
    others
  • Penalty 370 or up 6 months in jail.
  • Special Tourism Police unit instituted

53
GRENADAS RESPONSES
  • 1975 and 1986 anti-harassment legislation
    targeting taxi drivers and vendors
  • 1992 law empowers magistrates to hold court at
    any time in the interest of justice

54
GRENADAS RESPONSES
  • Strengthen beach and hotel security
  • Increasing of police patrols in tourist belt
  • Increase of police patrols when cruise ships
    are docked in harbor
  • Creating quick-response reserve force with
    communication equipment
  • Increasing of coast guard patrols.

55
ST. LUCIAS RESPONSES
  • May 1, 1999--Parks and Beaches Comm. became
    National Conservation Authority
  • Authoritys Special Constables maintain order in
    prescribed areasheritage sites, beaches, etc
  • Authority issues licenses to vendors
  • Authority required to provide vendors with
    kiosks, etc., and monitor their operations

56
ST. LUCIAS RESPONSES
  • Separate security and licensing arrangements are
    made for the ports and cruise ship terminals.
  • Private Security, along with the police,, have
    major responsibility for keeping order at Point
    Seraphin, especially controlling solicitation by
    taxi drivers and begging by individuals

57
ST. LUCIAS RESPONSES
  • Much skepticism and resistance to this strict
    enforcement approach remains given the range of
    economic and social problems that afflict the
    youth.

58
ST. KITTS NEVIS RESPONSES
  • 1994 NIA legislation designated all beaches
    prescribed areas
  • Ministry of Tourism authorized to declared any
    area prohibited area
  • Nevis Beach Vending Order 2002 requires license
    for beach vending
  • Police security firm monitor compliance
  • Penalty ,1000 or 3 months in jail
  • Considering providing kiosks at Pinneys Beach.

59
JAMAICAS RESPONSES
  • 1997-98 Govt considered doubling fines for
    harassers
  • Establish night court for swift processing of
    offenders
  • 1999 increased of police plainclothes
    soldiers patrolling tourist areas
  • Joint JDF and police patrols.

60
JAMAICAS RESPONSES
  • Increased security in resort areas
  • Mounted police and bicycle patrols
  • Creating national communication system to utilize
    GPS technology
  • Judiciary to apply full legal penalties
  • Ongoing public education programs
  • Team Jamaica Course required by drivers
  • Vehicles must be inspected
  • Valid JTB license required of all contract
    carriers

61
JAMAICAS RESPONSES
  • Identify system of prescribed areas
  • Security provided by Resort Patrols Jamaica
    Constabulary
  • Patrols dress similarly to JC and travel in pairs
    accompanied with member of JC
  • Stiffer fines for offences committed in
    prescribed areasnot supported by some
    magistrates.

62
JAMAICAS RESPONSES
  • Extensive PR program
  • Subject in schools across country
  • Goals change attitudes and behaviors toward
    tourism prospective career opportunities.
  • Hotels give week-end prizes for tourism related
    competitions
  • TV and radio used to get message out.

63
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO RESPONSES
  • Community Policing
  • Community Tourism Bike Unit
  • Tourism Police (TOPS) Program
  • Downtown City Ambassadors Program
  • Initiatives to Comfort Victims
  • Tourism Awareness Lectures
  • Special Courts for Expeditious Trials

64
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65
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66
Paradigm Shift
  • Destinations emphasizing safety and security
    highly likely to survive
  • Destinations providing good mixture of security
    and safety and good customer service will
    flourish
  •  

67
Paradigm Shift
  • Security and safety are strictly non-competitive
    issues
  • Require collaboration, coordination and
    cooperation between and among stakeholders
  • Do not create a false sense of security
  • Develop security coalitions with all components
    of the community
  • Ensure that the police service is trained and
    understands tourism

68
Paradigm Shift
  • Professionally train hotel and attraction workers
    to handle safety and security issues
  • Implement safety and security measures in both
    rural and urban areas  
  • Include local and government officials in
    identifying and improve unsafe areas  
  • Ensure that police and security personnel are
    aware of how important tourism safety and
    security is

69
POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
  • Education and Public Awareness
  • Associations of Service Providers
  • Tourism Safety and Security Team

70
PUBLIC AWARENESS and PUBLIC POLICY
  • Governments in the region, in cooperation with
    hoteliers and other stakeholders in the industry,
    must undertake ongoing education and public
    awareness campaigns about the importance of and
    impact of tourism on the economies and societies
    of the region.

71
PUBLIC AWARENESS and PUBLIC POLICY
  • Tourists are turned off by harassment
  • Harassment robs citizens of dollars and cents
  • Harassment reduces the number of tourist
    arrivals as most visitors choose their
    destinations by word of mouth
  • Overcharging drives tourists/visitors away
  • Contrary to popular belief, most tourists are not
    rich they save their money in order to take a
    holiday in the Caribbean
  • Tourism is the countrys bread and butter.

72
PUBLIC AWARENESS and PUBLIC POLICY
  • Tourism studies should be incorporated into the
    curriculum at the primary, secondary and tertiary
    levels in order to help develop an appreciation
    for the product as well as inculcate in citizens
    the prospects of a future in the industry as
    historians, guides, bookkeepers, accountants,
    front desk persons, managers, marketers and other
    aspects of the industry.

73
PUBLIC AWARENESS and PUBLIC POLICY
  • Countries in the region should actively encourage
    the development of domestic tourism, whereby
    citizens are offered incentives (including
    reduced airfares where applicable, hotel rates,
    etc.) so that they may have greater exposure to
    what the country has to offer as well as
    participate in the tourist experience.

74
PUBLIC AWARENESS and PUBLIC POLICY
  • All countries should develop and implement
    ordinances to regulate the vending of goods and
    services.
  • Special markets should be established to house
    the vendors.
  • Where vending on beaches is permitted, kiosks
    should be built, vendors should be required to
    obtain licenses, and vendors, who sell food, must
    satisfy minimum sanitary criteria.

75
ASSOCIATIONS OF SERVICE PROVIDERS
  • Must be licensed by the proper governmental
    authority
  • Must wear uniform and wear/display valid picture
    identification/name tag every day
  • Must agree not to use obscene or offensive
    language, fight, harass guests, gamble, drink
    intoxicating beverages, sell or use dangerous, or
    be under the influence of alcohol, or offer
    themselves for prostitution
  • Must keep their work environment in a clean state
    and must dispose of garbage in proper
    receptacles
  • Must participate in and successfully complete
    Ministry of Tourisms professional development
    seminars and training programs.

76
TOURISM SAFETY AND SECURITY TEAM
  • Governments in the region must require their
    Ministries of Tourism, in collaboration with
    other stakeholders, including hoteliers,
    restaurateurs, the police, private security
    managers, chambers of commerce, and educators to
    develop a Tourism Safety and Security Team

77
TOURISM SAFETY AND SECURITY TEAM
  • MUST INSTITUTE A VISITOR RELATIONS UNIT WITH
    TRAINED PERSONNEL IN HUMAN RELATIONS

78
TOURISM SAFETY AND SECURITY TEAM
  • Provide safety and security training for all
    tourism/hospitality personnel
  • Inform tourists of safety and security risks
  • Educate law enforcement agencies as to economic
    and opportunity costs to country of safety and
    security violation
  • Maintain high police visibility
  • Select, train, and deploy in tourism areas police
    officers willing to talk to strangers

79
TOURISM SAFETY AND SECURITY TEAM
  • Private Security Services personnel and companies
    must register and obtain license from the police
  • Create a safety and security accrediting
    organization (or organizations)
  • Mandate all tourism enterprises to report all
    criminal activities
  • Adopt universal signs and pictograms related to
    tourism/hospitality safety and security

80
TOURISM SAFETY AND SECURITY TEAM
  • Be aware of safety and security information that
    marketers provide to travelers
  • Institute measures to rectify problem areas and
    provide marketers with updated information
  • Provide information and guidance to visitors
  • Protect both visitors and residents
  • Provide liaisons with consulates or embassies
    information in a timely manner
  • Create crisis plans for all possible safety and
    security incidences (including natural hazards).

81
TOURISM SAFETY AND SECURITY TEAM
  • Governments in the region, in collaboration with
    hoteliers, travel agents, the police and other
    stakeholders, must develop and implement a
    successful traveler safety information program

82
TOURISM SAFETY AND SECURITY TEAM
  • Do not carry expensive jewelry or watches.
  • Lock cameras, computers and other pricey
    equipment in your hotel safe.
  • Be firm when approached by aggressive vendors or
    hawkers.
  • Avoid certain urban areas at night.
  • Use a concealed money pouch or belt for passports
    and cash.
  • Avoid wandering on beaches alone after dark or
    isolated ones by day.
  • Make sure that someone not traveling with you
    knows where you are at all times.

83
TOURISM SAFETY AND SECURITY TEAM
  • If you become a victim, report the incident
    immediately to local police authorities and your
    countrys consulate on that island.
  • To help replace stolen documents, carry two extra
    passport-sized photos and a photocopy of your
    passport information page in a separate place.
  • Bring contact information of your countrys
    consulates for every country you plan to visit.

84
CONCLUSION
  • Public policy is best informed by reliable data
    jurisdictions must systematically collect data on
    visitor victimization
  • Because safety and security are goods demanded by
    tourists/visitors
  • Destinations that provide a good mix of safety,
    security and friendly service will thrive

85
Acknowledgements for data used in presentation
  • Anslem Richards, THA PRDI Daniel Nicholson,
    Councillor Neil Wilson
  • Carl Stone (late), UWI
  • Klaus Albuquerque (late)
  • Abraham Pizam Yoel Mansfeld
  • CTOArley Sobers Gail Clarke
  • Christopher Nuttal, Crime Justice Bullettin
  • Barbados Police Service
  • Orville Durant
  • Librarian, Jamaica Tourist Board Jamaica
    Ministry of Tourism
  • Bahamas Ministry of Tourism Bahamas Visitor
    Relations Unit
  • Bahamas Commissioner of Police
  • Tyrone OFlaherty, Ministry of Tourism Culture,
    NIA
  • TT MOCAT, esp. Gail Henry and research team
  • Anthony Mahler, Belize Ministry of Tourism Lucy
    Flemming, BTIA
  • Jacqueline Clarke, YSATT
  • Blacks Law Dictionary

86
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