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Juvenile Justice

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Juvenile Justice Chapter 14 In Your Textbook John Massey Criminal Justice Before the 1800 s Middle Ages Children portrayed as little men and little women Infancy ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Juvenile Justice


1
Juvenile Justice
  • Chapter 14 In Your Textbook
  • John Massey
  • Criminal Justice

2
Before the 1800s
  • Middle Ages
  • Children portrayed as little men and little women
  • Infancy ended at age 7.
  • Childhood was invisible.
  • Adolescence did not emerge until the 1800s.
  • Deviance handled informally.
  • Strict laws governing youth behavior.
  • Punishment rarely administered.
  • Children, if punished, were usually punished by
    parents.

3
1800s Child Workers
  • As late as 1780, children could be convicted and
    hanged for over 200 crimes.
  • Behavior and control responsibility of parents
  • Physical size and capacity more important than
    age.
  • Child Workers
  • Boys as young as 6 or 7 began work during
    Colonial Period.
  • Running errands, chopping wood
  • Age 14, family trade.
  • Social Security and Income

4
Parens Patriae the emergence of adolescence
  • Legal document, England
  • King is the father of the country
  • Authority to take child under custody
  • Intervention between the child and family.
  • Emergence of adolescence
  • Breakup of Colonial Society
  • Capitalism begins
  • Immigration, poor and dangerous classes
    emerge
  • Agriculture shifts to Industrialism
  • Adolescent, Juvenile Delinquency emerges

5
House of Refuge Movement
  • Children wandering the streets
  • 6 and 7 year olds convicted in criminal courts
    housed with adult inmates in jails and prisons.
  • Groups began to emerge to help the children.
  • Focus to remove children from unhealthy
    environments
  • 1824, New York
  • New York House of Refuge
  • First correctional facility for young offenders
    in U.S.
  • Aims
  • Teach reading, writing, math
  • Enforce moral and religious obligations
  • Be both corrective and punitive

6
Statistics
  • 63 of juveniles committed during a 30 year
    period Irish
  • Only 1 in 73 sent in the first year had been
    convicted of a serious offense.
  • 63 of the 73 were committed for stealing,
    vagrancy, etc.
  • Working class backgrounds (working poor, poor)
  • Fate of the House of Refuge Movement
  • Best interests of the children were not served
  • Strict discipline and control
  • Emergence of refuges in Boston, Philly, Baltimore
  • Crime and delinquency remained a problem.

7
Mid 19th Century Reforms
  • Complaints about HOR movement.
  • Growth of large cities.
  • Need for factory/mine workers children as cheap
    source of labor.
  • Public School Programs established.
  • Kindergarten, Extracurricular activities,
    Homeroom, Organized Playgrounds
  • All taught cooperation, respect for authority and
    discipline.
  • Schools as a Network of Social Control
  • Used to prevent and control delinquency
  • Teachers, guidance counselors, social workers
    all part of the network.

8
Fate of Mid 19th Century Reforms
  • Reforms did little to reduce crime.
  • Used to regulate and control deviants, potential
    deviants and poor in general.
  • Progressive Era opened the way for new forms and
    new institutions.
  • Care, Control, and Protection Child Saving
    Movement
  • Child Savers
  • Upper middle class, upper class whites w/
    business and professional backgrounds
  • Goals were to save children from jails and
    prisons and divert them from the adult CJ system.

9
Juvenile Court
  • Chicago and Denver 1899
  • 1899 Illinois Juvenile Court Act removed cases
    from adult system and formally established a
    juvenile court.
  • Status offenses
  • Vicious or immoral behavior, profane/indecent
    behavior, truancy (skipping school), running
    away, growing up in idleness, curfew violations.
  • Juvenile Court Environment
  • Judges were like stern fathers.
  • Informal, no need for lawyers
  • Cases were not criminal, Children were diagnosed.

10
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11
20th Century Developments
  • Little change between 1920s and 1960s in
    juvenile system.
  • The 1960s brought hope.
  • Supreme Court Cases
  • In re Gault (1967) same due process rights as
    adults
  • Kent v. US (1966) right to counsel like adults
  • In re Winship (1970) beyond a reasonable doubt
    like adults
  • Breed v. Jones (1975) double jeopardy
  • McKeiver v. Penn (1971) does NOT give juveniles
    right to jury trial.

12
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14
Issues Today
  • The Age Question
  • Are juveniles liable? Can they understand their
    actions?
  • Juvenile Gangs
  • Competency
  • Juveniles can be transferred to adult court
    through the use of a waiver.
  • Variety of Sanctions for juveniles curfews,
    juvenile detention, prison, boot camps, etc.

15
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