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Early Civilizations of India and Pakistan.

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Title: Early Civilizations of India and Pakistan.


1
Early Civilizations of India and Pakistan.
2
Monsoon
  • Seasonal winds which regularly blow from a
    certain direction for part of the year.

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Geography of ancient India.
  • Located in South Asia on the Indian Subcontinent.
  • Made up of modern day India, Pakistan,
    Bangladesh, the island of Sri Lanka, Nepal, and
    Bhutan.
  • Naturally protected in the north by the Himalayan
    and Hindu Kush mountain ranges.

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India Divided Into 3 Major Zones.
  • Ganges/Gangetic Plain
  • Made up of fertile farmland.
  • Deccan Plateau
  • Very dry, not very productive.
  • Coastal Plains on either side of the Deccan.
  • Heavy seasonal rains provide for farming.

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Three Major Rivers
  • Indus (from which India gets its name)
  • Ganges
  • Brahmaputra

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Mountain Ranges
  • Himalayas
  • Hindu Kush
  • Eastern Ghats
  • Western Ghats

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Monsoons
  • Seasonal winds which regularly blow from a
    certain direction for part of the year.
  • Winter monsoons
  • In October monsoons blow from the northeast,
    bringing hot, dry air.
  • Summer monsoons
  • In mid-June, the summer monsoons blow from the
    southwest picking up moisture from the Indian
    ocean and resulting in down pours of rain.
  • Downpours are good when timely and not too heavy.
    If they are late, crops will fail. If they are
    too heavy, deadly flooding will occur.

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Rise and Fall of the Indus Civilization.
  • 2600 B.C.
  • Earliest Indus civilization emerges.
  • Lasts until about 1900 B.C..
  • Very little has been revealed about them since
    their discovery in the 1920s.

16
What We Do Know
  • Covered the largest area of any civilization
    until the rise of Persia.
  • Cities rivaled Sumer cities.
  • Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
  • Large cities
  • Each dominated by a large hilltop structure, the
    purpose of which is unknown.
  • Each had a huge warehouse for storage.
  • Very well laid out cities.
  • Houses made of baked and unbaked bricks.
  • Very advanced indoor plumbing (baths, drains, and
    water chutes a sewer system.
  • Some form of writing system.

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Farming and Trade
  • Most people were farmers.
  • Grew wheat, barley, melons, dates, and cotton.
  • Some people were merchants and traders.
  • Ships carrying cotton cloth, grain, copper,
    pearls, and ivory combs would sail to distant
    lands. Some even sailed up the Persian Gulf to
    Sumer cities.

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Religion
  • Polytheistic
  • Certain animals were sacred, like the water
    buffalo and bull.

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Decline of the Indus Civilization.
  • By 1900 B.C., the Indus Valley is in decline.
  • Pottery becomes crude rather than artistic.
  • Writing stops.
  • Mohenjo-Daro is abandoned.
  • Scholars are unsure of what caused this decline,
    possibly..
  • Invaders
  • Flooding
  • Earthquake
  • Environmental problems

24
The Aryan Civilization
  • Began somewhere between 2,000 B.C. and 1500 B.C.
  • Nomadic people called the Aryans arrive in India.
  • Migrated with herds of cattle and horses from
    southern part of modern day Russia, into
    northwestern India. (Interactive map)
  • Built no cities, so there is little evidence for
    us to examine.
  • What we do know mostly comes from the Vedas.
  • The Vedas is a collection of hymns, chants,
    ritual instructions, and other religious
    teachings.

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From the Vedas we learn that the Aryans were..
  • Warriors who fought in chariots with bows and
    arrows.
  • Liked to have a good time.
  • Valued cattle.
  • Eventually settled into villages to become
    famers.
  • Learned to make iron tools and weapons.
  • Led by chiefs called rajahs.
  • Rajahs were often the most skilled war leader,
    and were elected by other warriors to be the
    leader.

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Social Classes
  • Classes based on occupation and divided into four
    groups.
  • Brahmins Priests
  • Kshatriyas Warriors
  • Vaisyas Herders, Farmers, Artisans, Merchants.
  • Sudras People who had little or no Aryan
    heritage, farm workers, servants, other laborers.

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Religion
  • Polytheistic
  • Developed the notion of brahman, a single
    spiritual power that existed beyond the many gods
    of the Vedas, and which resided in all things.

29
Literature
  • Mahabhrata
  • Tells of warfare and religion.
  • Ramanyana
  • Teaches values and behavior.

30
Overarching Question???
  • The early Indus civilizations had some system of
    writing and also knew how to make iron weapons
    and tools. How might they have come into the
    knowledge of these two skills?

31
  • Trade was part of early the Indus civilizations.
    Some of the traders even travelled up the Persian
    Gulf to Sumer cities where cuneiform, the first
    form of complex writing, began. Also, the
    Hittites had brought the knowledge of extracting
    iron out of ore to Sumer which was then passed on
    to traders from the Indus Valley civilizations.

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Empires of India
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Dowry
  • Payment a brides family pays to a grooms
    family.

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Sanskrit
  • Ancient Indian language, written in clay.

38
Bureaucracy
  • System of government that includes different job
    functions and levels of authority.

39
The rich Ganges valley is constantly being
fought over by rival rajahs (war leaders).
40
The Mauryan Empire (321 B.C. 185 B.C.)
  • Founded by Chandragupta Maurya
  • Capital City at Pataliputra.
  • Boasted schools, a library, and beautiful
    palaces. The walls of Pataliputra had 530 towers
    and 64 gates.
  • Chandragupta first conquered northern India. His
    son and grandson would expand the empire much
    farther south.

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Organization in the Maurya Empire
  • Chandragupta set up a well-organized bureaucracy.
  • Royal officials supervise the building of roads
    and harbors to benefit trade.
  • Other officials collected taxes and managed
    state-owned factories and shipyards.
  • Royal police force reported on corruption, crime,
    and dissent.
  • Chandraguptas palace was guarded by specially
    trained women warriors to protect him from
    enemies.

45
Emperor Asoka (286 B.C.)
  • Grandson of Chandragupta.
  • Most honored Maurya Emperor.
  • Fought a long and bloody war to gain the Deccan
    plateau region.
  • Horrified by the slaughter of more than 100,000
    people, Asoka turned from conquering to Buddhism,
    rejecting violence, and ruling by his moral
    example.

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  • Asoka spread Buddhism across much of India.
  • He had stone pillars set up across India with
    moral advice written on them.
  • Asokas rule brought peace and prosperity which
    united his diverse empire.
  • After Asokas death, the Maurya empire declines
    until it is finally shattered in 185 B.C. by
    rival princes seeking power in the Gangetic plain.

48
Trades importance in the South.
  • Tamil Kingdoms occupy southernmost part of India.
  • Tamil rulers improved harbors to support trade
    overseas.
  • Spices, fine textiles, and other luxuries are
    traded with the Roman empire.
  • When the Roman empire declines, trade with China
    increased.

49
The Golden Age of the Guptas (A.D. 320 A.D. 540)
  • Guptas reunite much of northern India.
  • Organized a strong centralized government, which
    promoted peace and prosperity.
  • Ushers in a golden age of great cultural
    achievement.
  • Guptas leave much of the power in the hands of
    individual villages and city governments.

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Trade and Farming Flourish
  • Wheat, rice, and sugar cane are produced on
    farms.
  • Artisans produce cotton cloth, pottery, and metal
    ware for trade.
  • Trading goods and surplus crops leads to great
    prosperity for the Gupta empire.

52
Education
  • Universities in the Gupta empire teach
    mathematics, medicine, physics, languages,
    literature, and other subjects.
  • Gupta/Indian mathematicians give us
  • The concept of zero.
  • The decimal system of numbers we still use.
  • Gupta/Indian physicians
  • Used herbs and other remedies to treat illness.
  • Set broken bones.
  • Performed simple surgeries.
  • Vaccinated people for small pox 1,000 years
    before Europe.

53
Gupta Empire Declines.
  • Weak rulers, civil war, and foreign invaders
    bring an end to the Gupta Empire.
  • No other great empire would rise for another
    1,000 years.

54
Family and Village Life in Indian Society.
  • Most Ancient Indians were peasant farmers in
    small villages.
  • Duties associated with their caste, family, and
    village roles shaped Indian life. (They continue
    to do so today)
  • Parents, children and grandchildren shared a
    home.
  • Father or oldest male headed the household.
  • Property belonged to the whole family.

55
  • Family trained children in the traditions of the
    duties of their particular caste.
  • Children worked at family trade or in the fields
    with family members.
  • Parents arranged marriages for their children
    based on their caste and family interests.
  • Parents of the bride provided a dowry to the
    grooms family.
  • (Bride burnings)

56
Women In Indian Society
  • Few rights within the family and society.
  • Rebirth into a higher existence was believed to
    be gained through devotion to her husband.
  • Widows often were expected to join her dead
    husband on his funeral fire. This was believed
    to make them a virtuous woman.

57
Overarching Question???
  • How did the Gupta empire lead to a golden age in
    India?
  • The Guptas promoted peace and prosperity,
    allowing villages a lot of freedom to govern
    themselves. In this time of peace, trade and
    farming flourished, leading to great prosperity.
    This opened the door to a growth in arts and
    education.

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The Rise of Civilization in China.
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Geography of China
  • Ancient China was separated from Egypt, the
    Middle East, and India by long distances and
    physical barriers.
  • Tian Shan and Himalayan mountains barricaded the
    west and southwest.
  • South blocked by thick rainforests.
  • North shielded by the Gobi desert.
  • The Pacific ocean on the eastern border.
  • Despite these barriers, nomadic invaders
    repeatedly attacked and plundered Chinese cities.

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Beginning of Chinese History
  • Neolithic people began farming in the Huang
    (yellow) river valley.
  • The need for irrigation projects probably led to
    the rise of organized government. This began the
    Huang (Yellow) River Valley Civilization.

66
Chinas Sorrow
  • The Huang river is also known as the Chinas
    Sorrow because of its flooding.
  • Yellow soil blown into the river from the Gobi
    Desert by winds from Siberia and Mongolia, raises
    the water level.
  • Floodwaters would burst through their dikes,
    wiping out towns and destroying crops leading to
    mass starvation.

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  • In the 50 years between 1887 and 1943, about 10
    million people drowned or died of famine and
    disease resulting from the flooding of Chinas
    sorrow.

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The Shang Dynasty (1766 B.C. 1122 B.C.)
  • First Chinese Dynasty.
  • Formed between the Huang and Chang rivers.
  • Fertile farming regions supported large
    populations.
  • The Huang and Chang rivers served as
    transportation highways, as well as providing
    water for irrigation.

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Shang Government
  • Capital City contained large palaces and rich
    tombs.
  • Shang leaders drove off the nomads to gain
    control of surrounding regions.
  • Shang kings most likely controlled only a small
    area of land.
  • Loyal princes and local nobles, who were heads of
    important clans, governed most of the land.

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Social Classes
  • Upper class
  • Royal family and a class of noble warriors.
  • Middle class
  • Artisans and merchants
  • Artisans made bronze weapons, silk robes, and
    jade jewelry.
  • Merchants exchanged food and crafts made by
    artisans, for salt, shells, and other goods not
    found in northeastern China.

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  • Lower class
  • Majority of people in Shang China.
  • Peasants who lived very rough lives in farming
    villages.
  • All family members worked in the fields
  • when they werent in the fields they were
    repairing dikes
  • when war broke out between noble families, the
    men were required to fight alongside their lords.

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The Zhou Dynasty (1122 B.C. 256 B.C.)
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Advances during the Zhou Dynasty.
  • Iron age reaches China (600s B.C.)
  • Ox drawn iron plows and iron axes lead to more
    food production.
  • Large scale irrigation projects.
  • First money system in China.
  • Copper coins with holes in the middle for string.
  • Made trade easier.
  • Population boom led to expansion of farming into
    new regions.

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Early Chinese Religion
  • Polytheistic
  • Believed gods controlled everything from good
    harvests, to victories in war.
  • Believed gods only listened to important people
  • ancestors of the king and nobles
  • prayers of rulers and nobles were thought to
    serve all.
  • This is why many Chinese pray to ancestors to
    intercede for them.

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Confucius
  • Born in 551 B.C. during the Zhou dynasty.
  • Brilliant scholar.
  • Studied ancient texts on rules of conduct.
  • Became known for his wisdom, especially in the
    areas of social order and good government.
  • Taught high standards of conduct which brought
    him into conflict with corrupt leaders.
  • Confucius taught that harmony results when people
    accept their place in society.

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  • Quote Confucius student Mencius
  • Now when food meant for human beings is so
    plentiful as to be thrown to dogs and pigs, you
    fail to realize that it is time for garnering,
    and when men drop dead from starvation by the
    wayside, you fail to realize that it is time for
    distribution. When people die, you simply say, It
    is none of my doing. It is the fault of the
    Harvest. In what way is that different from
    killing a man by running him through, while
    saying all the time, It is none of my doing. It
    is the fault of the weapon. Stop putting the
    blame on the harvest and the people of the whole
    Empire will come to you''
  • (Mencius, Book 1 Part A, 3).

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Five Key Relationships
  • Ruler to subject
  • Parent to child
  • Husband to wife
  • Elder brother to younger brother
  • Friend to friend
  • Confucius believed that none of these
    relationships were equal, but that they all
    involved duties and responsibilities.

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Cultural Achievements of Shang and Zhou China.
  • studied planetary movements
  • recorded eclipses.
  • Developed 365 ¼ days, calendar.
  • Improved bronze technology (weapons, artwork,
    etc.)
  • Calligraphy
  • Complex system of writing which developed at
    least 4,000 years ago.
  • Tens of thousands of characters which represent a
    whole word or idea.
  • One of the most difficult languages to learn to
    read or write.
  • helped unify China.

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Strong Rulers Unite Chinese Empires
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The Qin Dynasty(221 B.C. 206 B.C.)
  • In 221 B.C., Zheng, the leader of the state of
    Qin, rose up and crushed the feudal lords of the
    Zhou dynasty.
  • Zheng proclaimed himself Shi Huangdi, First
    Emperor.

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Unity in China
  • Shi Huangdi centralized his power
  • Imposed a system of strict laws and harsh
    punishments for crimes.
  • Tortured, killed, or enslaved those who opposed
    him.
  • Ordered a campaign of book burning to control
    opposing ideas.
  • Abolished feudalism which had led to regional
    leaders having too much power.
  • Gave nobles lands to peasants, but then forced
    them to pay high taxes to support his army and
    building projects.

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Positives from the Qin Dynasty.
  • Unified the coinage (money) system.
  • Standardized weights and measures.
  • Repaired and expanded roads and canals.
  • Built the Great Wall for protection from nomadic
    invaders.

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The Fall of Qin
  • Shi Huangdi died in 210 B.C.
  • With his death, anger over his taxes and cruelty
    explodes into revolts.
  • Qin Dynasty collapses in 206 B.C..

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The Han Dynasty(202 B.C. A.D. 220)
  • Founded by Gao Zu, an illiterate peasant leader
    who defeated his rival armies.
  • Gao Zu lowered taxes and eased strict government
    policies.
  • Appointed Confucian scholars as advisors.
  • This gave the Han Dynasty a strong foundation
    with the people due to their respect for
    Confucius.

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Emperor Wudi (141 B.C. 87 B.C.)
  • Most famous Han Emperor.
  • Brought China to new heights.

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His achievements
  • Improved canals and roads for trade and travel.
  • Built granaries across the empire so the
    government could buy grain when there was
    surplus, and sell it at stable prices when it was
    scarce.
  • Established a government monopoly on iron and
    salt.
  • Selling these gave the government a steady income
    other than taxing peasants.

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  • Wudi followed an expansionist policy, fighting
    many battles to expand Chinas borders, and to
    push nomadic people beyond the Great Wall.
  • Soldiers, traders, and settlers slowly spread
    Chinese influence across the newly connected
    regions.

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Silk and the Silk Road
102
Silk
  • Early Chinese discovered the art of making silk
    out of silk worm cocoons.
  • Began raising silkworms
  • women would tend worms and then make silk thread
    out of their cocoons.
  • This thread was used to weave silk cloth.
  • Only royalty and nobles could afford silk robes.
  • Silk eventually became Chinas most valuable
    export.
  • The silk making process was kept secret for
    hundreds of years to protect their profitable
    trade.

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The Silk Road
  • Emperor Wudi opened up a network of trade routes
    which would become the famous Silk Road linking
    China to the west.
  • Goods were relayed from one trader to another
    across the Silk Road.
  • (a single trader didnt make the whole trip)
  • Silk was sent west, and new foods, furs, glass,
    and other goods and ideas returned east to China.

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The Silk Road
106
The Han Dynasty Golden Age.
  • Han rulers founded the Civil Service system
  • followed the belief that leaders should earn
    their positions through merit, not family ties.
  • Buddhism arrived in China by A.D. 100, appealing
    to many with its message of an escape from
    suffering.

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  • The Han were the most technologically advanced
    civilization of their time.
  • Invented the process for making paper from wood
    pulp that we still use today.
  • Advanced shipbuilding methods, including the
    invention of the rudder to steer with.
  • Other inventions included metal stirrups for
    saddles, fishing reels, wheelbarrows, and
    suspension bridges.

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The Fall of the Han Dynasty.
  • Unable to control powerful warlords (local
    military leaders), the Han emperors soon began to
    lose power.
  • Weak emperors let canals and roads fall into
    disrepair.
  • Peasants who were burdened with heavy taxes and
    crushing debt, began to revolt.
  • In A.D. 220, ambitious warlords overthrew the
    last Han ruler, breaking the once unified China
    into several kingdoms.

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Overarching Question??
  • How did the Silk Road increase cultural
    diffusion?
  • The silk road linked the once isolated
    civilization of China, to every other major
    civilization in the eastern hemisphere. This
    connection led to the greatest exchange of goods,
    ideas, technologies, and beliefs to date.
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