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DESIGN MANAGEMENT INSTRUCTIONS

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Title: DESIGN MANAGEMENT INSTRUCTIONS


1
DESIGN MANAGEMENT INSTRUCTIONS
  • (Best Practices) rev1

2
Module Objectives
  • To identify best practices for maximizing the
    effectiveness of a Design Manager
  • To consolidate design management directives
    presented in the Design Guides so the DM ADM
    have a convenient source for reference

3
AUTHORITY RESPONSIBILITY of D M
  • Verifies scope of work, Concept of Operations
    design goals w Stakeholders
  • Develops and executes the Project Plan, including
    identifying review milestones
  • Prepares coordinated Drawing Control Index (DCI)
    Specification Control Index (SCI)
  • Performs a Risk Analysis on the project

4
AUTHORITY RESPONSIBILITY of D M
  • Controls quality of all design document CONTENT
    (what should be there is there not their
    technical correctness)
  • Assures documents address the full scope
    drawings, specs design analyses
  • Assures client reps are informed, involved,
    empowered members of the design team

5
AUTHORITY RESPONSIBILITY of D M
  • Chairs meetings between designers clients on
    technical/functional issues
  • Establish acceptance criteria for operations
    maintenance
  • Assure that clients understand design scope
  • Identifies Real Estate needs, limits
    constraints assures these are met

6
AUTHORITY RESPONSIBILITY of D M
  • Coordinates Survey, Boring Soil contamination
    evaluation
  • Identifies Permits/Approvals of Public Private
    Agencies DEC, DEP, DOT, C of E, Parks,
    Utilities, Fire Dept, Landmarks, etc.
  • Assures these are gotten
  • Obtains utility plates as necessary

7
AUTHORITY RESPONSIBILITY of D M
  • Assures sufficient Community outreach
  • Keeps all interested affected groups informed
    through the CM
  • Establishes DSR budgets by discipline
  • tracks fiscal performance (EFA/time)
  • Organizes chairs at least one Peer Review prior
    to 35 milestone

8
AUTHORITY RESPONSIBILITY of D M
  • Manages coordination among disciplines
  • Identifies assembles coordination dwgs.
    prepared by Task Leaders
  • Runs coordination meetings
  • Manages technical conflicts between disciplines
  • Runs specification coordination reviews

9
AUTHORITY RESPONSIBILITY of D M
  • Manages coordination among disciplines
  • Assists in preparing/assembling the 10, 35, 65
    90 review documents
  • Assists packaging Final Bid Documents
  • Provides business input to the Special Conditions
    General Requirements

10
AUTHORITY RESPONSIBILITY of D M
  • Obtains Intermediate Final Approvals
  • Informs Program Managers on matters of fiscal
    performance and scope related problems
  • Confers w Principal Engineer/Architect on scope
    problems, matters of technical adequacy and
    technical conflicts not resolved w Task Leaders

11
AUTHORITY RESPONSIBILITY of D M
  • Identifies internal coordination needs with
    Operation Depts assures they are met
  • Tracks assures client satisfaction on all
    projects (functional needs)
  • Assures Task Leaders are performing efficiently
    and effectively
  • Reports at monthly program review meetings and
    informs Program Managers

12
Best Practices
  • Coordinate with Estimator disciplines outside
    of CPM Consultants to assure they have
    sufficient info their input satisfies scope
  • Gather back-up justification for a change
  • Provide the CM input for permits
  • Assure new specification sections developed are
    given to DVP Engrg. Svc filed for future

13
Best Practices
  • Spot check that CADD files are being backed-up at
    noon, nightly weekly as well as weekly tapes
    sent off site
  • Assure the CADD standard of UNIX/ Intel processor
    based Microstation V8 with
  • Fieldworks (civil)
  • Triforma (architectural)
  • drawing file format of DGN
  • being used by those outside of CPM

14
Best Practices
  • Review drawings for obvious errors omissions
  • Make distributions of design documents for
    review. See DG 106, pg 9 for details
  • Assure all are using same background drawings
  • Identify these with Task Leaders by CADD file
    name distribute them to each designer

15
Best Practices
  • Determine acceptable scales for the drawings with
    the Task Leaders
  • Details 1/8 to 1 1
  • Plans Arch 1/8 3/16 1
  • Engrg 1 10/20/40

16
TASK LEADER RESPONSIBILITY
  • Technical quality of each disciplines outputs
  • Interface w client on specific technical issues
  • Fiscal performance (time EFA) for all projects
    assigned
  • Manage DSR input

17
TASK LEADER RESPONSIBILITY
  • Perform horizontal coordination check between
    discipline drawings those drawings and their
    specifications
  • Coordinate with other Task Leaders to assure all
    prescriptive functional issues are addressed
  • Coordinate vertically between disciplines

18
TASK LEADER RESPONSIBILITY
  • Assists DM in prep of Project Plan
  • project description
  • organization chart EFA
  • schedule of tasks with dependencies
  • DCI SCI construction cost estimate
  • initial design assumptions stds
  • functional layouts
  • deliverables at each review milestone

19
TASK LEADER RESPONSIBILITY
  • Develops data for Special Conditions
  • Assures designers clients communicate as fully
    as possible
  • Resolves all scope related problems or elevates
    to DM for higher resolution
  • Provides training and guidance to designers so
    they perform as effective team members

20
TASK LEADER RESPONSIBILITY
  • Manage preparation of 10 35 Project Report
  • Perform detailed review of Final documents
    including coordination between disciplines
  • Review Design Analysis for completeness, clear
    logic, proper format, coordination with other
    disciplines
  • Sit on other Program Area Peer Review Groups

21
PRE-DESIGN SCOPES
  • starting point Capital Project Summary
  • develop pre-design document
  • more clearly defines project
  • capital engineering costs
  • apply engineering experience
  • do site investigations
  • address operational requirements
  • prior to projects design start

22
Scope considerations
  • If no technical reason for not giving client what
    is desired attempt to fully satisfy - to budget
    limit or historical cost target
  • Help revise scope if costs are higher than target
  • Simple, easily maintainable, low energy using
    solutions
  • - better design than complex/ hi energy
    solutions
  • - develop a strong bias in that direction

23
Scope considerations
  • Send Scope to Program Manager (PM) for approval
  • Things that cannot be determined until after
    design start should be listed when developing the
    EFA
  • With above info, PM can talk with User
    departments on specific ways to improve project
  • Late changes in scope only mean schedule slips
    and design cost increases, which no one wants

24
Scope considerations
  • Develop project scopes w same team of designers
    who are going to design project
  • They will be more thorough if they know theyre
    preparing their own base information
  • Use Project Planning Checklist to develop scope
  • Give Checklist to User, Maintainer other
    stakeholders prior to scope meeting

25
Scope considerations
  • Study field investigation requirements useful
    clarifying understanding problems to be solved
  • Look for old contracts, borings, utility
    drawings, etc. to prepare for field meeting
  • The more that is known earlier, the better

26
Site Investigations
  • Identify soil conditions utilities within the
    project boundaries that may impact construction
    costs and design costs
  • Obtain approvals and permits from the various
    utility companies and city agencies by the
    completion of the preliminary design phase.

27
Life Cycle Commissioning-LCCx Process Planning
design
  • Master Plan-Owners Perform Reqmnts
  • System Engineering Mgt Plan (SEMP)
  • Concept of Operations (ConOps) (Prelim)
  • Design
  • Defining System Requirements
  • Defining Subsystem Requirements
  • Define Component Level, Detailed Requirements

Basis of design BOD
28
Life Cycle Commissioning-LCCx Process
verification/validation
  • Construction Phase
  • Unit Level Test Verification
  • Subsystem Integration Verification
  • System Integration Verification
  • Operation Phase
  • System Validation

29
Lifecycle Commissioning -LCCx
  • Prepare and implement plan that defines
  • Purpose and objective of project
  • Project objectives benefits to be achieved, per
    the Users Profile verified with Stakeholders
  • Owner/Operators Performance Requirements of
    projects systems (OPR)
  • Modes of operation and philosophies of operation
    maintenance (Concept of Operations)
  • Reasons for replacement, upgrading or addition of
    new facilities/systems.

30
Lifecycle Commissioning -LCCx
  • Prepare and implement plan that defines
  • Integration with ea other legacy systems
  • O M needs impacts of new systems on existing
  • Verification methods for performance acceptance
  • Optimization of system performance integration
    under actual working conditions

31
Lifecycle Commissioning -LCCx
  • Prepare and implement plan that defines
  • Training, tools and personnel
  • Revised maintenance cycles
  • Necessary environmental conditions for operation
  • Rational disposal methods of new waste products
  • Requirements for any future planned expansion /
    reconfiguration

32
Lifecycle Commissioning -LCCx
  • Prepare and implement plan that defines
  • Existing Conditions
  • Results of site visits with the Sponsor
    (evaluate its general condition and suitability
    to meet the needs of the project)
  • Results of Field Investigations /or Studies
  • Describe the existing facilities/operations from
    a functional viewpoint

33
Lifecycle Commissioning -LCCx
  • Prepare and implement plan that defines
  • Proposed Improvements
  • Project location, work limits, boundaries
  • Alternate systems that may be considered
  • Approx. quantity estimate of major work items
  • -square footage of buildings
  • -linear footage of track
  • -number of elements to be replaced
  • -tons of air conditioning to be installed,
    etc.
  • Demolition/displacement of people equipment

34
Lifecycle Commissioning -LCCx
  • Prepare and implement plan that defines
  • Proposed Improvements
  • If temporary facilities are required indicate
    site access
  • Existing /or future maintenance / operational
    systems that will interface with new systems
  • Environmental impacts possible mitigations

35
Lifecycle Commissioning -LCCx
  • Prepare and implement plan that defines
  • Proposed Improvements
  • Integrated project construction schedule
  • EFA requirements
  • Each disciplines Project design responsibilities
  • (Basis of Design)
  • Unresolved but necessary info for designers
    estimators required for meeting project objectives

36
Owners Operational /Functional Needs (OPR)
  • Includes
  • Con Ops and/or SEMP
  • Basis of Design (BOD)
  • Operability/ Maintainability Plan

37
Concept of Operations
  • A document prepared at the Master Plan stage or
    the pre-design stage
  • Explain each operator and maintainers role the
    relationships that must exist for optimum process
    flow
  • Describe the current system, how it is used, its
    drawbacks and limitations
  • Use a combination of bubble relational diagrams
    flow charts

38
Concept of Operations
  • Show all primary support functions along the
    process, with the information needed for each
    stake-holder to perform their task
  • A full Needs Assessment if issues are not clear
    enough to lead to reasons for the proposed
    improvement
  • Discuss the nature of the planned changes and a
    justification for them

39
Concept of Operations
  • List and describe the alternative concepts
    examined, followed by an evaluation assessment
    of each
  • Justify the selected approach
  • Describe in a high-level way, the operational
    concept for selected approach. This isnt design
  • Include operational process models for sequence
    relationships

40
Concept of Operations
  • Use only as much detail as needed to be able to
    develop meaningful, User-oriented scenarios
  • Focus on strategies, tactics, policies, and
    constraints
  • Describe the stakeholders what they do when
    in what order operations take place, personnel
    capabilities, organizational structures,
    inter-agency interactions, activities

41
Systems Engrg Mgt Plan (SEMP)
  • May be required, separate from Con Ops, for
    Systems development
  • Owner is inexperienced with process
  • Large number of stakeholders who need to know how
    outputs will be produced
  • Software is custom made vs. COTS
  • - Coordinate with Con Ops
  • - Dont repeat tasks at that level of detail

42
SEMP
  • Existing Electronic control system
  • Describe what the system needs to do that it is
    not currently doing
  • Describe the total systems full scope
  • - users
  • - its interfaces, states and modes
  • - planned capabilities goals objectives
  • - system architecture

43
SEMP
  • Electronic control system
  • The system architecture is not a design that
    will be done later.
  • Describe the operations, in terms of where they
    will be carried out the lines of communication
  • Describe the physical, operational support
    environment
  • facilities, equipment, computing hardware,
    software, personnel, operational procedures,
    support necessary to operate

44
SEMP
  • Electronic control system
  • Describe the personnel
  • -expected experience
  • -skills training
  • -typical work hours
  • -concurrently performed activities
  • Describe each scenario
  • sequence of events activities carried out by
    the user, the system, and the environment

45
SEMP
  • Include detailed outline of systems tasks, risk
    analysis, mgt plan design processes/ analyses
    needed
  • Address Stakeholder involvement, size and
    expertise of the staff, other outputs a
    verification plan
  • Necessary coordination for integration with
    existing systems
  • Configuration mgt in-depth analysis of all plan
    or software changes correction plan of negative
    impacts

46
SEMP
  • Electronic control system
  • Specify what triggers each sequence
  • - who or what performs each step
  • - when communications occur
  • - to whom or what e.g., a log file it is given
  • - what information is being communicated

47
SEMP
  • Electronic control system
  • The scenarios will need to cover
  • - all normal conditions
  • - stress conditions, failure events
  • - maintenance, anomalies exceptions
  • Present scenarios so that each stakeholder can
    clearly see what his expected role is

48
Con Ops / SEMP
  • Analysis of Impacts
  • Show proposed systems effect on each stakeholder
    their operations, presented from their readily
    understood viewpoint
  • Document any constraints on system development
  • Show the concept of operation for each level of
    activity

49
Con Ops / SEMP
  • Analysis of Impacts
  • Identify both short and long term maintenance
    requirements so that necessary redundancy is
    included in the design solution
  • Identify the levels of expected performance with
    measurable criteria for each system the methods
    for performance verification
  • Include expected future expansion or phased
    roll-out of the facility in the narrative

50
Project Plan/Basis of design
  • Purpose
  • Describe an organized/ systematic approach for
    managing controlling the project for successful
    completion
  • Plans preparation effort the detail contained
    proportional to project size and complexity

51
Project Plan/Basis of Design
  • Content (High level)
  • Goals, strategies tactics to be used
  • project scope and purpose
  • Inputs approach to design tasks
  • Deliverables specifications , systems hardware
    or software verification plans and codes
  • Budget by task / schedule

52
Basis of Design (BOD)
  • A detailed narrative expansion of the Con
    Ops by each discipline, developed at
    pre-design/followed in design
  • Specific criteria expected performances design
    assumptions codes standards
  • System level needed functions the integrated
    system performance requirements, operating
    conditions constraints
  • Design level outputs system architecture
    interfaces subsystems in general detailed
    component requirements

53
Basis of Design (BOD)
  • Integration between components who is involved
    what must be done at each step
  • Verification systems functioning per specs
    outline the detailed steps for each test how to
    present results
  • Deployment plan describe rollout strategy, if
    multi-year funding is involved detail each
    step. developed near the end, when components
    characteristics are known

54
Operability/Maintainability Plan
  • Develop during design assure Users functional
    needs are satisfied
  • Con Ops document standard for verification that
    operation maintenance needs are understood and
    planned for
  • Details of specific OM activities added after
    system characteristics are known

55
Operability/Maintainability Plan
  • Cover at least the following
  • Personnel positions, qualifications, specialty
    skills needed
  • of time for system operation or maintenance, if
    not full time
  • Furniture, equipment, and tools
  • Training for ops maint personnel off-site
    on-site courses hands-on training

56
Operability/Maintainability Plan
  • Building space
  • - rooms space within rooms
  • - specialty areas workshops
  • - raised floor areas
  • Utilities
  • - future air conditioning needs
  • - future power needs
  • - future communications trunks
  • - etc

57
Commissioning Plan
  • Prepared by Design Team finalized by Contractor
  • Includes
  • Project Overview
  • Outline of LCCx processes
  • Deliverables and Schedule
  • Stakeholders roles and responsibilities
  • Communication protocols
  • Its finalization requires extensive coordination
    with the subcontractors and vendors

58
Commissioning Issues
  • Indoor air quality / outside makeup-air
    requirements Hazardous material control
  • Fire safety /smoke control / emergency alarms and
    lighting Security Differential pressure between
    spaces
  • Energy conservation / system optimization / heat
    recovery Controls interconnectivity (HVAC fire
    detection)

59
Commissioning Issues
  • Precedence of building automation systems vs
    life-safety systems i.e. fan shut-down for freeze
    protection vs keeping it running for smoke
    control
  • Limit protection logic and reaction, i.e.
    overpressure control for each device, unit of
    equipment, system and interconnection
  • Development issues for electronic systems
    including configuration management, and their
    integration with legacy systems

60
Commissioning Specification
  • Details deliverables for OPR, BOD, Design,
    Construction, Acceptance, and Optimization phases
  • Overall objective, scope and implementation
    requirements of these phases roles and
    responsibilities
  • Coordination w other specs training OM manual
    development precedence
  • Sequence of tests functions to be verified

61
Commissioning Agent (CA) Systems
Integrator (SI)
  • Manager and implementer of the commissioning/integ
    ration process during construction
  • Should have their duties/ authorities clearly
    delineated coordinated with Quality Control
    Manager (QM)

62
Certification of Readiness
  • Responsibility of QM
  • For each system, verifying completion to CA /SI
  • - of the installation
  • - system preparation flushing, etc
  • - static tests pressure or amperage
  • - calibration, adjustments, balancing
  • System ready functional performance tests

63
Pre-functional Checklist
  • Prepared by CA/SI and QM
  • Include necessary linking of equipment with
    related components and systems
  • QM responsible to verify its completion

64
Functional test procedures
  • Step-by-step tasks acceptance criteria methods
    of data verification recording list those
    involved
  • Tests should be dynamic, over full range of
    operating conditions and loads
  • Verify all sequences of operation along w
    responses interlocks w other systems

65
Functional test procedures
  • Tester Sign and date tests
  • Failure reports state the problem, consequences,
    root cause and correction
  • CA/SI maintain a master Issues Log for control
    of the process
  • Assure all control portions are in automatic mode
    vs locked in manual

66
Systems Manual
  • A composite document
  • Developed by Owners Commissioning Group
  • Expands on OM manuals based on info gathered
    during commissioning process
  • Used to validate and optimize the systems after
    acceptance during the first year of operation

67
Building Automation Systems
  • Critical systems, other than life-safety, has
  • a complete specific sequence of control with
    clear statements of all operating conditions and
    required functions i.e. normal shift, weekend,
    summer, winter, overrides
  • one line diagrams and specifications
  • monitoring and trend logging requirements

68
Building Automation Systems
  • Life safety systems should define
  • parameters where they are live but dormant
  • the conditions that activate them
  • the interrelationships that must exist during
    emergency condition operation
  • the conditions, if any, under which they cease
    operation

69
Operation Maintenance Manuals include
  • Plan of ongoing monitoring adjustment
  • emergency shutdown and restart
  • operation under emergency power and restoration
    to normal operation
  • spare parts list

70
LCCx Schedule
  • Identify
  • Milestone for hiring CA/SI
  • Milestone for test contractor mob.(if applicable)
  • Time for OM manual submission, completion
    training syllabus development
  • Time for testing procedures forms development,
    w time for correction retesting

71
References
  • Some good references to systems engineering
    include
  • INCOSE Systems Engineering Handbook
    www.INCOSE.org
  • CALTRANS -Systems Engineering Guidebook for ITS
    www.fhwa.dot.gov/cadiv/segb
  • NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

72
Schedule of Design Activities
  • Intermediate milestones and dependencies
  • Activities critical to completion of initial
    final design w restraints dependencies
  • Support Activities instrument surveys, field
    condition surveys, borings, utility relocations
    and approvals, alternatives studies
  • Steps to obtain outside agency and operating and
    maintenance department approvals

73
LIST OF DRAWINGS (DCI) SPECIFICATIONS (SCI)
  • Focus on prep of base multidiscipline plans
    elevations cross sections well coordinated
    individual discipline drawings
  • Note joint discipline responsibility for
    specifications as appropriate.

74
DESIGN ASSUMPTIONS CRITERIA
  • PART OF THE BOD ea discipline
  • LIST OF DELIVERABLES
  • PROJECT AND TECHNICAL ALTERNATIVES
  • PROJECT COST

75
PEER REVIEW
  • The Principals Design Manager should convene at
    least one Peer Review before 35
  • By 10 of project D M Principals decide on
    make up of the group, giving weight to
    disciplines having greatest input
  • Other Peer Reviews may be convened to resolve any
    specific problem

76
PEER REVIEW
  • Benefit
  • a) Produce better design
  • b) Eliminate recurrences of problems by using
    persons experienced in solving those problems
  • c) Expose the designers to the problems and
    experiences of other projects
  • d) Provides early Principal CM review
  • e) Encourage critical thinking

77
Peer Review Team
  • A Chief Architect/Engineer
  • A Principal Architect/Engineer
  • Two (2) Task Leaders not involved in project
  • Construction Manager of the project
  • CM with prior experience of a similar project or
    type of construction

78
Schedule For Peer Review Presentation
  • DM, schedule after 10 milestone but no later
    than immediately after 35 meeting
  • Subsequently, soon as possible after a problem is
    uncovered requiring an in-depth review
  • Identify it as a single or multi-discipline
    review
  • Request the discipline Task Leaders involved to
    make a presentation on their portion, or the
    senior designer in each discipline

79
Peer Review Team Responsibilities
  • Determine question all major assumptions
  • Question all major conclusions
  • Research applicable lessons learned from past
    projects
  • Search for hidden problems
  • Suggest alternate solutions

80
Peer Review Presentation
  • Use project diagrams/drawings to demonstrate
    broad concepts problems
  • The use of special drawings for this purpose is
    unnecessary and undesirable

81
The Presentation should include
  1. Scope of Work
  2. Design Concepts, Assumptions, Conclusions
  3. Cost Estimates / E F A
  4. Lessons learned from previous projects
  5. Missing Input, Problems Proposed Solutions
  6. Deviations from PMPs / DGs
  7. Site investigations for existing conditions

82
After the Presentation
  • D M prepare minutes enumerating
  • a) Topics discussed
  • b) Recommendations, comments suggestions
  • c) Actions taken or to be taken to incorporate
    the recommendations and to resolve problems
  • Distribute to all concerned within five (5)
    working days after the Peer Review meeting

83
SPECIFICATION TASKS
  • DESIGN MANAGER
  • List all spec sections to be used (SCI) and
    identify the coordination needs
  • ID sections for coordination by affected
    disciplines
  • Assure up-to-date masters are used
  • Check Table of Contents vs SCI

84
SPECIFICATION TASKS
  • DESIGN MANAGER
  • Initiate, input monitor Affirmative Action
    Goals process
  • Interpret detailed cost estimate for Affirmative
    Action Officer to choose reasonable areas for
    S/D/W inclusion
  • Tracking and coordinating to secure goals on a
    timely basis

85
SPECIFICATION TASKS
  • DESIGN MANAGER
  • Check sections for unit price inclusions,
    exclusions methods of measurement
  • Assemble marked-up specs for reviews
  • Scan finals for typos
  • Prepare Data Sheets (bid, tour, pre-bid
    conference dates, etc) Price Schedule

86
SPECIFICATION TASKS
  • DESIGN MANAGER
  • Legal Approval
    review Contract Documents with Law Dept
  • Give Law Dept comments to PAs PEs suitable
    action esp comments to be addressed before
    approval is given

87
SPECIFICATION TASKS
  • DESIGN MANAGER
  • Liaise between Law Dept Contract Dept
  • Coordinate assemble Legal, Special Conditions,
    Technical Specs Appendix
  • Deliver to Contract Dept for Advertising

88
SPECIFICATION TASKS
  • DESIGN MANAGER
  • Initiate, track, coordinate Authorization to
    Advertise Provide Final Estimate to Procurement
  • Prepare Adoption letter and Memorandum (bid date,
    estimate range)

89
SPECIFICATION TASKS
  • DESIGN MANAGER
  • Submit completed Memorandum and ENR advertisement
    to Contract Management Pre bid tours , meetings
    , Bid Dates
  • Print Contract Drawings Specifications
  • Management of Addenda
  • Conformed Dwgs / Specs

90
SPECIFICATION TASKS
  • DISCIPLINES
  • Markup latest master spec delete what isnt
    needed insert where called for
  • Clear all revisions/additions with Sponsor,
    Principal and Chief Engineer/Architect
  • Proof read for gross content
  • Prepare Addenda as necessary

91
SPECIFICATION TASKS
  • DISCIPLINES
  • Consult with DM coordinate with other
    disciplines who have input
  • Identify coordination needs to the other
    disciplines
  • Prepare Conformed Spec

92
SPECIFICATION TASKS
  • Constr Mgr
  • Schedule
  • Liquidated damages
  • Beneficial Use
  • Permits
  • 1D- Manner of Prosecution
  • 1E- Maint. Prot. of Traffic
  • 1F- Mobilization
  • 1K- Construction Mgt

93
SPECIFICATION TASKS
  • Task Leaders
  • Check that all necessary sections are included in
    the package
  • Assure that all comments are received managed
    for contract inclusion
  • Assure that Unit Price items are idd early so
    payment clauses are added methods of
    measurement are determined

94
SPECIFICATION TASKS
  • Task Leaders
  • Proof read all sections for content
  • Assure Master Section prompts are removed
  • Assure submittal lists are included and accurate
    especially when a section was used that did not
    originally have a submittal list
  • Assure that design review specs are marked up and
    not neat, so they can be reviewed without
    reference to another Master

95
SPECIFICATION TASKS
  • Principal Architect/Engineers
  • Review specs assure completeness good quality
  • Specification Modifications require Sponsor
    approval
  • Spec Mods only made if change is generic (i.e.
    can be used on other similar type projects). Add
    to the Master Section with appropriate notes to
    the designer

96
SPECIFICATION TASKS
  • Principal Architect/Engineers
  • Spec Mods that are project specific apply to
    one project should not be made.
    -Have Sponsor approve add by schedule or
    note to the contract drawings
  • Specification completion changes that are
    indicated as designers choices either by note,
    by blank space or by choice of several values or
    products
  • Specification completions should be done without
    any further contact with the Sponsor

97
SPECIFICATIONS (PRESCRIPTIVE)
  • Scope What the spec. does and does not cover
  • STDS Codes Those that are applicable by
    reference in the body of the spec.
  • Other Spec sections That must apply to this
    item. Designer must identify and deal with
    possible conflicts

98
SPECIFICATIONS (PRESCRIPTIVE)
  • Materials
  • Description / applicable code / where used
  • Generic physical characteristics or 3 acceptable
    brands (mfgr) model
  • Acceptance criteria at delivery C of Cs labels
    lab tests factory tests pre-shipment
    inspections
  • Storage criteria include haz/mat right to know
    info-marking inventory control (especially for
    small items like items)

99
SPECIFICATIONS (PRESCRIPTIVE)
  • Installation
  • Experience required of installer
  • Preparation of surfaces in contact with the item
  • Environmental conditions out of range
    mitigation
  • Specific QWP and SWP items if applicable
  • Preparation of item prior to installing
  • Installation requirements time consistency
    temperature attachments notifications
  • Acceptance criteria / tests/training/sp. parts

100
SPECIFICATIONS (PRESCRIPTIVE)
  • Warrantees Special requirements
  • Operation Maintenance Manuals, training
  • Notes to the Designer
  • clear delineate
  • (1) where information must be added
  • (2) where paragraphs/ sentences can be deleted
  • (3) where/what choices must be made
  • (4) coordination to be done w other disciplines
  • (5) drawings/ details to include coordinate

101
SPECIFICATIONS (PERFORMANCE)
  • Scope What is included excluded
  • STDS Codes Those that are applicable by
    reference in the body of the spec
  • Other Spec Sections that must apply to this
    item. Designer should identify and deal with
    possible conflicts
  • Functional and/or Performance Criteria macro
    goals that must be met (requirements must be
    measurable and observable)

102
SPECIFICATIONS (PERFORMANCE)
  • Materials
  • durability / useful life
  • maintainability operability
  • cost of maintenance and/or operation
  • ease of replacement
  • safety during operation maintenance
  • compatibility w surroundings points of contact
  • ease of getting spare parts
  • history/ experience of mfgr or supplier with this
    or similar items
  • environmental considerations
  • appearance capacity size

103
SPECIFICATIONS (PERFORMANCE)
  • Installation Limitation Time season noise
    odors inconveniences notifications training
  • Operation results that must be achieved
    functions that must be performed efficiency
    functions / results that must not be included
    who will operate/ maintain? Operability and
    maintainability compatibility w legacy systems
    etc

104
SPECIFICATIONS (PERFORMANCE)
  • Acceptance Criteria Tests / Training / Spare
    parts / Manuals / Dwgs./etc. Conformance must be
    verifiable thru calculations, analyses, material
    testing at design or performance testing at
    fabrication /construction stages
  • Warrantees special requirements
  • Notes to the Designer options

105
DESIGN ANALYSES
  • PURPOSE
  • To provide a clear trail of documentation
    indicating the conformity of the design with the
    established relevant codes and criteria
  • To provide Design basis for Contract Documents in
    a systematic manner consistent with
    - acceptable Engineering practices
    - T A Guidelines and Procedures
    - function for which facility is
    designed

106
DESIGN ANALYSES
  • PURPOSE
  • To insure design approach is consistent with
    field conditions project can be constructed in
    a safe, economical and timely manner
  • To provide a complete, permanent record of the
    assumptions, functional requirements and
    technical methodology used in arriving at the
    projects design solution

107
PREP APPVL of DESIGN ANALYSES
  • Process Definitions
  • Design Check
  • Independent verification of the completeness
    accuracy of
  • the design approach
  • assumptions
  • use of reference data
  • computations
  • drawings in conformance with the analysis

108
PREP APPVL of DESIGN ANALYSES
  • Process Definitions
  • Design Analysis Review
  • verification by Task Leader of design check
    process
  • spot exam of computations for errors or omissions
  • X-check of 1/3 of dwgs analyses to assure
    agreement
  • Review of all dwgs for lg errors obvious
    omissions using rules of thumb
  • Design Analysis Overall Review
  • verification by Principal Engr/Arch no major
    flaws

109
PREP APPVL of DESIGN ANALYSES
  • Process Definitions
  • Design Coordination Drawings
  • final drawings 10 of whole set plans,
    elevations sections for each discipline
  • Ea drawing signed by all checkers from the
    involved disciplines
  • Submitted with the Design Analysis
  • Reference Data info used as basis for design
    calculations and contract documents or necessary
    for construction

110
PREP APPVL of DESIGN ANALYSES
  • RESPONSIBILITIES
  • Design Manager responsible for insuring
  • Drawings specs approved Scope of Work
  • Design Analysis is complete in proper format
  • Task Leader
  • Perform a verifiable design analysis review
  • Maintain a bound indexed design analysis
  • file

111
PREP APPVL of DESIGN ANALYSES
  • RESPONSIBILITIES
  • Principal Engineer/Architect Design Analysis
    Overall Review
  • Perform verifiable spot check of design analysis
  • Verify procedures for design, checking and design
    review are being followed
  • Chief Discipline Engineer/Architect
  • verify that procedures for design, checking and
    review are being followed

112
PREP APPVL of DESIGN ANALYSES
  • RESPONSIBILITIES
  • The Design Checker
  • making independent design calculations
  • line by line verifiable check of calcs
    reasoning
  • The Designer
  • Preparing a legible, complete accurate design
    analysis and calculations in the proper format
  • Preparing or guiding preparation of contract
    drawings that conform w design analysis

113
PREP APPVL of DESIGN ANALYSES
  • PREPARATION
  • On Standard T A Calculation Sheets
  • job title
  • contract number
  • system being designed
  • discipline-identified sheet no. (M-1)
  • dates designed and checked
  • Designers and checkers signature

114
PREP APPVL of DESIGN ANALYSES
  • PREPARATION
  • Each system-1st page
  • approved functional technical criteria
  • Other than T A facilities
  • use appropriate utility/public agency stds,
    except where T A is more conservative

115
PREP APPVL of DESIGN ANALYSES
  • CONTENT
  • Purpose structure for U/G substation, sewer
    work for U/G substation, track work for yard
    expansion, AC power for new signal tower, etc
  • Assumptions consistent with furnished data, or
    field conditions
  • A clear decision path should be evident throughout

116
PREP APPVL of DESIGN ANALYSES
  • CONTENT
  • Approach for designing each item
  • codes, formulae, theories, logic consistent w
    professional principles, T A stds policy
  • Field notes/reports on existing conditions
  • Sketches of elements being designed
  • An outline or table of contents

117
PREP APPVL of DESIGN ANALYSES
  • CONTENT
  • Computations, w explanations of the results
  • Source of the formulas being used
  • Computations for existing items found to be over
    or undersized
  • Computer program
  • Name describe program
  • Include how program reaches a solution
  • How the program was validated

118
PREP APPVL of DESIGN ANALYSES
  • CONTENT
  • Include capabilities of all equipment
  • manufacturers make/model weight
  • flows (pipe duct)
  • IC logic diagrams panel layout with power
    schematics logic dependencies
  • expansion capability of CPU
  • environmental analyses
  • etc

119
PREP APPVL of DESIGN ANALYSES
  • Design Checkers
  • Confirm design is consistent coordinated with
    work shown on the plans by all disciplines
  • Sign a set of coordination drawings to certify
    that review has been done
  • Design calculations are legible, clear,
    professionally done w all points addressed

120
PREP APPVL of DESIGN ANALYSES
  • Design Checkers
  • Cross-reference to the design if the check is an
    independent, parallel set of calculations
  • Initial each calculation for a line-by-line check
  • Where design check is by a non-licensed engineer
  • professional licensed person must co-check the
    design approach, assumptions, use of reference
    data and design computations

121
PREP APPVL of DESIGN ANALYSES
  • Task Leader (T/L)
  • review design assumptions criteria
  • responsible for content legibility of analyses
  • all comments answers become part of analysis
  • Analysis indexed, bound, kept until bid opening
    send to DM
  • all sets unbound 8 1/2 X 11 or 11 X 17 sheets
  • all pages sequentially numbered at top right
    corner from page 1 (w discipline id)

122
PREP APPVL of DESIGN ANALYSES
  • Cover page format
  • Project description / Date
  • Program Area
  • Description of calculation
  • Separate each discipline by sheets with
    description (Mechanical, Structural etc.)
  • Deliver analysis to Drawing Control Unit
    basement room DB 15-B.20- Marvin Greenberg x-4693

123
PREP APPVL of DESIGN ANALYSES
  • Design Manager
  • Assemble full design analysis, comments, answers
    notices of scope changes
  • Prepare a table of contents for full document
  • Present full document to VP, Engineering Services
    for approval drawing signing

124
PREP APPVL of DESIGN ANALYSES
  • Design Manager
  • Have original design analysis scanned
    electronically between bid opening contract
    award
  • Return the original to the T/Ls for reference
    during construction phase

125
PREP APPVL of DESIGN ANALYSES
  • Design Manager
  • Designs during the construction phase
  • comply with requirements for original analysis
  • analyses by Contractor for approval of shop
    drawings shall also conform
  • submit with the new documents for scanning after
    substantial completion

126
DRAWINGS CHECKING PROCEDURES
  • A) Coordination Check 
  • 1. Ea T/ L review other disciplines dwgs
  • 2. Done jointly, or individually
  • 3. Use overlays (CADD grey line, etc.)
  • 4. Use coordination cross-check lists

127
DRAWINGS CHECKING PROCEDURES
  • B) Technical Check - clear, complete, sound.
  •   1.Done by the Checker
  • 2. Use Quality Issues list and address each
    issue in color. Red corrections needed Yellow
    O.K. Orange Questions
  • C) Designer- Purple (or some other color)
    - Answer questions/indicate disagreement
    - Resolve issues as necessary
  •   
  • D) Checker- Review corrected dwgs and sign 

128
SPEC CHECKING PROCEDURES
  • A) Designer
  • - Mark-up master spec  
  • - assure specd items procedures do not
    conflict with drawings 
  • B) Checker
  • - Review marked-up master spec 
  • - Mark corrections in Red, questions in
    Orange
  • - Review corrected spec and initial 

129
QUALITY ISSUES
  • COMPLETE
  • Design Mgr
  • 1.Every original added User Scope item has
    been included listed and checked
  • 2.Scope item impacting several disciplines
  • - 1st evaluated for impact
  • - check if it was taken into account
  • 3.Scope item impacting a local, state or
    national code or std
  • - check for inclusion of codes requirements

130
QUALITY ISSUES
  • COMPLETE
  • Designer
  • 1.Every item
  • design analysis
  • independently checked by another
  • reviewed by T/ L Principal
  • documented proof of these reviews
  • archived

131
QUALITY ISSUES
  • COMPLETE
  • Designer
  • 2. peer review
  • by upper level designers
  • all new/problem issues considered
  • Lessons Learned
  • operation/ maintenance concerns
  • 3.Specifications marked up for review

132
QUALITY ISSUES
  • COMPLETE
  • Comment Control
  • - control document sets (dwgs specs) -
    assure each comment accounted for
  • - incorporated
  • - or removed w consent of reviewer

133
QUALITY ISSUES
  • COORDINATED
  • 1.
  • joint review
  • by lead designers T/L of all disciplines
  • assure each impacting item has been taken into
    account by all those affected
  • before each review milestone

134
QUALITY ISSUES
  • COORDINATED
  • 2.
  • Coordination review meeting
  • Extremely important after final review before
    drawings are sent for sign off
  • Each discipline
  • show, or describe location or capacity changes
    made
  • other disciplines indicate if they have to make
    changes what those would be

135
QUALITY ISSUES
  • COORDINATED
  • 3.
  • General arrangement drawings
  • rooms with operating equipment
  • congested locations
  • streets where underground utilities new
    structures must co-exist
  • show scaled sizes adjacencies of all items

136
QUALITY ISSUES
  • CONSISTENT
  • 1.Multiple sites
  • use one set of notes and details
  • Separate notes and details / different design
    teams inconsistencies
  • 2.Master Specifications
  • use latest version
  • check during design for later revisions
  • 3.Design Guides
  • latest version
  • cite in the design analysis

137
QUALITY ISSUES
  • CONSISTENT
  • 4.Master Drawing Notes/details
  • latest version
  • 5.Standard drawings
  • latest version
  • tailored to the project
  • 6.Revisions to Master Specs., D Gs, Master Notes
  • disseminate to all on-going designs
  • assure of implementation

138
QUALITY ISSUES
  • CONTACT POINTS DETAILED
  • 1.Joining new materials to existing
  • source of many AWOs due to absence or lack of
    clarity of these details
  • Check water infiltration, vibration,
    instability, methods of attachment, surface
    preparation
  • 2.Operation maintenance activities _at_ material
    joints sealing from water during floor/ wall
    washing
  • Vandal-resistant attachments require special
    details

139
QUALITY ISSUES
  • CONTACT POINTS DETAILED
  • 3.Phased construction special contact needs for
    temporary closure, protection, support, future
    joining, or surface prep
  • 4.Architectural details
  • expansion due to temperature
  • capillary action
  • vertical rise of water due to skin friction

140
QUALITY ISSUES
  • CLARITY CONSISENESS
  • 1.Notes should be full sentences
  • 2.Sentences should be declarative and simple -
    not compound - not run-on
  • 3.Drawings are much preferred to sentences
  • 4. Arrange paragraphs so most important comes
    first least important last

141
QUALITY ISSUES
  • CLARITY CONSISENESS
  • 5.A process or object description should state
    what it must be must not be, to set clear
    limits
  • 6.Descriptions that take a full page or more
    should be done with drawings, charts or diagrams
  • 7.Display different types of same material class
    in a matrix paint, caulking /sealants, concrete,
    additives, lubricants, hardware, etc.

142
MEETINGS Running Them
  • Prepare agenda w issues requiring
    resolution/decision clearly defined. Set time
    limits for each item
  • Notify everyone involved early to minimize
    schedule conflicts
  • Reserve conference room
  • Send written notice specifying purpose of the
    meeting, date, time, place, duration
  • Enclose agenda

143
MEETINGS Running Them
  • Check room clean enough chairs lighting ok
    visual aids handouts in place
  • Welcome introduce yourself state the purpose of
    the meeting
  • Have everyone introduce themselves
  • Go down the agenda

144
MEETINGS Running Them
  • Control discussion with time
  • Do not allow any person to monopolize or get off
    track
  • Politely stop, get back on track
  • Assure each person gets chance to speak
  • Leave time to summarize
  • Vote on a decision as appropriate

145
MEETINGS Running Them
  • Have someone keep the minutes - the
    chair cant do this
  • At the end, review all decisions
  • Reiterate
  • action items to be done
  • who has the responsibility
  • when the report or feedback is due
  • Set date time for next meeting

146
Minutes/Presentations/ Letters
  • TAKING MINUTES
  • Record
  • each issue
  • the decision reached
  • the action to be taken
  • by whom
  • date due
  • Do not record
  • peoples statements
  • opinions
  • arguments this is not a transcript.

147
Minutes/Presentations/ Letters
  • PRESENTATIONS
  • Tell them
  • What youre going to say
  • Say it
  • What you said

148
Minutes/Presentations/ Letters
  • LETTERS
  • 1st paragraph state clearly, the purpose of the
    letter
  • In the absence of any other way, begin The
    purpose of this letter is. 
  • Last paragraph state or restate what is wanted
    from the person(s) addressed approval,
    concurrence, etc
  •  

149
Minutes/Presentations/ Letters
  • LETTERS
  •  Confirming a verbal decision reached
    - always sent to memorialize the agreement
    - do not wait for the other party
  •  Answering a letter
  • - reference it in the Subject or
  • - use the first sentence Reference your
    12/25/ memo concerning the above subject.
  • - list each item in the referenced letter
  • - answer each in a separate paragraph to
    assure your answer is complete  

150
Discipline Specific Requirements
151
Communications Engineering DG 250
  • Telephone Radio Fiber Optics Emergency Alarm
    Public Address Systems Systems CCTV
    Fire/Smoke Intercom Radio
  • Applies primarily to work at existing passenger
    stations
  • Additional DGs, applicable to future extensions
    of the Railroad, are being prepared as part of
    the design effort for the 2nd Ave Subway
  • Communications design criteria also appear in
    other dgs.
  • Optical Networking design, or work at bus depots,
    car maintenance facilities, etc, see dgs on TENS
  • Design Manager assure checklists found in DG250
    are used signed off

152
Auxiliary Electrical Power, Lighting and Controls
DG 254
  • Applies to Tunnel, General, Yard Station
    lighting (AC/DC 600 volts or less)
  • Does not apply to Signals, DC, Comm or Buses
  • DM confirm w T/L that maintainability
    reliability have been maxed while minimizing
    power outages TA labor. Schedule service
    requests to Con Ed, etc field surveys early
  • T/L set up design file include design analysis
    that addresses the 11 areas mentioned in DG

153
Stray Current Control DG 255
  • Guidance for construction on or in proximity to
    the existing rapid transit system to minimize
    unintended paths for neg DC return stray
    currents
  • Resistance calculations structure to earth
    structure to structure soil
  • Other calcs Structure stray current levels
    evaluation of location interactions of
    substations pos neg feed points type of neg
    return sys bonding signals sys
  • Site investigation structure connection
    relationships Shops/barns tests determine
    isolation from other buildings/utilities. Pvt
    buildings electrolysis drain ckts.

154
Power Substations (DC) DG 256
  • Follow guidance for general requirements in DG254

155
DC Connections DG 257
  • Use standard drawings
  • Address distribution of 600 volt D.C. traction
    power to c/rs, shops barns all required
    negative returns
  • A. cable connections (feeds) from substa to c/r
    or CBH
  • B. - cable connections (returns) from substa to
    neg rails or to a backside negative bus
  • C. Layout equip of CBHs cable conns to c/rs
  • D. Bridging of all reqd breaks in c/r
    (transpositions, expansion gaps, shoe clearance
    gaps, etc.) w cable jumpers

156
DC Connections DG 257
  • E. Bridging of all breaks in neg rail (rail
    joints, spec wk, transpositions, etc.) by cable
    jumpers or bonds
  • F. Neg equalizers bonds to elevated structure
    as reqd
  • G. Expansion gaps shoe clearance gaps as
    required. Section gaps used to divide c/r into
    sections (zones)
  • H. Power to a section of c/r can be turned off in
    an emergency or for maintenance w/o a complete
    stop of traffic. Section gaps are bridged by
    substa feeds, CBHs or hand switches

157
Fiber Optics DG 259
  • Backbone of TAs SONET/ATM commo network
  • Will provide commo transport generated from 468
    stas, PBX locations, bus depots data ctrs
  • Network will serve supervisory control data
    acquisition, emergency alarm, public address,
    train dispatching police radio
  • SONET/ATM will phase out legacy, proprietary
    asynchronous installations

158
Electrical Engineering Design DG260
  • DM assure the process checklist is used for the
    Electrical Power and Infrastructure/Facility
    design

159
Critical Fan Plants DG302
  • Meet the following
  • Sufficient capacity to achieve NFPA 130 critical
    velocity in tunnel (air movement past train so
    all smoke hot gases are forced in desired dir)
  • Achieved in both directions in tunnels served
  • Critical velocity achieved for 2 design base
    fires????????
  • Max Design Base Fire 1 car completely engulfed
    40 x 106 Btuh.
  • Low Intensity Design Base Fire Clark Street
    Electrical Fire 150,000 Btuh.

160
Critical Fan Plants DG302
  • meet the following
  • a. Capacity meets requirements for controlling a
    lo intensity fire min w/i a given tunnel section
  • b. Crit Vel for Max Design Base Fire by
    simultaneous operation of all plants serving the
    tunnel section
  • c. Tunnels served by 2 or more fan plants
    critical velocity for the Low Intensity Base
    Fire achieve w 1 fan plant out of service

161
Critical Fan Plants DG302
  • d. Tunnels served by 2 or more fan plants min
    velocity of 200 fpm w 1 plant out of service
    (cold smoke removal)
  • e. Passengers not subjected to airflow at
    track level exceeding NFPA 130 limit (2200 fpm)
  • f. Ea plant serving a tunnel section approx
    capacity
  • g. Achieve Critical velocity w/i tunnel section
    served to w/i 300 ft of contiguous station
    platforms or tunnel entry portals

162
Pump Rooms DG 303
  • Provide two pumps for normal service
  • Sized based on past anticipated future wet
    weather flow data
  • Or to limit pump cycling depends on pump
    capacity sump capacity
  • Electric motor driven submersible, quick
    disconnect, shoe piece pumps preferred
  • Motor voltage 200 or 460 volts AC, 3 phased

163
Pump Rooms DG 303
  • Provide structural design of all required MHs
  • New AC services handle 50 increase in load
  • Vertical conduits passing through ceilings seal
    at all electrical boxes condulets
  • New electric service installed before pump room
    taken over by Contractor
  • Temporary pumps fed from new service

164
Pump Rooms DG 303
  • All emergency DC lighting McPhilben No.
    97VP/802536 DC fixtures or apprved
  • Pumps controlled utilizing a PLC
  • Each pump individual control to start pumps at
    predetermined settings within the sump, and a
    Hands-Off-Auto switch
  • Green design criteria to extent indicated

165
Pneumatic Sewage Ejector Plant DG304
  • Duplex type w 2 cast iron ejector pots (50 gal
    min)
  • Stainless Steel float
  • Air operated auto value
  • Air manifold if needed, air compressor
  • 2 x 3 x 3 deep sump
  • Direct access to track
  • Trolley beam

166
Mechanical Engineering Design DG 305
  • T/L to fill out this checklist found in DG
  • 1. Provide input for Scope of Work submit to DM
  • 2. Comply w following Design Guidelines (list
    applicable Mechanical Design Guidelines)
  • 3. Review Prelim and Final Scope of Works
  • 4. Provide input for following docs and submit to
    D M
  • a) Drawing Control Index (DCI)
  • b) Specification Control Index (SCI)

167
Mechanical Engineering Design DG 305
  • T/L to fill out this checklist found in DG
  • 5. Provide input for Engrg Force Acct to D M
  • 6. Review Final Force Account for adequacy
  • 7 Request gas service from appropriate utility
  • 8. Support Utility
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