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FIGHTING WORLD WAR I

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Title: FIGHTING WORLD WAR I Author: Carlotta Last modified by: dflinchu Created Date: 1/2/2011 1:56:48 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: FIGHTING WORLD WAR I


1
FIGHTING WORLD WAR I
2
Woodrow Wilson
  • Woodrow Wilson was elected President in 1912.
    His theories on world peace included a belief in
    democracy and economic stability. One of his
    main goals was to keep the US out of conflicts in
    Europe.

3
Nationalism in Europe
  • Europe was divided into small nationalistic
    states, each seeking to assert power over the
    other.

4
Europe Today
5
  • Serbs, Bosnians, Croats and Slovenes had similar
    languages and cultures. They called themselves
    Yugoslavs.
  • Serbs were the first to gain independence
    formed Serbia.
  • This area of Europe is known as the Balkans.

6
  • In 1908, Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia. They
    had no intentions of allowing the Slavic peoples
    to be independent.

7
  • June 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to the
    Austro-Hungarian throne) and his wife Sofie are
    killed by a Serbian nationalist.
  • July 28th, Austria declared war on Serbia.

8
The Great War begins
  • Europe begins to divide into two camps

9
Names to Remember
  • The Great War
  • The War to End all Wars
  • The European War
  • World War I
  • WWI was the first war to pit entire societies
    against one another.

10
Lusitania
  • In 1915, a German U boat sank the British ship
    Lusitania.
  • The Germans claimed that the ship was carrying
    weapons (it probably was)
  • It held over 2200 passengers, including
    Americans. Nearly 1200 died.
  • German unrestricted submarine warfare led the
    U.S. to join the Allies in the war

11
  • By spring of 1917, The Great War had devastated
    Europe and claimed millions of lives
  • Old strategies and new technologies resulted in
    heavy damage.
  • Where have we heard this before? Explain.

12
  • Trench warfare demonstrated that troops who dug
    in and relied on modern rifles and machine guns
    could hold off an enemy for months.

13
  • On the Western Front, trenches stretched from the
    English Channel to the Swiss border.
  • The land between the trenches was called no
    mans land.
  • The only way to win a trench war was to run
    across and drop grenades into other trenches
    after heavy artillery fire. This resulted in
    heavy losses and slow progress.

14
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15
New Weapons
  • U boats (submarines)
  • machine guns
  • grenades
  • poison gas
  • tanks
  • airplanes

16
Over There
  • 1917 the U.S. enters the war after nearly 3
    years of attempting to affect the outcome without
    becoming embroiled in it.
  • Nearly 2 million doughboys join the Allies.
  • U.S. troops were inexperienced but fresh. They
    boosted the morale of the Allies.

17
Minorities Women in the War Effort
  • 400,000African-Americans were drafted, of which
    42,000 served overseas as combat troops. Their
    units were racially segregated.
  • WWI was the first war in which women officially
    served in the armed forces. .Women served in
    non-combat positions, mainly in clerical and
    nursing positions.
  • Women filled industrial jobs vacated by men in
    the military. Nearly half a million
    African-Americans migrated from the South to
    northern industrial jobs. Over 100,000 Mexicans
    moved to America, providing farm/ranch labor and
    wartime factory workers.

18
War Effort on the Homefront
  • War Industries Board (WIB) coordinated the
    production of war materials, telling business
    leaders what they could and could not make.
  • Victory Gardens, Wheatless Mondays Meatless
    Tuesdays, high prices on farm produce
  • Daylight Savings Time introduced to conserve
    energy
  • Money to pay for war was obtained by raising
    taxes and borrowing money from the American
    people through the sale of Liberty bonds and
    Victory bonds.

19
  • March, 1918 Russia withdrew from the war after
    its Communist revolution. Germany launched a
    massive attack on the Western Front. American
    and French troops were able to stop the offensive
    before the Germans reached Paris.

20
Meuse-Argonne Offensive
  • The largest military engagement in U. S. history,
    involving 1.2 million American soldiers, of whom
    117,000 were killed or wounded
  • One of a series of Allied attacks known as the
    Hundred Days Offensive, which brought the war to
    an end.
  • Began September 26, 1918 and lasted a total of 47
    days.
  • The Meuse-Argonne was the principal engagement of
    the American Expeditionary Forces during WWI.

21
Battle of the Argonne Forest
  • Gen. Pershing assembled over 600,000 American
    troops and 40,000 tons of supplies for a massive
    attack between the Meuse River and the Argonne
    Forest in France.
  • After 6 weeks of fighting, the Americans broke
    through German lines.
  • The Meuse-Argonne was one of the bloodiest
    battles in U.S. history, leaving over 26,000 U.S.
    forces dead.

22
The Great War Ends
  • A revolution arose in Austria-Hungary. The
    Ottoman Empire surrendered. With the loss of
    their allies, the German people forced the
    Kaiser
    to step down.
  • Nov. 11, 1918 at 1100 an armistice
    was signed to end
    the war.

23
Treaty of Versailles
  • The Big Four (leaders of the victorious allied
    nations) met in Paris in 1919 for a peace
    conference.
  • Germany was not included.
  • Pres. Wilson presented his plan, the
    Fourteen Points, based on

    justice to all peoples and nationalities. It
    called for the creation of a League of Nations to
    prevent future wars.
  • Many of Wilsons proposals were discarded as too
    lenient. The final treaty required Germany to
    acknowledge guilt for the war, pay 33 billion in
    reparations to the Allies, and be stripped of its
    armed forces.

24
Treaty of Versailles
  • Four empires were dissolved and nine new
    countries were created (map pg. 477)
  • The U.S. Senate, led by Henry Cabot Lodge,
    refused to ratify the Versailles Treaty. Wilson
    suffered a stroke after travelling 8,000 miles in
    3 weeks trying to gain the publics support.
  • The U.S. negotiated separate peace treaties with
    each of the Central Powers

25
Impact on United States
  • While devastating for Europe, WWI propelled the
    U.S. into a position of international leadership.
  • As a military struggle, it was brief, decisive,
    and without the massive casualties suffered by
    others. American deaths numbered 112,000 (half of
    them from influenza or non-combat causes.)
  • Economically, the war sparked an industrial boom
    that led to years of prosperity.

26
Impact at Home
  • Rapid inflation increases cost of living and
    leads to wave of labor strikes
  • Racial Unrest
  • Red Scare
  • Palmer Raids
  • Sense of disillusionmentdesire for return to
    normalcy end of Progressivism

27
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