????? ?????? ????????? Coral-reef management - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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????? ?????? ????????? Coral-reef management

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Coral-reef management ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ????? ?????? ????????? Coral-reef management


1
????? ?????? ????????? Coral-reef management
  • ???? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????
    ????? ???? ????? ???????
  • ?????? ????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ????????
    ?????? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ????????? ????????
    ??????? ???????? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ????
    ????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????????
  • ???? ??????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ????????
    - ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ?????
    ???? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??
    ???? ????? ???????? ???? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ???
    ???????? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ????
    ????????? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????
    ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ??????
    ?????? ??????? . ?? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??
    ????? ?????? ????????? ????? ??? ??????? ???????
    ?????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?? ???
    ???????? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????????
    ???????

2
  • ??????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ??
    ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????
    ?????? ??? ?????? ????????? ???????? ????????
    ?????
  • ????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ???? ?? ?????
    ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?????
    ????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????
    ????? ????????? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ????????
    ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ?????
    ????????? ?? ????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?????
    ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ???????
  • ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ?????
    ??? ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ???? ??? ???????
    ???? ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???????
    ????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ???
    ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????
    ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????

3
  • ????? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????
    ?????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ??
    ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ?????
    ????????? ??????? ???? ??????? ????? ??????
    ????? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ??????
    ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????
    ?????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ??????
    ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ???????
    ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ??????
    ???????? ?? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ????
    ?????? ????????? .

4
??????? Fisheries
  • ?? ????? ???? ????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??????
    ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????????
    ???????? ????????? Octopus ????????? ?????? ???
    clams, trochus, oyster and ornament shell
    ???????????? ????????? (Prawns , lobster )
    ????????? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ??????
    ?? ????? ????? ?????? ????????? .

5
  • ???? ?? ????? ??????? ????????? ????? ?? ?? ????
    ?? ????? ?????? ?? 4 ??? 6 ?? ?? ????????? ????
    ?? ????? ( ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ?????
    ?????? ??????? ??? 200 ??? ???? ??? ???? ????????
    ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ??????
    ??? ???
  • 24 ?? ?? ????????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? sumilon
    reefs ?? ??????? ? ??? ???? ?? ???? ???? ???? ??
    ????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?????????
    ????? ?? American samoa ??? ??????? ?????
    ??????????? gastroboda ??????? ??????? 18 ?? ??
    ????????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ??? 8 ??? ???. ???
    ??? Munro ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ,???? ???
    ??? ??? ?? ????? 9000000 ?? ?? ????? ?? ?? ?????
    ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???
    ??????? ???? ??? ??? 75000000ty ?? ?? ????? .

6
??????? Fishes
  • ?? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????? ???? ??
    ??????? ???????? pelagic species ????? ??? ?????
    ?????? ???? ?????? ????????? ???
    (mackerel-Scomberomorus spp), tuna ????? ??? ???
    ??????? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ??? ??
    ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? (??? ???
    ?????) Makaira inidica ???????? ?????? M.
    nigricans ?(Istiphorus platypterus ) sailfish ?
    ??? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??? Serranidae,
    Lutjanidae, Lethrinidae(cods,groupers,
    (snappers,emperors,sweetlips etc.) ?? ?????
    ??????? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ??????
    .

7
??????? Fishes
  • ??? ??? ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ???
    ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ???
    ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ? ???????? ??? ???
    ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????
    ?????????? ?????????? . ??? ????? ???? ???? ???
    ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??
    ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??? ???
    ?????? ,??? ??????? ?? ???? 1978- 1979 ?? ?????
    ????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ??
    ????? 2.5?2.75 ????? ????? ??? ??????? ???
    ???????? ???? ?? ????? 50000 ??? ??? ?????? ??
    ??????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ??
    ????? 1.1 ????? ????? ????? .

8
???????? Molluscs
  • ???? ?????? ?? ???????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ?????
    ?????? ??? Trochus(Trochus niloticus), oyster
    (Ostreidae), clams (Tridacna spp) and queen conch
    (Streidae) .
  • ??? ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ,???
    ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ??? ???
    ????????? ????? ????? . ??? ???? ??(Trochus )
    ?????? ????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????
    ????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ?????
    ??????.????? ?????? ????? ???????? Gaint clams ??
    ????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ????? ? ????????
    ??? ??????? ???????? ????? ??? ???? ????? ???????
    ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ????
    ?????? ??? ???????? ??? Trochus ?????? ??????
    ?????? ???? ?? ????? ????????? ?????? ??? ????
    ???? ??????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? 5500
    ?? ?? ??? 1978 . ???? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????
    ?? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ???? ??????
    ????? ?? ??? ??? ?????? .

9
Lobsters
  • ????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ???????,
    ???? ???? ??? ???? ?????? Pots ?? ???????? ??
    ?????? ???? ????
  • ????? ??????? ?? 290 ?? ?? ??? 1976 ??? 100 ?? ??
    1981.

10
Lobsters
  • ???? ???? ????????? ?? ??? ???????? prawns ?
    ????????? lobster ??? Thenus orientalis ??? ????
    ?????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ????????? ???? ???
    ???????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ????? ??
    ???????? ???? ?????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?
    ????????? (5000-4000 ?? ) ????? ?? ??????
    ???????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????
    ?? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ???? ???????
    ????? ??? ???????? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ???? ?????
    ??? ??????????? ?????? ???????? .??? ?? ?????
    ?????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ????? ??
    ??? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ??
    ??????? ?????? .

11
??????? Turtles
  • ??? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ????????? ????????
    (??????? ) ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ????????
    ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? ???????
    ????? ?????.???????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ??????
    ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???????
    ??????? ??????? ????????? ???? ????? ??? ???????
    ??? ??? ?? ???? ?? ????? 10000 ?????? ????? ????
    ????? ?? ??????? ????? ??? 1970 .

12
?????? ????? Sea snakes
  • ??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????????
    ???????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ??? ??? ???? ???????
    ??????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????

13
???????? Corals
  • ?? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??? 1978
    ???? ????? ???????? ? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?????
    ??????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ????? 600 ??? 1800
    ?? ?? ???????? ?????? ????? .????????? ??????
    ????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ??
    ??????? ???????? ???? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????
    ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????
    ?????? ????? ???? ????????? ?? ???? ??????. ??
    ????? ??????? ????????? (?????? ??????? ) ??????
    ?????? ????????? ?????? ??? 400 ??? 2000 ??
    ?????. ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????????
    ????? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ??????
    ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ??
    ?????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ????
    ??????? .

14
????? ????? dugong
  • ??? ?? ??????? ?? ??????dugong ?? ???? ?? ??????
    ????????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ?? ??????
    ?????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????
    ????????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ????
    ???? ?????? Marsh(1986) ??? ??? ??????? ?? ?????
    Torres strait ????? ?????? ?? ????? 22000 ???
    ???????? ??? 500 ???? ?? ????? . ???? ?? ????? ??
    ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ????????
    ????????? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ????? ????
    ?????? ?? ???????? .

15
??????? Siltation
  • ?? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? silt ?? ???????
    ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????
    ????? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????
    ??????? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ???
    ??????? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ???
    ?????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? .
  • ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ??????
    ??????? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????
    ??????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ??silt ???
    ???? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ??? ???
    ????????? ????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????
    ?? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ???
    ??????? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ????????
    ??????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ????????
    ???????? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ??????
    ????? ?????? ????????? .

16
?????? Pollution
  • ?????? ????? ??????? ???? ???????? ????????
    ?????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ????
    ??? ??? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ???
    ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ???
    ??????
  • ?? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????????
    ????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? .
    ????????? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ????? ??? ???
    ????? ??????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?????
    ???????? ???????? .
  • ?????? ??????? ????? ???????? ?? ???? ???????
    ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ????? ????
    ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????
    ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ? ????? ??? ?????
    ?????? Bleaching .

17
  • ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ?????
    ????????? ????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ?????????
    ??? ???? ???? ??? ???? ???? ??????? ? ???? ????
    ????? .
  • ???????? ???????? ????? ????? ??? ???? ???????
    ??? ???????? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ????
    ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ?????????
    ??? ??? ??? ?? ??????? ???????? ??? ???? ?????? .
  • ??????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ???
    ??????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ???
    ??????? .???? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????????
    ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????, ????
    ????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ????????? ????
    ??????,???? ?? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????????
    ??????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ????
    ?????? .

18
??????? ???????? Tourism and recreation
  • ?????? ????????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????
    ??? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ?? ?????
    ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ??????
    ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????????
    ???????? ??????? . ????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????
    ?????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???????.
    ??? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ?
    ????? ?? ??? ???????? ???? ????????? ???????? ??
    ??? ?? 3??? 37 ??? ???? 1972? 1981 ????? ??? ???
    ???? ????? ???? ????? ??? ????????? .??? ???
    ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ????????
    ???????? ???? ????????? ???????? ??????? ????
    ???? ??? ?????? ????????? .
  • ???? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??
    ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ???????
    ??? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?????
    ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????? ?
    ???? ?? ???? ???? ??????? ????????? ???????
    ????????? ??? ??????? . ??? ????? ???????? ?? 25
    ??? 30 ???? ??????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ???????
    ?? ???? ???? ?????? ????????? .

19
?????? ??????? Coastal development
  • ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?? ????????
    ???????? ????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????
    ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? .???? ?????
    ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????
    ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????? ????????
    ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??
    ?????? ??? ?? Mauritius ???? ??? ??? ???????
    ????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????
    ???????? ??????? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ?????????
    ???????? ? ??? ??????? ????? ???????? ???????
    ????? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ????????? .
  • ????? ?????? Militory activities -
  • ???? ?? ?????? ????????? ???????? ???? ?????
    ????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????
    ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ??????
    ????????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????????
    ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? .

20
??????? ???????? Natural phenomena
  • ?? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????????? ????????
    ????? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??????
    ????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??
    ???? ??? ???? ? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ????
    ?? ???? ??? ??? ????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ?????
    ?????? ????????? ???????? .
  • ??????? ??? ?????? unexplained phenomena -
  • ??? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ???
    ?????? ??? ?????Acanthaster planci ?????? ??
    ???????? ??? Drupella sp ???? ??????? ???? ??????
    ????????? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ???????
    ???? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?
    ??? ?? ???????? ???? ????? ????? ???? ????? ?????
    ?? ??? ???? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ????????? .

21
?????? ??????? ??????? Options for management
  • ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????????
    ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ?????.
  • ???????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ???
    ????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ??? ???, ?????????
    ???????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ?????
    ?????? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ???????
    ?????????? ??????? .
  • ???????? ??? ?????? ????????? ????? ??? ?????
    ??? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ???
    ?????? ????????? ?????? ????? ??? ????-
  • ??????? ???? ??????
  • ????? ?????? ????????
  • ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? .
  • ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ????? ??????
    ????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ???
    ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ????? ?????
    ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????
    ????? ?????? ????????? . ?? ???????? ??? ?????
    ????? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ???????
    ???? ?? Australia, Townsville ????? ???? ??? ????
    ??????? ??? .

22
  • ??????? ??????? - ????? ????? ????? ???????
    ??????? ??? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ??????
    ????????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?? ???
    ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ????? . ???????
    ??????? ?? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ??????
    ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ???
    ????? ???? ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ???????
    ???????? .
  • ??????? ??????? - ??? ??????? ????? ?? ???????
    ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???
    ????? ???????? ??? ??????? ????? ???? ??????
    ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????
    ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????
    ????? ???????? ????????? ??? ???? ???? ?? ??
    ??????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ??
    ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????
    ????? ???????.

23
  • ???? ??????? ???????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????
    ??????? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ???
    ????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????? ? ???????
    ?????????
  • ??????? ???????? ?????????
  • ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????????
    ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????
    ?????? ????????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ???????,
    ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??? ????????
    ?????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???? ???? ?? ?????
    ????? ??????? ?? ??????? .
  • ??????? ??????? ???????
  • ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????
    ????????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ????
    ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????
    ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??
    ??????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?? ???????
    ????????????? ???? ??? ????? .

24
  • ????? ????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????
  • ???? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?
    ??????? ????????? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ???
    ??????? ?????????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ???????
    ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ???????
    ????????? ?????? ???? ???? ??????? ???????
    ?????????? ????????? ???? ???? ?? ?????? . ??? ??
    ????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ??
    ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ???????
    ??? ??? ????? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ?????.

25
  • ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????
  • ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????
    ??????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ??????
    ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?????
    ?? ?????? ? ????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ????? . ????
    ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????????
    ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????
    ??????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?????
    ????? ????? ????????? ?????? ????? ???????
    ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ???????
    (????????) ???????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????
    ??????.
  • ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????
  • ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????
    ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????
    ??????? ????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ????? ???
    ??????? ????????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ?
    ????? ??????? ???????? ???????? . ??????? ??????
    ????? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ??????
    ??????? ????? .

26
  • ??????? ???????? ???????
  • ??? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????????
    ???????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ????? ???????
    ???????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ???
    ????? ??????? (?????? ??????????) ???????? ?????
    ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????
    ?????????? ??????? .

27
(No Transcript)
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