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THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION

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... s View of the Universe Ptolemy s Universe THE COPERNICAN REVOLUTION A SHIFT TO HELIOCENTRISM NICOLAUS COPERNICUS PowerPoint Presentation JOHANNAS ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION


1
THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
2
  • How did the Scientific Revolution reflect the
    values and ideals of the Renaissance?
  • In what ways did the Scientific Revolution impact
    worldview?

3
MAJOR FACTORS LEADING TO THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • -rise of universities in the High Middle Ages
  • -broadening of the curriculum to include the
    study of mathematics and the sciences
  • -growing community of intellectuals
  • pursuing knowledge
  • Renaissance interest in the idea of
  • human potential and progress

4
  • the recovery of ancient classical texts (math,
    science, and philosophy)
  • Renaissance allowed individuals to pursue
    scientific investigation
  • Galileo was supported by the Medici family

5
The Medieval Worldview Geocentrism
6
Aristotles View of the Universe
7
Ptolemys Universe
8
THE COPERNICAN REVOLUTIONA SHIFT TO HELIOCENTRISM
9
NICOLAUS COPERNICUS
  • (1473-1543)
  • -Polish astronomer
  • challenged the Roman astronomer, Ptolemys,
    complicated explanation of planetary movements
  • proposed a sun centered solar system
    (heliocentric)
  • planets and stars revolved around a fixed sun

10
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11
JOHANNAS KEPLER(1571-1630)
  • -German astronomer
  • -formulated the three laws of planetary motion
  • -orbits of the planets are elliptical
  • not circular
  • -velocity (speed) of a planets orbit is not
  • uniform
  • -the time it takes a planet to orbit the sun is
  • related to its distance from the sun
  • -Kepler provided mathematical proofs
  • for Copernicus heliocentric theory

12
JOHANNAS KEPLERTHE THREE LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION
13
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
  • -Italian philosopher and astronomer
  • Medici family was a patron (supporter) of his
    work
  • -Improved on the telescope (new invention)
  • this allowed him to observe the motion of the
    planets and the surface of the sun and moon

14
  • Galileo came to accept Copernicus idea of a
    heliocentric universe
  • based on his observations of Jupiter and its
    moons
  • Dialogue- Galileos discussion of his ideas
    regarding helio-centrism
  • It was not well received by the Church

15
  • -Galileos views were challenged by
  • the Church
  • Church feared that helio-centrism would undermine
    its authority and theology with humans being at
    the center of Gods universe
  • This theology was based on the geo-centrism of
    Aristotle and Ptolemy

16
  • Galileo was brought before the Inquisition
  • -His works were banned and teachings were
    condemned
  • placed on the Index of Prohibited Books
  • -he was threatened with torture and
    excommunication and placed under house arrest
  • -Galileo recanted (took back) his views shortly
    before his death in 1642

17
GALILEO EVIDENCE FOR HELIOCENTRICISM(OBSERVATION
S OF THE MOONS OF JUPITER)
18
GALILEO OBSERVED JUPITER AND THE ROTATION OF ITS
MOONS
19
Galileo before the Inquisition
20
SIR ISAAC NEWTON
21
Isaac Newton (1642-1723)
  • -English mathematician Cambridge University
  • -built on the work of Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler,
    and Galileo (Newtonian synthesis)
  • -1686 formulated the mathematics for the
  • universal law of gravitation
  • (every physical body (object) in the universe
    exerts a force on every other body)
  • -provided evidence that the universe was governed
    by precise mathematical relationships

22
  • -Newton was deeply Christian (theistic) in his
    thinking
  • the physical order can be the effect of nothing
    else than the wisdom and skill of a powerful
    ever-living agent.
  • -the science of Newton would lay the foundation
    for much of the science of the western world

23
UNIVERSAL LAW OF GRAVITATIONNEWTONIAN
SYNTHESIS-RATIONAL PROOF FOR THE HELIOCENTRIC
MODEL
24
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25
Newton also came to better understand the
properties of light
26
SIR FRANCIS BACON EMPIRICISM (SCIENTIFIC METHOD)
27
Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
  • -English politician and writer
  • (not a trained scientist)
  • Believed that knowledge comes through observation
    and experimentation (SCIENTIFIC METHOD)
  • We must allow the facts to speak for themselves
    and draw conclusions based on those facts
  • (inductive reasoning-EMPIRICISM)
  • Bacon proposed that an increase in knowledge
    would lead to powerful nations and an increase in
    personal wealth

28
EMPIRICAL MODEL
  • ALL KNOWLEDGE HAD TO BE EMPIRICALLY
    (SCIENTIFICALLY) VERIFIED TO BE VALID
  • Science
  • Data
  • proof
  • TRUTH CLAIMS NEEDED EMPIRICAL VERIFICATION

29
THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION WOULD IMPACT THE
DEVELOPMENT OF TWO 18TH CENTURY MOVEMENTSTHE
ENLIGHTENMENT AND THE INDUSTIRAL REVOLUTION
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